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Viswanathan M, Hartmann K, McKoy N, et al. Management of Uterine Fibroids: An Update of the Evidence. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2007 Jul. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 154.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Management of Uterine Fibroids: An Update of the Evidence.

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Appendix D. List of Excluded Studies

Excluded Articles

Full Text Article Exclusion Criteria Codes for Database

X-1: Not original research

X-2: Not published from February 2000-February 2006

X-3: Not published in English

X-4: Study not conducted in appropriate geographic location

X-5: Ineligible study design

X-6: Study does not answer study question

CASE REPORT: Case report

List of Excluded Studies

Women's Health and the Environment: The Next Century—Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research. Conference proceedings. 7–8 October 1999, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Oct; 108 Suppl 5:767–853. X-1. [PubMed: 11228655]
Procedure minimizes need for hysterectomies. Rep Med Guidel Outcomes Res. 2000 Aug 3;11(16):8–10. X-1. [PubMed: 11799996]
The future of women's health. Harv Womens Health Watch. 2000 Jan;7(5):4–6. X-1.
Uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Clin Privil White Pap. 2001 Jul 19(63):1–7. X-1. [PubMed: 11715990]
Leuprorelin and triptorelin: new indication. Preoperative treatment of uterine leiomyoma: no proven value. Prescrire Int. 2001 Jun;10(53):73–7. X-1. [PubMed: 11718167]
Gastrointestinal: gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001 Sep;16(9):1069. X-6. [PubMed: 11595075]
Alternatives to hysterectomy. Harv Womens Health Watch. 2001 Apr;8(8):5–7. X-1. [PubMed: 11340040]
Uterine artery embolization for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. TEC Bull (Online). 2002 Jul 8;19(2):37–9. X-1. [PubMed: 12166477]
Stopping heavy periods. For some women, endometrial ablation is a viable alternative to hysterectomy. Health News. 2002 Aug;8(8):4. X-1. [PubMed: 12206145]
HRT patches: ok for women with fibroids? Health News. 2002 Feb;8(2):9. X-1. [PubMed: 11862848]
Patient page. Uterine fibroid embolization. Radiol Technol. 2003 Nov–Dec;75(2):176. X-1. [PubMed: 14671837]
Ultrasound treatment zaps fibroids. Health News. 2004 Aug;10(8):2. X-1. [PubMed: 15551451]
Medical image. Pseudocyesis. N Z Med J. 2004 Mar 12;117(1190):2 p following U801. X-6. [PubMed: 15108696]
Uterine artery embolization for fibroids. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2005 Apr 11;47(1206):31–2. X-1. [PubMed: 15821634]
Noninvasive treatment for uterine fibroids. FDA Consum. 2005 Jan–Feb;39(1):4. X-1. [PubMed: 15803583]
Molecule of the month: asoprisnil. Drug News Perspect. 2005 Jul–Aug;18(6):404. X-1. [PubMed: 16247518]
Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Technol Eval Cent Asses Program Exec Summ. 2005 Oct;20(10):1–3. X-1. [PubMed: 16267949]
Health highlights. Good news that greeted women in 2005. Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource. 2005 Dec;9(12):1–2. X-1. [PubMed: 16301981]
Can you tell me about the new device the FDA has approved for treating uterine fibroids? Mayo Clin Womens Healthsource. 2005 Apr;9(4):8.X-1. [PubMed: 15891684]
Abbas M, Al-Kandari M, FM Dashti. Laparoscopic-assisted resection of bleeding jejunal leiomyoma. Surg Endosc. 2001 Nov;15(11):1359. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11727152]
Abdulkader I, Cameselle-Teijeiro J, Gude F, Fraga M, Varela-Duran J, Barreiro F. et al. Predictors of malignant behaviour in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: a clinicopathological study of 34 cases. Eur J Surg. 2002;168(5):288–96. X-6. [PubMed: 12375611]
Aboyeji AP, Ijaiya MA. Uterine fibroids: a ten-year clinical review in Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2002 Jan–Mar;11(1):16–9. X-4. [PubMed: 12073294]
Abramson S, Gilkeson RC, Goldstein JD, Woodard PK, Eisenberg R, Abramson N. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma: clinical, imaging, and pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001 Jun;176(6):1409–13. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11373202]
Abulafia O, Kleinhaus K, Levi G, Lee YC, Sherer DM. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment upon angiogenesis in uterine leiomyoma. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2001;52(2):108–13. X-6. [PubMed: 11586038]
Adani GL, Marcello D, Sanna A, Mazzetti J, Anania G, Donini A. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: evaluation of biological and clinical current opinions. Chir Ital. 2002 Mar–Apr;54(2):127–31. X-6. [PubMed: 12038102]
Adelusola KA, Ogunniyi SO. Hysterectomies in Nigerians: histopathological analysis of cases seen in Ile-Ife. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2001 Mar;8(1):37–40. X-4. [PubMed: 11487782]
Adolfsson PI, Haug I, Berg G, Svensson SP. Changes in beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and in adenylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase activity in human uterine leiomyomas. Mol Hum Reprod. 2000 Sep;6(9):835–42. X-6. [PubMed: 10956556]
Advincula AP, Hernandez JC, Lieberman R. Images in reproductive medicine. Disseminated leiomyomatosis peritonei. Fertil Steril. 2005 Nov;84(5):1505–7. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 16275251]
Advincula AP, Song A, Burke W, Reynolds RK. Preliminary experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2004 Nov;11(4):511–8. X-5. [PubMed: 15701195]
A. K. Agarwal, R. Bansal and D. Singhal. Sinonasal leiomyoma: report of 2 cases. Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 Apr;84(4):224, 226–30. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 15929322]
Agoff SN, Grieco VS, Garcia R, Gown AM. Immunohistochemical distinction of endometrial stromal sarcoma and cellular leiomyoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2001 Jun;9(2):164–9. X-6. [PubMed: 11396634]
Agoff SN, Mendelin JE, Grieco VS, Garcia RL. Unexpected gynecologic neoplasms in patients with proven or suspected BRCA-1 or -2 mutations: implications for gross examination, cytology, and clinical follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Feb;26(2):171–8. X-6. [PubMed: 11812938]
Agorastos T, Dinas K, Patsiaoura K. Cystic degenerated angioleiomyoma mimicking ovarian pathology. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001 Sep;80(9):863–5. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11531639]
Agostini A, Banet J, Bretelle F, Cravello L, Blanc B. Leiomyoma remaining after vaginal hysterectomy for symptomatic leiomyomas. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2003 Feb;48(2):119–20. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12621796]
Agostini A, Beerli M, Franchi F, Bretelle F, Blanc B. Garnerella vaginalis bacteremia after vaginal myomectomy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Jun 10;108(2):229. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12781418]
Agostini A, Vejux N, Capelle M, Ronda I, Blanc B. Laparoscopic removal of a remaining myoma after vaginal hysterectomy: a case report. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005 Jul–Aug;12(4):372–3. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 16036202]
Ahamed KS, Raymond GS. Answer to case of the month #103. Large subserosal uterine leiomyoma with cystic degeneration presenting as an abdominal mass. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2005 Oct;56(4):245–7. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 16419377]
Ahmad A, Qadan L, Hassan N, Najarian K. Uterine artery embolization treatment of uterine fibroids: effect on ovarian function in younger women. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002 Oct;13(10):1017–20. X-4. [PubMed: 12397123]
Ahmad I, Ray CE Jr, Conyers C. Transvaginal sonographic appearance of thrombosed uterine arteries after uterine artery embolization: the “white snake” sign. J Clin Ultrasound. 2003 Oct;31(8):401–6. X-5. [PubMed: 14528437]
Ahmed AH, Martin D, Onon TS. Secondary abdominal pregnancy associated with uterine fibroid. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Feb;25(2):206–8. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 15814414]
Ahmed M, Zangos S, Bechstein WO, Vogl TJ. Intravenous leiomyomatosis. Eur Radiol. 2004 Jul;14(7):1316–7. X-6. [PubMed: 14710312]
Ahn WS, Kim KW, Bae SM, Yoon JH, Lee JM, Namkoong SE. et al. Targeted cellular process profiling approach for uterine leiomyoma using cDNA microarray, proteomics and gene ontology analysis. Int J Exp Pathol. 2003 Dec;84(6):267–79. X-6. [PMC free article: PMC2517572] [PubMed: 14748746]
Ahsan S, Naeem S, Ahsan A. A case notes analysis of hysterectomy performed for non-neoplastic indications at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2001 Oct;51(10):346–9. X-4. [PubMed: 11768934]
Ak I, Ozalp S, Yalcin OT, Zor E, Vardareli E. Uptake of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in uterine leiomyoma: imaging of four patients by coincidence positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Commun. 2004 Sep;25(9):941–5. X-4. [PubMed: 15319600]
Akaeda T, Isaka K, Nakaji T, Kakizaki D, Abe K. Clinical application of virtual hysteroscopy by CO(2)-multidetector-row computed tomography to submucosal myomas. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005 May–Jun;12(3):261–6. X-6. [PubMed: 15922985]
Akase T, Onodera S, Jobo T, Matsushita R, Kaneko M, Tashiro S. A comparative study of the usefulness of toki-shakuyaku-san and an oral iron preparation in the treatment of hypochromic anemia in cases of uterine myoma. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2003 Sep;123(9):817–24. X-5. [PubMed: 14513774]
Akinola OI, Fabamwo AO, Ottun AT, Akinniyi OA. Uterine artery ligation for management of uterine fibroids. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005 Nov;91(2):137–40. X-5. [PubMed: 16168993]
T. Akisue, K. Matsumoto, N. Tsumura, I. Fujita, T. Yamamoto and S. Yoshiya. Bone marrow edema syndrome associated with uterine myoma: a case report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2003 Apr(409):151–7. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12671497]
Aksu F, Gezer A, Oral E. Seventeen-year review of hysterectomy procedures in a university clinic in Istanbul (1985-2001) Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004 Dec;270(4):217–22. X-4. [PubMed: 14513260]
Al Azzam M, Orrell JM, Vasey DP. Vulval leiomyoma with a myxoid hyaline stroma. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Nov;24(8):936. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 16147667]
Alam M, Rabinowitz AD, Engler DE. Gabapentin treatment of multiple piloleiomyoma-related pain. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Feb;46(2 Suppl Case Reports):S27–9. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11807464]
Alam NA, Barclay E, Rowan AJ, Tyrer JP, Calonje E, Manek S. et al. Clinical features of multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis: an underdiagnosed tumor syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 2005 Feb;141(2):199–206. X-6. [PubMed: 15724016]
Alam NA, Bevan S, Churchman M, Barclay E, Barker K, Jaeger EE. et al. Localization of a gene (MCUL1) for multiple cutaneous leiomyomata and uterine fibroids to chromosome 1q42.3-q43. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 May;68(5):1264–9. X-6. [PMC free article: PMC1226106] [PubMed: 11283798]
Alam NA, Gorman P, Jaeger EE, Kelsell D, Leigh IM, Ratnavel R. et al. Germline deletions of EXO1 do not cause colorectal tumors and lesions which are null for EXO1 do not have microsatellite instability. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2003 Dec;147(2):121–7. X-6. [PubMed: 14623461]
Alam NA, Olpin S, Rowan A, Kelsell D, Leigh IM, Tomlinson IP. et al. Missense mutations in fumarate hydratase in multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer. J Mol Diagn. 2005 Oct;7(4):437–43. X-6. [PMC free article: PMC1888487] [PubMed: 16237213]
Alam NA, Rowan AJ, Wortham NC, Pollard PJ, Mitchell M, Tyrer JP. et al. Genetic and functional analyses of FH mutations in multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cancer, and fumarate hydratase deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Jun 1;12(11):1241–52. X-6. [PubMed: 12761039]
Al-Badr A, Faught W. Uterine artery embolization in an undiagnosed uterine sarcoma. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 May;97(5 Pt 2):836–7. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11336773]
Alenda C, Aranda FI, Paya A, Cordoba C. Mesectodermal leiomyoma of ciliary body. Int J Surg Pathol. 2002 Oct;10(4):309–12. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12490985]
Alessi G, Lemmerling M, Vereecken L, De Waele L. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma to skull base and spine: a report of two cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2003 Jul;105(3):170–4. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12860509]
Al-Fozan H, Dufort J, Kaplow M, Valenti D, Tulandi T. Cost analysis of myomectomy, hysterectomy, and uterine artery embolization. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Nov;187(5):1401–4. X-5. [PubMed: 12439538]
Al-Hendy A, Lee EJ, Wang HQ, Copland JA. Gene therapy of uterine leiomyomas: adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant negative estrogen receptor inhibits tumor growth in nude mice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;191(5):1621–31. X-6. [PubMed: 15547533]
Ali-El-Dein B, Abdel-Latif M, Mosbah A, Eraky I, Shaaban AA, Taha NM. et al. Secondary malignant involvement of gynecologic organs in radical cystectomy specimens in women: is it mandatory to remove these organs routinely? J Urol. 2004 Sep;172(3):885–7. X-4. [PubMed: 15310990]
Al-Kadri HM, Al-Turki HA, Saleh AM. Short and long term complications of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy for benign disease. Saudi Med J. 2002 Jul;23(7):806–10. X-4. [PubMed: 12174230]
Almeida EC, Nogueira AA, Candido dos Reis FJ, Rosa e Silva JC. Cesarean section as a cause of chronic pelvic pain. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002 Nov;79(2):101–4. X-4. [PubMed: 12427392]
Alper M, Aydin A, Ozdemir I, Suna M, Ciralik H, Aksoy KA. Blue nevus with an unusual presentation: two patients with endocervical location. Ceska Gynekol. 2004 Sep;69(5):411–3. X-4. [PubMed: 15587900]
Alper M, Parlak AH, Kavak A, Aksoy KA. Bilateral multiple piloleiomyomas on the breast. Breast. 2004 Apr;13(2):146–8. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 15019696]
Al-Shanafey S, Cartier Y, Stiles GE, Casson AG. Circumferential giant leiomyoma of the esophagus. J Am Coll Surg. 2001 Oct;193(4):453. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11584975]
Altinok G, Usubutun A, Kucukali T, Gunalp S, Ayhan A. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. A benign entity mimicking carcinomatosis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2000 Jul;264(1):54–5. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 10985626]
Altman D, Lopez A, Falconer C, Zetterstrom J. The impact of hysterectomy on lower urinary tract symptoms. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2003 Dec;14(6):418–23. X-5. [PubMed: 14677004]
Alvarado-Cabrero I, Candanedo-Gonzalez F, Sosa-Romero A. Leiomyoma of the urethra in a Mexican woman: a rare neoplasm associated with the expression of estrogen receptors by immunohistochemistry. Arch Med Res. 2001 Jan–Feb;32(1):88–90. X-4. [PubMed: 11388165]
Amagasaki K, Takeuchi N, Kakizawa T, Shimizu T. Bilateral cortical blindness associated with cerebral angiitis. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2002 Jul;144(7):749. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12181712]
Amant F, Debiec-Rychter M, Schoenmakers EF, Hagemeijer-Hausman A, Vergote I. Cumulative dosage effect of a RAD51L1/HMGA2 fusion and RAD51L1 loss in a case of pseudo-Meigs' syndrome. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2001 Dec;32(4):324–9. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11746973]
Amant F, Dorfling CM, de Brabanter J, Vandewalle J, Vergote I, Lindeque BG. et al. A possible role of the cytochrome P450c17alpha gene (CYP17) polymorphism in the pathobiology of uterine leiomyomas from black South African women: a pilot study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Mar;83(3):234–9. X-4. [PubMed: 14995917]
Amant F, Gabriel C, Timmerman D, Vergote I. Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome caused by a hydropic degenerating uterine leiomyoma with elevated CA 125. Gynecol Oncol. 2001 Oct;83(1):153–7. X-6. [PubMed: 11585430]
Amant F, Huys E, Geurts-Moespot A, Lindeque BG, Vergote I, Sweep F. et al. Ethnic variations in uterine leiomyoma biology are not caused by differences in myometrial estrogen receptor alpha levels. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2003 Feb;10(2):105–9. X-6. [PubMed: 12594000]
Amant F, Steenkiste E, Schurmans K, Verbist L, Abeler VM, Tulunay G. et al. Immunohistochemical expression of CD10 antigen in uterine adenosarcoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2004 Nov–Dec;14(6):1118–21. X-6. [PubMed: 15571618]
Amato P, Roberts AC. Transient ovarian failure: a complication of uterine artery embolization. Fertil Steril. 2001 Feb;75(2):438–9. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11172854]
Ambekar A, Vogelzang RL. Aberrant uterine artery as a cause of uterine artery embolization treatment failure. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001 Jul;74(1):59–60. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11430943]
Ameh EA, Shehu SM, Rafindadi AH, Nmadu PT. Small intestinal leiomyoma in childhood: a case report. West Afr J Med. 2002 Apr–Jun;21(2):157–8. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12403042]
Amre R, Constantino J, Lu S, Charney D. Pathologic quiz case: a 52-year-old woman with a uterine mass. Leiomyo-adenomatoid tumor of the uterus. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Mar;129(3):e77–8. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 15737061]
Ande AB, Ehigiegba AE, Umeora OU. Repeat myomectomy at caesarean section. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004 Dec;270(4):296–8. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 14513259]
Andersen J. Comparing regulation of the connexin43 gene by estrogen in uterine leiomyoma and pregnancy myometrium. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Oct;108(Suppl 5):811–5. X-6. [PubMed: 11035987]
Andersen PE, Lund N, Justesen P, Munk T, Elle B, Floridon C. Uterine artery embolization of symptomatic uterine fibroida . Initial success and short-term results. Acta Radiol. 2001 Mar;42(2):234–8. X-5. [PubMed: 11259954]
Anderson TD, Weinstein GS. Recurrent angiomyoma (vascular leiomyoma) of the larynx after laser excision. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Nov;123(5):646–7. X-6. [PubMed: 11077360]
Andre J, Theunis A, Richert B, de Saint-Aubain N. Superficial acral fibromyxoma: clinical and pathological features. Am J Dermatopathol. 2004 Dec;26(6):472–4. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 15618928]
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Andrews RT, Bromley PJ, Pfister ME. Successful embolization of collaterals from the ovarian artery during uterine artery embolization for fibroids: a case report. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2000 May;11(5):607–10. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 10834492]
Anichini C, Calamai G, Pedemonte E, Moroni M, Tozzini S, Nesi G. Intravenous leiomyoma with cardiac involvement. Int Angiol. 2001 Dec;20(4):345–7. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 11782702]
Ankem K. Influence of information sources on the adoption of uterine fibroid embolization by interventional radiologists. J Med Libr Assoc. 2003 Oct;91(4):450–9. X-6. [PMC free article: PMC209511] [PubMed: 14566376]
Anker MC, Arnemann J, Neumann K, Ahrens P, Schmidt H, Konig R. Alport syndrome with diffuse leiomyomatosis. Am J Med Genet A. 2003 Jun 15;119(3):381–5. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 12784310]
Appiah-Sakyi K, Byrd L, Slade RJ. Thermal balloon ablation—a rare case of fibroid necrosis. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Jun;24(4):467. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 15203602]
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Argibay Vazquez S, Lancha Hernandez C, Martinez Muniz A. Metastases in the sphenoidal sinus in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer. Clin Transl Oncol. 2005 Aug;7(7):324–7. CASE REPORT. [PubMed: 16185596]
Arici A, Sozen I. Transforming growth factor-beta3 is expressed at high levels in leiomyoma where it stimulates fibronectin expression and cell proliferation. Fertil Steril. 2000 May;73(5):1006–11. X-6. [PubMed: 10785229]
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Bai SW, Jang JB, Lee do Y, Jeong KA, Kim SK, Park KH. Uterine arterial embolization for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. Yonsei Med J. 2002 Jun;43(3):346–50. X-4. [PubMed: 12089743]
Baird DD. Invited commentary: uterine leiomyomata-we know so little but could learn so much. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Jan 15;159(2):124–6. X-1. [PubMed: 14718212]
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Robb-Nicholson C. By the way, doctor. I am 59 years old, in good health, and have been on HRT (estrogen and progesterone) for about 10 years. I have tried several different preparations, but despite this, have developed a uterine fibroid, experienced indigestion, gained 20 pounds, and had one abnormal mammogram (with, thankfully, a negative biopsy). Because there is heart disease in my family, my doctor wants me to stay on HRT for the rest of my life. Can you suggest any alternatives? Harv Womens Health Watch. 2000 Jan;7(5):8. X-1. [PubMed: 10594971]
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