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Table 6.13Studies evaluating the dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and health status

StudyPopulationGroupPercentage differenceComments
Nonsmokers (referent)Smokers, by category of dose (1 = low)
Mean number of illnesses in the past 30 days
Marsden et al. 198817,328 active U.S. military personnelTotal00.412.336.4None
Self-reported poor health status (number of health complaints)
Seidell et al. 1986455 Dutch men and 790 Dutch women, aged26–66 yearsMen023.331.5None
Subjective health complaints
Joung et al. 199516,311 Dutch men and women, aged 25–74 yearsTotal071.0137.0None
Chronic conditions
Joung et al. 199516,311 Dutch men and women, aged 25–74 yearsTotal029.043.0None
Self-reported chronic conditions
Balarajan et al. 198523,956 participants in the United Kingdom
General Household Survey, aged >16 years
Perceived poor health
Joung et al. 199516,311 Dutch men and women, aged 25–74 yearsTotal075.0101.0None
Manderbacka et al. 19991991 Swedish Level of Living Survey (n = 5,306, aged 18–75 years)Total033.037.0Adjusted for age, gender, and risk
Physical health status
Belloc and Breslow1972Random sample of Alameda County, California, residents, aged >20 yearsCurrent smokersRidits (higher score = poorer health); whether one inhales cigarette smoke, and the extent of such inhalation, appear highly correlated with physicial health status
Former smokers
Physical health score
Wiley and Camacho19803,982 Alameda County residents, aged 20–70 yearsMen0−75.9−265.5−286.2High scores = better physical health
Self-reported health status
Segovia et al. 1989Sample of 3,300 residents of St. John’s, Canada, aged >20 yearsTotal0−16.319.1−31.9Percentage reporting good health; additional smoking categories, by increasing dose: −40.9, −67.4, −48.0, −76.2
Poikolainen et al. 1996, Poikolainen and Vartiainen 19976,040 men and women, Finland, aged 25–64 yearsTotal00.245.7NR*Percentage reporting suboptimal health
Impaired psychological status
Lindenthal et al. 1972938 New Haven adults (aged >18 years), sampleTotal035.8−23.850.3Based on a percentage with very impaired status; smoking frequency categories
Psychological well-being
Wetzler and Ursano19886,675 U.S. Air Force personnelTotal01.73.3NRNone

NR = Data were not reported.

NR = Data were not reported.

From: 6, Other Effects

Cover of The Health Consequences of Smoking
The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Office of the Surgeon General (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US).

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