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Russell R, Chung M, Balk EM, et al. Issues and Challenges in Conducting Systematic Reviews to Support Development of Nutrient Reference Values: Workshop Summary: Nutrition Research Series, Vol. 2. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2009 Mar. (Technical Reviews, No. 17.2.)

Cover of Issues and Challenges in Conducting Systematic Reviews to Support Development of Nutrient Reference Values: Workshop Summary

Issues and Challenges in Conducting Systematic Reviews to Support Development of Nutrient Reference Values: Workshop Summary: Nutrition Research Series, Vol. 2.

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Glossary

Biomarkers of intake are measurements of the nutrient itself or a metabolite of the substance in biological samples (e.g., serum selenium) that have been validated to confirm that they reflect the level of intake of that nutrient.

Clinical outcome is a measure of how a patient (or study subject) feels, functions, or survives; or a clinical measurement of the incidence or severity of a disease (e.g., diagnosis of disease).

Essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from a dietary source.

Indicator markers (of nutrient intakes) are measures correlated with dietary intake levels of a nutrient, such as biomarkers of intake, nutritional status, or markers of nutritional status.

Marker of nutritional status is a laboratory measurement or a physical sign that is thought to reflect the early stage of an abnormality (either deficiency or toxicity) of a nutrient intake. Changes induced by a nutritional intervention on the marker of nutritional status are expected to reflect the correction of the abnormality.

Nutritional status is the state of a person's health in terms of the nutrients in his or her diet. Nutritional status is a global term that encompasses a number of specific components from nutritional assessments.

Nutritional assessment is a comprehensive approach to define nutritional status using medical, nutrition, and medication histories, physical examination, anthropometric measurement, and laboratory data.

Surrogate outcome marker is a laboratory measurement or a physical sign used as a substitute for a clinical outcome. Changes induced by a therapy on a surrogate outcome marker are expected to reflect changes in a clinical outcome.

Vitamin A Examples:

  • Plasma retinol is a biomarker of inadequate intake
  • Bone mineral density is a surrogate outcome marker of osteoporosis
  • Mortality, xerophthalmia and poor growth status in children are clinical outcomes
  • Dark adaptation test is a marker of nutritional status
  • Vitamin A deficiency is a nutritional status, which is a global term. There are various markers of vitamin A deficiency including an abnormal dark adaptation test (a marker of nutritional status), low plasma retinol (a biomarker of intake), and xerophthalmia (a clinical outcome).

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