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National Academy of Sciences (US) Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1995.

Cover of Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology

Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology.

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BCommittee and Staff Biographical Information

FRANK PRESS, Chair, is the Cecil and Ida Green Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Institution. He served as president of the National Academy of Sciences from 1981 to 1993 and as the president's science adviser during the Carter administration. A geophysicist, he has served on the faculties of Columbia University, California Institute of Technology, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served on the president's Science Advisory Committee during the Kennedy administration and on the presidential Advisory Committee during the Ford administration. He was appointed by president Nixon to the National Science Board of the National Science Foundation and also served on the Lunar and Planetary Missions Board of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Among his many honors, Dr. Press received the Japan Prize and the Vannevar Bush Award in 1993 and the National Medal of Science in 1994.

LEW ALLEN, JR., is chairman of the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. From 1982 to 1990, he served as vice president of the California Institute of Technology and director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Prior to his association with CalTech and JPL, he served as Air Force chief of staff and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Dr. Allen also served as director of the National Security Agency from 1973 to 1977. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

DAVID H. AUSTON is the provost of Rice University. Prior to his appointment at Rice, he was professor of electrical engineering and applied physics and dean of the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Columbia University. He also was a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories. He is the recipient of the R.W. Wood Prize from the Optical Society of America, the Quantum Electronics Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and the Morris E. Leeds Award. He is a member of both the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering.

FOREST BASKETT is the chief technology officer and senior vice president of research and development at Silicon Graphics. Since joining Silicon Graphics in 1986, Dr. Baskett has led engineering teams in the design of multiprocessing work-stations and graphics structures. Before joining Silicon Graphics, Dr. Baskett was the director of Digital Equipment Corporation's Western Research Laboratories, where he was the leader of the Titan Project, designing and building research prototypes of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) systems. Prior to his work with Digital, he spent 11 years as a professor of computer science and electrical engineering at Stanford University. Dr. Baskett is a member of the National Academy of Engineering.

BARRY R. BLOOM is the Weinstock Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and an investigator for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He has been a consultant to the White House in international health policy, chaired committees at the World Health Organization, and served on National Research Council committees. He was president of the American Association of Immunologists, and of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. He received the first Bristol Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Research in Infectious Diseases and the Mayor of New York's Award for Excellence in Science and Technology. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and is a councillor of the Institute of Medicine.

DANIEL J. EVANS, chairman of Daniel J. Evans Associates, is a former governor, United States senator, and state house of representatives member of Washington State. He was also president of the Evergreen State College in Washington. Mr. Evans currently serves on the boards or advisory committees of a number of philanthropic and business associations, including the Board of Regents of the University of Washington. He was the chair of the Panel on Policy Implications for Global Warming of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy.

BARUCH FISCHHOFF is a professor of social and decision sciences and of engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University. He is the recipient of the American Psychological Association's Early Career Awards for distinguished scientific contributions to psychology and for contributions to psychology in the public interest. He is a fellow of the Society for Risk Analysis, as well as a recipient of its Distinguished Achievement Award. His current research includes risk communication, adolescent decision making, evaluation of environmental damage, and insurance-related behavior. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine.

MARYE ANNE FOX is the vice chair of the National Science Board. She is vice president for research at the University of Texas and the M. June and J. Virgil Waggoner Regents Chair in Chemistry. Dr. Fox was the recipient of the Garvan Medal and the Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award from the American Chemical Society. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a former member of the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications.

SHIRLEY A. JACKSON, professor of physics at Rutgers University, was recently appointed by President Clinton as chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A theoretical physicist, she spent 15 years on the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and at the American Physical Society and is a member of the MIT Corporation. She is a member of the National Research Council's Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. Dr. Jackson resigned from the committee on July 12, 1995, to become the chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

ROBERT I. LEVY is president of Wyeth-Ayerst Research. He previously served as president of the Sandoz Research Institute and professor of medicine at Columbia University. His other appointments include vice president for health sciences at Columbia and Tufts Universities; dean, Tufts University School of Medicine, and director of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. In 1980, he received the Albert Lasker Special Public Health Award and in 1988 was presented with the Humana Heart Foundation Award for outstanding and long-term contributions to the field of cardiology and cardiovascular medicine. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Levy resigned from the committee on March 22, 1995, due to schedule conflicts.

RICHARD J. MAHONEY recently retired as the chairman and chief executive officer of Monsanto Company. He joined Monsanto in 1962 as a product development specialist and subsequently held various marketing, technical service, and new product development positions in Plastic Products, Agriculture, and International Operations. He was elected president in 1979 and named chief executive officer in 1983. He is a director of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company and of the Union Pacific Corporation, as well as a member of the advisory committee and/or board of numerous philanthropic, educational, and business associations.

STEVEN L. McKNIGHT is research director for Tularik, Inc. He also served as a staff member of the Department of Embryology at the Carnegie Institution and as an investigator for the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is a lecturer and a recipient of the Eli Lilly Award, the AAAS Newcomb Cleveland Award, and the National Academy of Sciences Award in Molecular Biology (the Monsanto Award). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

MARCIA K. McNUTT is the Griswold Professor of Geophysics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to coming to MIT, she was a geophysicist for the U.S. Geological Survey. She is the recipient of the Macelevane Award of the American Geophysical Union. Dr. McNutt has served on the National Research Council's Committee on Earth Sciences and has been an active participant in the National Academy of Sciences' annual symposia on the Frontiers of Science.

PAUL M. ROMER is professor of economics at the University of California at Berkeley and a research associate for the National Bureau of Economic Research. He previously held teaching positions at the University of Chicago and University of Rochester. Dr. Romer was the recipient of a Sloan Foundation fellowship.

LUIS SEQUEIRA is the J. C. Walker Professor of Plant Pathology at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. A plant pathologist, he served as the director of the Coto Research Station in Costa Rica and on the faculty of North Carolina State University. His current research interests include soil microbiology, root diseases, plant growth regulators, and the physiology of parasitism. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

HAROLD T. SHAPIRO is president of Princeton University, where he also is professor of economics and public affairs. Prior to coming to Princeton, he served on the faculty of the University of Michigan for 24 years as professor of economics and public policy; he was president from 1980 to 1988. His professional activities include memberships on the Conference Board, Inc. and the Bretton Woods Committee, as well as on the boards of many other corporations and institutions. From 1990 to 1992, Dr. Shapiro served as a member of President Bush's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and chaired the Institute's Committee on Employer-Based Health Benefits.

H. GUYFORD STEVER, a corporate director, scientist, and engineer, served as White House science and technology adviser to President Ford, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and director of the National Science Foundation from 1973 to 1976. Prior to his government service, he was president of the Carnegie-Mellon University from 1965 to 1972 and professor of aeronautics and astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for 20 years. Dr. Stever has served as the National Academy of Engineering's foreign secretary and as chairman of the National Research Council's Committee on Space and of the Panel of Technical Evaluation of NASA's Proposed Redesign of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster. He is a member of both the National Academics of Sciences and Engineering.

JOHN P. WHITE was, until recently, the director for the Center for Business and Government at the John E Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He took over the program following his active involvement in both the Clinton and Perot 1992 presidential campaigns. He was general manager of the Integration and Systems Products Division and vice president of Eastman Kodak Company and the chief executive officer and chairman of the board of Interactive Systems Corporation from 1981 until it was sold to Eastman Kodak in 1988. Previously, he served in the federal government as the deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget and as the assistant secretary of defense, manpower, reserve affairs and logistics. Mr. White resigned from the committee on June 22, 1995, to become deputy secretary of defense.

Staff

NORMAN METZGER is executive director of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, one of the major program units of the National Research Council. Prior to assuming this position in 1990, he was deputy executive officer of the National Research Council. He has been with the Council since 1975, and before that held positions with the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Chemical Society, and the Sloan-Kettering Institute. He holds a degree in chemistry and was a Sloan-Rockefeller fellow in advanced science writing. He has written books on chemical research and energy supply and demand, as well as numerous articles on science and technology for Popular Science, New Science, and other publications.

ROBERT M. COOK-DEEGAN is a physician-molecular biologist, formerly director of the Institute of Medicine's Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders. He has supervised eight major projects and numerous smaller efforts since joining the Institute of Medicine in early 1991. He previously directed several studies for the Office of Technology Assessment, where he was a senior associate, and was acting director of the Biomedical Ethics Advisory Committee, an analytical support agency of the U.S. Congress in 1988 and 1989. He has authored over 100 articles on various topics and recently published a book, The Gene Wars: Science, Politics and the Human Genome, with W.W. Norton & Co., New York (1994). He obtained his bachelor's degree in chemistry from Harvard College in 1975 and his MD from the University of Colorado in 1979.

CHRISTOPHER T. HILL is professor of public policy and technology in the Institute of Public Policy at George Mason University. Before joining George Mason University, Dr. Hill was at the RAND Critical Technologies Institute. He also served as executive director of the Manufacturing Forum at the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences. A chemical engineer, he served as senior specialist in science and technology policy at the Congressional Research Service. He has taught at Washington University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked at the Office of Technology Assessment and Uniroyal.

MICHAEL G.H. McGEARY is a political scientist who directed the staff work for 10 major reports by various units of the National Academy of Sciences (Institute of Medicine, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, and Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy) between 1981 and 1995. He did his graduate work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, prior to coming to the National Academy of Sciences, he worked at the National Academy of Public Administration and taught at Wellesley College. Currently he is a consultant and is coauthoring a book on U.S. science and technology policy.

JULIE M. ESANU is a research assistant with the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications. She works primarily on scientific and technical data information issues. She received her bachelor's degree in political science from the George Washington University in 1989.

DANIELLE DEHMLER is a project assistant to this study. She received her bachelor's degree in legal studies from the State University of New York at Buffalo in 1993.

Copyright © 1995, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK45554
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