Table 85Pneumococcal vaccination among adults 18 years of age and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1989–2007

[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

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Percent ever receiving pneumococcal vaccination1
18 years and over, age-adjusted2,34.612.015.416.416.816.717.016.7
18 years and over, crude34.411.715.116.016.516.517.016.7
18–49 years2.
50–64 years4.410.014.716.717.
65 years and over14.
 65–74 years13.131.448.249.850.449.452.051.8
 75 years and over15.737.859.
65 years and over
White only14.835.355.657.959.158.460.060.1
Black or African American only6.421.930.636.938.640.235.543.7
American Indian or Alaska Native only31.2 * 70.1 * *42.0 * *57.5 *
Asian only * *23.440.935.335.135.035.633.4
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander only- - -- - - * * * * * *
2 or more races- - -- - -55.6*39.3*48.864.863.655.8
Hispanic origin and race4
Hispanic or Latino9.823.230.431.033.727.533.331.8
Not Hispanic or Latino14.334.554.457.158.358.158.759.6
 White only15.035.956.859.660.960.662.062.2
 Black or African American only6.221.830.636.938.640.435.644.0
Percent of poverty level5
Below 100%11.228.740.647.742.546.745.448.7
100%–less than 200%15.130.751.456.756.154.555.855.6
200% or more15.
Hispanic origin and race and percent of poverty level4,5
Hispanic or Latino:
 Below 100% * *14.123.823.831.820.924.5*22.4
 100%–less than 200%*11.0*15.632.326.829.026.930.937.9
 200% or more*10.439.432.939.539.131.740.730.9
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White only:
  Below 100%13.332.547.957.550.655.656.059.7
  100%–less than 200%16.033.556.162.161.960.561.660.8
  200% or more15.537.858.358.961.961.362.862.9
 Black or African American only:
  Below 100%*5.0*22.628.835.127.042.338.440.7
  100%–less than 200%7.8*20.928.139.636.436.636.241.9
  200% or more*5.2*21.834.435.749.142.733.346.7
Geographic region
Location of residence
Within MSA613.133.852.456.056.755.156.656.5
Outside MSA617.134.855.454.357.359.858.961.7

Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20%–30%. Data not shown have an RSE of greater than 30%.

- - - Data not available.


Respondents were asked, “Have you ever had a pneumonia shot? This shot is usually given only once or twice in a person’s lifetime and is different from the flu shot. It is also called the pneumococcal vaccine.”


Estimates are age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using four age groups: 18–49 years, 50–64 years, 65–74 years, and 75 years and over. See Appendix II, Age adjustment.


Includes all other races not shown separately and unknown poverty level in 1989.


The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 2 or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The five single-race categories plus multiple-race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group; the category 2 or more races includes persons who reported more than one racial group. Prior to 1999, data were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards with four racial groups and the Asian only category included Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. Starting with 2003 data, race responses of other race and unspecified multiple race were treated as missing, and then race was imputed if these were the only race responses. Almost all persons with a race response of other race were of Hispanic origin. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race.


Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Poverty level was unknown for 11% of persons 18 years and over in 1989. Missing family income data were imputed for 16% of persons 18 years of age and over in 1995, 26%–30% in 1997–1998, and 32%–35% in 1999–2007. See Appendix II, Family Income; Poverty.


MSA is metropolitan statistical area. Starting with 2006 data, MSA status is determined using 2000 census data and the 2000 standards for defining MSAs. For data prior to 2006, see Appendix II, Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) for the applicable standards.

NOTES: In 1997, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended universal pneumonia vaccination for persons 65 years and over. A pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was first licensed in 1977. Medicare reimbursement for the costs of the vaccine and its administration began in 1981. CDC. Prevention of pneumococcal disease: Recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP). MMWR 1997;46(RR–08);1–24. Available from: http://www​​/preview/mmwrhtml/00047135.htm. Pneumococcal vaccination among adults 19–64 years is recommended for those with other risk factors (medical, occupational, lifestyle, or other indications). Recommended adult immunization schedule United States, October 2007–September 2008. Available from: http://www​​/pdf/wk/mm5641-Immunization.pdf. Standard errors for selected years are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: http://www​ Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Health Interview Survey. Data are from the Immunization Supplement (1981), the Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement (1991), and the Year 2000 Supplement (1993–1995). Starting in 1997, data are from the sample adult questionnaire.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2009
Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2010 Jan.

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