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National Research Council (US) Committee on Dimensions, Causes, and Implications of Recent Trends in the Careers of Life Scientists. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.

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Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists.

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The National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council (NRC) was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing service to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the Research Council in making their published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report:

Michael Clegg, University of California, Riverside, California

Marye Ann Fox, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas

Donald Fredrickson, former director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Lyle V. Jones, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Thomas J. Kennedy Jr., formerly with the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, and the Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC

William Lennarz, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York

Jeremy Nathans, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baltimore, Maryland

John Perkins, University of Texas Southwest Medical Center, Dallas, Texas

Ann Peterson, W. K. Kellogg Foundation, East Battle Creek, Michigan

Thomas Pollard, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California

Ann Preston, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York

Paul Risser, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon

Lee Sechrest, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Allan Sprading, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baltimore, Maryland

Michael Teitelbaum, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, New York, New York

Raymond White, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

John Wiley, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

William Zumeta, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council.

Several of the reviewers listed above have published papers on PhD workforce issues; see, for example, Dr. Kennedy's 1994 paper, "Graduate Education in the Biomedical Sciences: Critical Observations on Training for Research Careers," in Academic Medicine (69:10).

Copyright © 1998, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK45392
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