Figure 5. Epigenetic changes on the Xi.

Figure 5

Epigenetic changes on the Xi. Initiation of random XCI is induced upon differentiation of female ES cells. The first change on the future Xi is spreading of Xist RNA in cis (red), followed by exclusion of RNA polymerase II (brown), the loss of active chromatin marks (blue) and gain of chromatin marks or incorporation of histone variants specific for inactive chromatin (purple). These chromatin changes are accompanied by accumulation of proteins and protein complexes (green) and other epigenetic changes including a shift to late replication in S phase and CpG methylation (orange). The right panels show female human fibroblast subjected to XIST RNA FISH, RNA FISH with a Cot probe detecting RNA Polymerase II transcribed repetitive regions, an immuno staining with anti H3K27 me3 antibody and an immuno staining with anti macroH2A antibody. Each cell contains one XIST signal coating the Xi, which corresponds with a Cot negative area, accumulation of H3K27 me3 and incorporation of macroH2A. A color version of this figure is available at

From: X Chromosome Inactivation and Embryonic Stem Cells

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