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Box II.5CATEGORIES OF R&D PERFORMERS

Thousands of institutions in the United States conduct R&D, funded by government, industry, state and local governments, private foundations, funds from colleges and universities, and other sources.

Industrial research is carried out by thousands of firms, large and small, although some 100 large firms account for more than 50 percent of all industrial R&D spending. The latest performers of industrial R&D are the aircraft, communications equipment, chemical, and computer and office equipment industries.

Nearly every academic institution conducts some research. However, about 100 universities account for more than 80 percent of all academic R&D spending.

It is estimated that there are more than 700 federal laboratories including FFRDCs. However, a much smaller number of these are of substantial size, with a few dozen conducting most of the R&D done in such facilities (see Box II.6).1

Other nonprofit institutions also make important contributions to national R&D performance. These include medical research institutions not associated with academic institutions, nonprofit research organizations such as Battelle Memorial Institute and Southwest Research Institute, and others.

1

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, Trends in the Structure of Federal Science Support (Washington, D.C.: Office of Science and Technology Policy, 1992).

Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology, Trends in the Structure of Federal Science Support (Washington, D.C.: Office of Science and Technology Policy, 1992).

From: Supplement 2: Federal Funds for R&D and FS&T

Cover of Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology
Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology.
National Academy of Sciences (US) Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1995.
Copyright © 1995, National Academy of Sciences.

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