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Caughey AB, Sundaram V, Kaimal AJ, et al. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Elective Induction of Labor. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2009 Mar. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 176.)

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Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Elective Induction of Labor.

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Appendix D: List of Excluded Studies

Article Reason for exclusion

  1. A randomized control study of oxytocin augmentation of labour. 1. Obstetric outcome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988 Jan;95(1):104–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor.
  2. Adams JL. The use of obstetrical procedures in the care of low-risk women. Women Health. 1983 Spring;8(1):25–34. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 6868624]
  3. Adelstein P, Fedrick J, Howat P, Robinson R, Turnbull AC. Obstetric practice and infant morbidity. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1977 Oct;84(10):721–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 921906]
  4. Akyol D, Mungan T, Unsal A, Yuksel K. Prelabour rupture of the membranes at term—no advantage of delaying induction for 24 hours. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Aug;39(3):291–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10554936]
  5. Albers LL, Savitz DA. Hospital setting for birth and use of medical procedures in low-risk women. J Nurse Midwifery. 1991 Nov–Dec;36(6):327–33. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 1757818]
  6. Alexander JM, Lucas MJ, Ramin SM, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ. The course of labor with and without epidural analgesia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Mar;178(3):516–20. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9539519]
  7. Alexander JM, McIntire DD, Leveno KJ. Forty weeks and beyond: pregnancy outcomes by week of gestation. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug;96(2):291–4. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10908780]
  8. Allen VM, O'Connell CM, Baskett TF. Maternal morbidity associated with cesarean delivery without labor compared with induction of labor at term. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Aug;108(2):286–94. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 16880297]
  9. Al-Taani M. Pregnancies past the estimated date of confinement: labour and delivery outcome. East Mediterr Health J. 2003 Sep–Nov;9(56):955–60. Data not usable. [PubMed: 16450525]
  10. Anderson AB, Turnbull AC, Baird D. The influence of induction of labour on caesarean section rate, duration of labour and perinatal mortality in Aberdeen primigravidae between 1938 and 1966. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1968 Aug;75(8):800–11. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 5673322]
  11. Anderson T. Induction of labour for suspected fetal macrosomia. Pract Midwife. 2000 Feb;3(2):10–1. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 11040746]
  12. Arulkumaran S, Gibb DM, Heng SH, Ratnam SS. Perinatal outcome of induced labour. Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol. 1985 Mar;11(1):33–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 4040358]
  13. Bahn SA, Jacobson J, Petersen F. Maternal and neonatal outcome following prolonged labor induction. Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Sep;92(3):403–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9721779]
  14. Bakketeig LS, Petersen SO, Bersjo P. Statistical comparison in a controlled trial of elective induction of labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1980;59(2):191–2. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 6967671]
  15. Barda G, Arbel-Alon S, Bernstein D, Zakut H, Menczer J. Pregnancy and delivery in a group of Israeli teenagers. A case-controlled study. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1998;25(12):32–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9743876]
  16. Barros FC, Velez Mdel P. Temporal trends of preterm birth subtypes and neonatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 May;107(5):1035–41. Data not usable. [PubMed: 16648408]
  17. Baruffi G, Dellinger WS Jr, Strobino DM, Rudolph A, Timmons RG, Ross A. Patterns of obstetric procedures use in maternity care. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Oct;64(4):493–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 6483297]
  18. Baxter S. Orgasm and labour in primiparae. J Psychosom Res. 1974 Oct;18(5):357–60. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 4435707]
  19. Beard R, Boyd I, Holt E. A study of cervical vibration in induced labour. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1973 Nov;80(11):966–9. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 4752987]
  20. Beard R, Steer PJ. Induction of labour and perinatal mortality. Br Med J. 1977 Aug 20;2(6085):516–7. Ineligible Study Design. [PMC free article: PMC1630876] [PubMed: 890377]
  21. Beazley JM, Alderman B. Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia following the use of oxytocin in labour. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1975 Apr;82(4):265–71. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 1125148]
  22. Beazley JM, Alderman B. The ‘inductograph’—a graph describing the limits of the latent phase of induced labour in low risk situations. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1976 Jul;83(7):513–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 952780]
  23. Beazley JM. Controlled parturition. Br J Hosp Med. 1977 Mar;17(3):237–8, 41–4. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 851675]
  24. Beebe LA, Rayburn WF, Beaty CM, Eberly KL, Stanley JR, Rayburn LA. Indications for labor induction. Differences between university and community hospitals. J Reprod Med. 2000 Jun;45(6):469–75. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10900580]
  25. Behague DP, Victora CG, Barros FC. Consumer demand for caesarean sections in Brazil: informed decision making, patient choice, or social inequality? A population based birth cohort study linking ethnographic and epidemiological methods. BMJ. 2002 Apr 20;324(7343):942–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC102326] [PubMed: 11964338]
  26. Beilin Y, Friedman F Jr, Andres LA, Hossain S, Bodian CA, Andres LA, Hossain S, Bodian CA. The effect of the obstetrician group and epidural analgesia on the risk for cesarean delivery in nulliparous women. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2000 Sep;44(8):959–64. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10981573]
  27. Belfrage P, Fernstrom I, Hallenberg G. Routine or selective ultrasound examinations in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1987 May;69(5):747–50. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 3554057]
  28. Ben-Haroush A, Yogev Y, Bar J, Glickman H, Kaplan B, Hod M. Indicated labor induction with vaginal prostaglandin E2 increases the risk of cesarean section even in multiparous women with no previous cesarean section. J Perinat Med. 2004;32(1):31–6. Data not usable. [PubMed: 15008383]
  29. Ben-Haroush A, Yogev Y, Glickman H, Bar J, Kaplan B, Hod M. Mode of delivery in pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes at or before term following induction of labor with vaginal prostaglandin E2. Am J Perinatol. 2004 Jul;21(5):263–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 15232758]
  30. Bergsjo P, Halle C. Duration of the second stage of labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1980;59(3):193–6. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 7424495]
  31. Bianco A, Stone J, Lynch L, Lapinski R, Berkowitz G, Berkowitz RL. Pregnancy outcome at age 40 and older. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Jun;87(6):917–22. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 8649698]
  32. Black BP, McBride WG. Children born after elective induction of labour. Med J Aust. 1979 Oct 6;2(7):362–3. No eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 514187]
  33. Bodner-Adler B, Bodner K, Pateisky N, Kimberger O, Chalubinski K, Mayerhofer K. et al. Influence of labor induction on obstetric outcomes in patients with prolonged pregnancy: a comparison between elective labor induction and spontaneous onset of labor beyond term. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005 Apr;117(78):287–92. Post-term. [PubMed: 15926620]
  34. Brinsden PR, Clark AD. Postpartum haemorrhage after induced and spontaneous labour. Br Med J. 1978 Sep 23;2(6141):855–6. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1608016] [PubMed: 309347]
  35. Browne DS. Induction of labour. Med J Aust. 1977 Nov 19;2(21):721. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 607132]
  36. Buchan PC. Pathogenesis of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia after induction of labour with oxytocin. Br Med J. 1979 Nov 17;2(6200):1255–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1596876] [PubMed: 519401]
  37. Bueno B, San-Frutos L, Salazar F, Perez-Medina T, Engels V, Archilla B. et al. Variables that predict the success of labor induction. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Nov;84(11):1093–7. Duplicate of Included Study. [PubMed: 16232178]
  38. Caliskan E, Dilbaz S, Gelisen O, Dilbaz B, Ozturk N, Haberal A. Unsucessful labour induction in women with unfavourable cervical scores: predictors and management. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Dec;44(6):562–7. Method of induction study. [PubMed: 15598298]
  39. Callen P, Goldsworthy S, Graves L, Harvey D, Mellows H, Parkinson C. Mode of delivery and the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1979 Dec;86(12):965–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 526455]
  40. Cary AJ. Intervention rates in spontaneous term labour in low risk nulliparous women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990 Feb;30(1):46–51. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 2346451]
  41. Caseby NG. Epidural analgesia for the surgical induction of labour. Br J Anaesth. 1974 Oct;46(10):747–51. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 4621198]
  42. Caughey AB, Bishop JT. Maternal complications of pregnancy increase beyond 40 weeks of gestation in low-risk women. J Perinatol. 2006 Sep;26(9):540–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 16837930]
  43. Chalmers I, Campbell H, Turnbull AC. Use of oxytocin and incidence of neonatal jaundice. Br Med J. 1975 Apr 19;2(5963):116–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1673078] [PubMed: 1125700]
  44. Chalmers I, Lawson JG, Turnbull AC. Evaluation of different approaches to obstetric care: Part II. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1976 Dec;83(12):930–3. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 1009032]
  45. Chalmers JA, Prakash A. Optimal dosage of buccal oxytocin for the induction of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1971 Sep 15;111(2):227–32. Method of induction study. [PubMed: 5098592]
  46. Chan BC, Lao TT. Influence of parity on the obstetric performance of mothers aged 40 years and above. Hum Reprod. 1999 Mar;14(3):833–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10221722]
  47. Chance GW. Elective delivery, premature rupture of the membranes and the respiratory distress syndrome. Can Med Assoc J. 1980 Feb 9;122(3):265–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1801812] [PubMed: 7370819]
  48. Chandra S, Crane JM, Hutchens D, Young DC. Transvaginal ultrasound and digital examination in predicting successful labor induction. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jul;98(1):2–6. Data not usable. [PubMed: 11430948]
  49. Chang TC, Tan KT, Neow P, Yeo GS. Computerised analysis of foetal heart rate variation: prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in patients undergoing prostaglandin induction of labour at term. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1997 Nov;26(6):772–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9522978]
  50. Chanrachakul B, Herabutya Y. Postterm with favorable cervix: is induction necessary? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Feb 10;106(2):154–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 12551783]
  51. Chattopadhyay SK, Sengupta BS, Edrees YB. Intracervical application of prostaglandin E2 tablets for elective induction of labor in grand multiparae: a prospective controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1986 Jun;22(12):7–15. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 3522309]
  52. Chen WH, Lai HC, Tang YH, Liu HS. Fetal Doppler hemodynamic changes in spontaneous versus prostaglandin E1-induced active labor. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999 Aug;78(7):599–604. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10422906]
  53. Cheng YW, Shaffer BL, Caughey AB. Associated factors and outcomes of persistent occiput posterior position: A retrospective cohort study from 1976 to 2001. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006 Sep;19(9):563–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 16966125]
  54. Cheng YW, Shaffer BL, Caughey AB. The association between persistent occiput posterior position and neonatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4):837–44. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 16582120]
  55. Chew WC, Swann IL. Influence of simultaneous low amniotomy and oxytocin infusion and other maternal factors on neonatal jaundice: a prospective study. Br Med J. 1977 Jan 8;1(6053):72–3. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1604110] [PubMed: 832018]
  56. Chia YT, Arulkumaran S, Soon SB, Norshida S, Ratnam SS. Induction of labour: does internal tocography result in better obstetric outcome than external tocography. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1993 May;33(2):159–61. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 8216115]
  57. Chigbu CO, Ezeome IV, Okezie AO, Oyefara B. Induction of labor on request in a resource-poor setting. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Apr 18 2007. Data not usable. [PubMed: 17445817]
  58. Chua S, Arulkumaran S. Intrapartum care. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997 Feb;37(1):25–35. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9075543]
  59. Clinch J. Induction of labour—a six year review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1979 May;86(5):340–2. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 465381]
  60. Cnattingius R, Hoglund B, Kieler H. Emergency cesarean delivery in induction of labor: an evaluation of risk factors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 May;84(5):456–62. Data not usable. [PubMed: 15842210]
  61. Combs CA, Murphy EL, Laros RK Jr. Cost-benefit analysis of autologous blood donation in obstetrics. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Oct;80(4):621–625. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 1407883]
  62. Combs CA, Singh NB, Khoury JC. Elective induction versus spontaneous labor after sonographic diagnosis of fetal macrosomia. Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;81(4):492–496. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 8459954]
  63. Conway DL, Adkins WB, Schroeder B, Langer O. Isolated oligohydramnios in the term pregnancy: is it a clinical entity? J Matern Fetal Med. 1998 Jul–Aug;7(4):197–200. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9730487]
  64. Conway DL, Langer O. Elective delivery of infants with macrosomia in diabetic women: reduced shoulder dystocia versus increased cesarean deliveries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 May;178(5):922–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9609560]
  65. Cooley S, Lissoni D, Geary M, Keane D. Does fetal head position at the term plus 12 scan influence induction, labor and delivery outcome? J Perinat Med. 2004;32(3):258–9. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 15188801]
  66. Coonrod DV, Bay RC, Kishi GY. The epidemiology of labor induction: Arizona, 1997. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun;182(6):1355–62. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10871449]
  67. Cope E. Induction of labour. Practitioner. 1967 Feb;198(184):207–16. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 6038978]
  68. Crane JM, Young DC, Butt KD, Bennett KA, Hutchens D. Excessive uterine activity accompanying induced labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jun;97(6):926–31. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 11384698]
  69. Cromi A, Ghezzi F, Tomera S, Scandroglio S, Colombo G, Bolis P. Cervical ripening with a Foley catheter: the role of pre- and postripening ultrasound examination of the cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan;196(1):41 e1–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 17240227]
  70. Danon D, Ben-Haroush A, Yogev Y, Bar J, Hod M, Pardo J. Prostaglandin E2 induction of labor for isolated oligohydramnios in women with unfavorable cervix at term. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2007;22(1):75–9. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 17003561]
  71. Daskalakis G, Thomakos N, Hatziioannou L, Mesogitis S, Papantoniou N, Antsaklis A. Sonographic cervical length measurement before labor induction in term nulliparous women. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006;21(1):34–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 16354972]
  72. de Hemptinne D, Thiery M, Vroman S, Martens S. Uterine contractility in spontaneous and induced labour. Z Geburtshilfe Perinatol. 1976 Aug;180(4):275–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 983199]
  73. DeMott RK, Sandmire HF. The Green Bay cesarean section study. II. The physician factor as a determinant of cesarean birth rates for failed labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Jun;166(6 Pt 1):1799–806. discussion 806–10. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 1615989]
  74. Dowding VM, Duignan NM, Henry GR, MacDonald DW. Induction of labour, birthweight and perinatal mortality by day of the week. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1987 May;94(5):413–9. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 3580324]
  75. D'Souza SW, Black P, Macfarlane T, Richards B. The effect of oxytocin in induced labour on neonatal jaundice. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1979 Feb;86(2):133–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 427052]
  76. Duff C, Sinclair M. Exploring the risks associated with induction of labour: a retrospective study using the NIMATS database. Northern Ireland Maternity System. J Adv Nurs. 2000 Feb;31(2):410–7. Post-term. [PubMed: 10672100]
  77. Ekman G, Persson PH, Ulmsten U. Induction of labor in postterm pregnant women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1986 Feb;24(1):47–52. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 2874070]
  78. Elferink-Stinkens PM, Brand R, le Cessie S, Van Hemel OJ. Large differences in obstetrical intervention rates among Dutch hospitals, even after adjustment for population differences. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996 Sep;68(12):97–103. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 8886689]
  79. Elferink-Stinkens PM, Van Hemel OJ, Brand R. Differences in obstetrical intervention rates between Dutch hospitals. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1994 Mar 15;53(3):165–73. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 8200463]
  80. Elghorori MR, Hassan I, Dartey W, Abdel-Aziz E, Bradley M. Comparison between subjective and objective assessments of the cervix before induction of labour. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Aug;26(6):521–6. Data not usable. [PubMed: 17000497]
  81. Enkola K, Pulkkinen MO. Induction of human labor at term: uterine activity, inducibility, duration and neonatal jaundice. Acta Physiol Hung. 1985;65(3):281–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 4040311]
  82. Evans SE, Crawford JS, Stevens ID, Durbin GM, Daya H. Fluid therapy for induced labour under epidural analgesia: biochemical consequences for mother and infant. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986 Apr;93(4):329–33. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 3964608]
  83. Ezra Y, McParland P, Farine D. High delivery intervention rates in nulliparous women over age 35. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995 Oct;62(2):203–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 8582496]
  84. Farr SL, Jamieson DJ, Rivera HV, Ahmed Y, Heilig CM. Risk Factors for Cesarean Delivery Among Puerto Rican Women. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jun;109(6):1351–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 17540807]
  85. Fedrick J, Yudkin P. Obstetric practice in the Oxford Record Linkage Study Area 1965-72. Br Med J. 1976 Mar 27;1(6012):738–40. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1639238] [PubMed: 944067]
  86. Feinstein U, Sheiner E, Levy A, Hallak M, Mazor M. Risk factors for arrest of descent during the second stage of labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2002 Apr;77(1):7–14. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 11929650]
  87. Fenton DW, Speedie J, Duncan SL. Does cervical ripening with PGE2 affect subsequent uterine activity in labour? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1985;64(1):27–30. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 3883690]
  88. Ferguson JE 2nd, Newberry YG, DeAngelis GA, Finnerty JJ, Agarwal S, Turkheimer E. The fetal-pelvic index has minimal utility in predicting fetal-pelvic disproportion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov;179(5):1186–92. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9822498]
  89. Fields H. Induction of labor: methods, hazards, complications and contraindications. Hosp Top. 1968 Dec;46(12):63–6. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 5743237]
  90. Fitzpatrick M, McQuillan K, O'Herlihy C. Influence of persistent occiput posterior position on delivery outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Dec;98(6):1027–31. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 11755548]
  91. Flaksman RJ, Vollman JH, Benfield DG. Iatrogenic prematurity due to elective termination of the uncomplicated pregnancy: a major perinatal health care problem. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 Dec 15;132(8):885–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 736060]
  92. Fleissig A. Prevalence of procedures in childbirth. BMJ. 1993 Feb 20;306(6876):494–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1676791] [PubMed: 8448462]
  93. Fok WY, Chan LY, Tsui MH, Leung TN, Lau TK, Chung TK. When to induce labor for post-term? A study of induction at 41 weeks versus 42 weeks. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Apr 1;125(2):206–10. Post-term. [PubMed: 16139416]
  94. Foley ME, Alarab M, Daly L, Keane D, Rath A, O'Herlihy C. The continuing effectiveness of active management of first labor, despite a doubling in overall nulliparous cesarean delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Sep;191(3):891–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 15467560]
  95. Foong LC, Vanaja K, Tan G, Chua S. Membrane sweeping in conjunction with labor induction. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Oct;96(4):539–42. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 11004355]
  96. Frost O. Augmentation of labour in the primigravid patient. Ethiop Med J. 1984 Oct;22(4):193–201. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 6479159]
  97. Frost O. Induction of labour in a nondoctor maternity unit. Cent Afr J Med. 1978 Nov;24(11):229–31. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 743733]
  98. Fuchs K, Wapner R. Elective cesarean section and induction and their impact on late preterm births. Clin Perinatol. 2006 Dec;33(4):793–801. abstract viii. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 17148005]
  99. Garzetti GG, Ciavattini A, La Marca N, De Cristofaro F. Longitudinal measurement of amniotic fluid index in term pregnancies and its association with intrapartum fetal distress. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(4):234–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9415520]
  100. Gerhardstein LP, Allswede MT, Sloan CT, Lorenz RP. Reduction in the rate of cesarean birth with active management of labor and intermediate-dose oxytocin. J Reprod Med. 1995 Jan;40(1):4–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 7722974]
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  108. Grant JM. Induction of labour confers benefits in prolonged pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994 Feb;101(2):99–102. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 8305406]
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  115. Hannah ME, Huh C, Hewson SA, Hannah WJ. Postterm pregnancy: putting the merits of a policy of induction of labor into perspective. Birth. 1996 Mar;23(1):13–9. Duplicate of Included Study. [PubMed: 8703252]
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  117. Hatch MC. Maternal deaths associated with induction of labor. N Y State J Med. 1969 Feb 15;69(4):599–602. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 5252432]
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  130. Induction of labour. Br Med J. 1979 Aug 18;2(6187):407–8. Ineligible Study Design. [PMC free article: PMC1595634] [PubMed: 486962]
  131. Induction of labour. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1983 Aug;15(4–6):319–32. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 6578155]
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  154. Lange AP. Induction of labour. Dan Med Bull. 1984 Apr;31(2):89–108. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 6373168]
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  168. Lillie EW. Advances in obstetrics. Practitioner. 1973 Oct;211(264):451–8. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 4747645]
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  202. Niswander KR, Turoff BB, Romans J. Developmental status of children delivered through elective induction of labor. Results of a 4-year follow-up study. Obstet Gynecol. 1966 Jan;27(1):15–20. No eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 5900643]
  203. Novakov-Mikic A, Ivanovic L, Dukanac J. Transvaginal ultrasonography of uterine cervix in prediction of the outcome of labour induction. Med Pregl. 2000 Nov–Dec;53(1112):569–78. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 11320742]
  204. Oats JN, Abell DA, Andersen HM, Beischer NA. Obesity in pregnancy. Compr Ther. 1983 Apr;9(4):51–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 6851465]
  205. O'Connor RA. Induction of labour—not how but why? Br J Hosp Med. 1994 Dec 14–1995 Jan 17;52(11):559–63. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 7719578]
  206. O'Driscol K, Carroll CJ, Coughlan M. Selective induction of labour. Br Med J. 1975 Dec 27;4(5999):727–9. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1675538] [PubMed: 1240015]
  207. O'Driscoll K, Foley M, MacDonald D. Active management of labor as an alternative to cesarean section for dystocia. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Apr;63(4):485–90. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 6700893]
  208. Opaneye AA. Labour and delivery after a prolonged interval between the present and the last pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1983 Dec;90(12):1180–2. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 6652054]
  209. Ottervanger HP, Keirse MJ, Smit W, Holm JP. Controlled comparison of induction versus expectant care for prelabor rupture of the membranes at term. J Perinat Med. 1996;24(3):237–42. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 8827572]
  210. Out JJ, Vierhout ME, Verhage F, Duivenvoorden HJ, Wallenburg HC. Characteristics and motives of women choosing elective induction of labour. J Psychosom Res. 1986;30(3):375–80. No eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 3735181]
  211. Out JJ, Vierhout ME, Verhage F, Duivenvoorden HJ, Wallenburg HC. Elective induction of labor: a prospective clinical study, II: Psychological effects. J Perinat Med. 1985;13(4):163–70. Duplicate of Included Study. [PubMed: 4057032]
  212. Out JJ, Vierhout ME, Wallenburg HC. Breast-feeding following spontaneous and induced labour. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1988 Dec;29(4):275–9. Duplicate of Included Study. [PubMed: 3229541]
  213. Paterson-Brown S, Fisk NM, Edmonds DK, Rodeck CH. Preinduction cervical assessment by Bishop's score and transvaginal ultrasound. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991 Jun 5;40(1):17–23. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 1855604]
  214. Patton LL, English EC, Hambleton JD. Childbirth preparation and outcomes of labor and delivery in primiparous women. J Fam Pract. 1985 Apr;20(4):375–8. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 3981097]
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  216. Peregrine E, O'Brien P, Jauniaux E. Impact on delivery outcome of ultrasonographic fetal head position prior to induction of labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Mar;109(3):618–25. Duplicate of Included Study. [PubMed: 17329512]
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  220. Pinkerton JH, Carson M. Caesarean section after surgical induction of labour. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1968 Dec;75(12):1287–90. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 5702364]
  221. Pinkerton JH, Martin DH, Thompson W. Selective planned induction in conditions of civil strife. Lancet. 1975 Jan 25;1(7900):197–8. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 47423]
  222. Pinkerton JH. Fetal rights. The first Belfast Royal Maternity Hospital Perinatal Lecture. Ulster Med J. 1985 Apr;54(1):30–40. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC2447982] [PubMed: 3909579]
  223. Pinkerton JH. Induction of labour on behalf of the fetus. J Ir Med Assoc. 1973 Nov 10;66(21):592–6. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 4756936]
  224. Poma PA. Effects of obstetrician characteristics on cesarean delivery rates. A community hospital experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun;180(6 Pt 1):1364–72. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10368473]
  225. Postpartum haemorrhage after induced and spontaneous labour. Br Med J. 1978 Oct 21;2(6145):1162. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor.
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  232. Rhoades DA, Latza U, Mueller BA. Risk factors and outcomes associated with nuchal cord. A population-based study. J Reprod Med. 1999 Jan;44(1):39–45. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 9987738]
  233. Richards MP. The induction and acceleration of labour: some benefits and complications. Early Hum Dev. 1977 Oct;1(1):3–17. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 399461]
  234. Rindfuss RR, Gortmaker SL, Ladinsky JL. Elective induction and stimulation of labor and the health of the infant. Am J Public Health. 1978 Sep;68(9):872–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PMC free article: PMC1654048] [PubMed: 686212]
  235. Rindfuss RR, Ladinsky JL. Patterns of births: implications for the incidence of elective induction. Med Care. 1976 Aug;14(8):685–93. No eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 785127]
  236. Rinehart BK, Terrone DA, Hudson C, Isler CM, Larmon JE, Perry KG Jr. Lack of utility of standard labor curves in the prediction of progression during labor induction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Jun;182(6):1520–6. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10871474]
  237. Ritchie JW, Boyle DD. The active management of labour. Br J Hosp Med. 1981 Jul;26(1):61–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 7272550]
  238. Rizzo N, Farina A, Santarsiero G, Di Luzio L, Vitarelli M, Bovicelli A. et al. Amniotic fluid index and labor length of pregnancies induced beyond 41 weeks of gestation with unfavorable cervix. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2000;49(4):244–8. Duplicate of Included Study. [PubMed: 10828707]
  239. Roach VJ, Rogers MS. Pregnancy outcome beyond 41 weeks gestation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1997 Oct;59(1):19–24. Post-term. [PubMed: 9359441]
  240. Roberts A. Midwifery. 1. Induction of labour. Nurs Mirror. 1981 Jul 8;153(2):xxi–xxv. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 6911656]
  241. Roberts CL, Taylor L, Henderson-Smart D. Trends in births at and beyond term: evidence of a change? Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999 Sep;106(9):937–42. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10492105]
  242. Robertson EG. Induction of labour. Br Med J. 1970 Aug 15;3(5719):405. Ineligible Study Design. [PMC free article: PMC1701239] [PubMed: 5451601]
  243. Rogers R, Gilson GJ, Miller AC, Izquierdo LE, Curet LB, Qualls CR. Active management of labor: does it make a difference? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Sep;177(3):599–605. Other. [PubMed: 9322630]
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  246. Rosen R. Planned early birth vs. expectant management for PROM. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Jul 1;74(1):79–80. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 16850550]
  247. Rouse DJ, Owen J, Hauth JC. Criteria for failed labor induction: prospective evaluation of a standardized protocol. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Nov;96(5 Pt 1):671–7. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 11042299]
  248. Rovas L, Sladkevicius P, Strobel E, Valentin L. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound assessment of the cervix for the prediction of successful induction of labor with prostaglandin in prolonged pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med. 2005 Jul;24(7):933–9. Post-term. [PubMed: 15972707]
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  251. Russo JN, Kosar WP. Elective inductions at Hartford Hospital. Trans N Engl Obstet Gynecol Soc. 1964;18:33–41. No eligible outcomes. [PubMed: 5832971]
  252. Russo JN, Kosar WP. The use of intramuscular oxytocin for the elective induction of labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1967 Jan 15;97(2):203–7. Data not usable. [PubMed: 5297367]
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  254. Sande HA, Tuveng J, Fonstelien T. A prospective randomized study of induction of labor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1983 Aug;21(4):333–6. Data not usable. [PubMed: 6141089]
  255. Santana W, Meyer A, Flake D, Neher JO. Clinical inquiries. What are the risks and benefits of elective induction for uncomplicated term pregnancies? J Fam Pract. 2006 Nov;55(11):983–5. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 17090359]
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  259. Searing KA. Induction vs. post-date pregnancies. Exploring the controversy of who's really at risk. AWHONN Lifelines. 2001 Apr–May;5(2):44–8. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 11982276]
  260. Seffah JD, Armah JO. Amniotic fluid index for screening late pregnancies. East Afr Med J. 1999 Jun;76(6):348–51. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 10750525]
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  264. Semczuk M, Lopucka M. Evaluation of cervix condition according to Bishop score in post term pregnancy. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med] 1986;41:125–31. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 3154047]
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  266. Setna F, Chatterjee TK, Black MD. An assessment of the safety of surgical induction of labour. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1967 Apr;74(2):262–5. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 6022377]
  267. Sharma U, Idnani N, Saxena S. Eftects of obstetrical interference on the newborn. Indian J Pediatr. 1978 May;45(364):143–53. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 721224]
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  289. Thiery M, Martens G, Parewijck W. Induction of labour and postpartum haemorrhage. Br Med J. 1979 May 26;1(6175):1422. Ineligible Study Design. [PMC free article: PMC1598882] [PubMed: 312677]
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  296. Ugwumadu A. Induction of labour confers benefits in prolonged pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1995 Jan;102(1):79–81. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 7833326]
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  299. van Enk A, Doornbos HP, Nordbeck HJ. Some characteristics of labor in ethnic minorities in Amsterdam. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1990 Dec;33(4):307–11. Not a study of elective induction of labor or predictors of success in the setting of induced labor. [PubMed: 1979283]
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  302. Vorherr H. Induction and stimulation of labor. Obstet Gynecol Annu. 1974;3(0):283–344. Ineligible Study Design. [PubMed: 4607755]
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