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Lewin GA, Schachter HM, Yuen D, et al. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Child and Maternal Health. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2005 Aug. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 118.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Child and Maternal Health.

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Appendix H. Listing of Excluded Studies at Level 2 and 3 Screening

    Level 2

    1. Adair C D, Sanchez-Ramos L, Briones D L. et al. The effect of high dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation on angiotensin II pressor response in human pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1996;175(3 Pt 1):688–691. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 8828435]
    2. Agostoni C. Breast-feeding, human milk, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and development. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2001;43(SUPPL. 86). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    3. Agostoni C. Effects of diet on the lipid and fatty acid status of full-term infants at 4 months.[comment] J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(6):658–664. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 7706601]
    4. Agostoni C, Giovannini M. Cognitive and visual development: influence of differences in breast and formula fed infants. Nutr Health. 2001;15(34):183–188. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 12003083]
    5. Agradi E, Galli C. Requirement and role of essential fatty acids during brain development. [Review][28 refs]. Beitr Infusionther Klin Ernahr 1988;19128–139. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    6. Alexander S. On the prevention of preeclampsia: nutritional factors back in the spotlight?[comment] Am J Epidemiol. 2002;13(4):382–383. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 12094091]
    7. Amadi B. Role of food antigen elimination in treating children with persistent diarrhea and malnutrition in Zambia. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition. 2002;34(Suppl 1):S54–S56. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 12082390]
    8. Arnold R W, Kesler K, Avila E. Susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity in Alaskan natives. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus 1994;31(3). No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 7931954]
    9. Asch M J, Sperling M, Fiser R. et al. Metabolic and hormonal studies comparing three parenteral nutrition regimens in infants. Ann Surg. 1975;182(1):62–65. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PMC free article: PMC1343880] [PubMed: 807170]
    10. Ashwell M. Infant brain lipids and diet.[comment] Lancet. 1992 31–10;340(8827):1093. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 1357472]
    11. Baker P, Broughton Pipkin F. Fish-oil and pre-eclampsia.[comment] British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 1991;98(5):499–500. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 2059604]
    12. Bang H O, Dyerberg J. Urinary thromboxane metabolites in pre-eclampsia (II). Lancet 1990;335(8698). Not involving human participants.
    13. Baryshkov Iu A. [The level of higher unsaturated fatty acids in the blood serum of infants during the 1st months of life]. [Russian] Vopr Okhr Materin Det. 1967;12(1):25–27. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 5601159]
    14. Bell J D, Margen S, Calloway D H. Ketosis, weight loss, uric acid, and nitrogen balance in obese women fed single nutrients at low caloric levels. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental. 1969;18(3):193–208. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 4887615]
    15. Berry C, Montgomery C, Sattar N. et al. Fatty acid status of women of reproductive age. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(7):518–524. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 11464224]
    16. Bistrian B R. Clinical aspects of essential fatty acid metabolism: Jonathan Rhoads Lecture. [Review] [68 refs] Jpen: Journal of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition. 2003;27(3):168–175. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 12757109]
    17. Bjerve K S, Thoresen L, Borsting S. Linseed and cod liver oil induce rapid growth in a 7-year-old girl with N-3 fatty acid deficiency. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1988;12(5):521–525. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 3184425]
    18. Black D D. Intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition 1995;20(2). Not involving human participants. [PubMed: 7714678]
    19. Bottai F, Franchini F, Cocchi C et al. EFA's effects on child's health: Recent advances about a therapeutic, prophylactic and dietetic tool. Pediatr Med Chir 1994;16(2). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    20. Boue C, Combe N, Billeaud C. et al. Nutritional implications of trans fatty acids during perinatal period, in French pregnant women. Lipids, fats and oils: opportunities and responsibilities in the New Century 2001; Wurzburg, Germany, 8–10 October, 2000. OCL -Oleagineux,-Corps-Gras,-Lipides. 2001;8(1):68–72. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers)
    21. Bougle D. Red blood cell vitamin E in the premature effect of an alpha-linolenic acid supplementation [abstract] Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;14(Suppl 2):26. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    22. Brenna J T. Efficiency of conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to long chain n-3 fatty acids in man. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2002;5(2):127–132. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 11844977]
    23. Broughton Pipkin F, McCormack M J, Constantine G et al. Fish-oil and pre-eclampsia [1]. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 1991;98(7). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    24. Bruce A. Skeletal muscle lipids. 3. Changes in fatty acid composition of individual phosphoglycerides in man from fetal to middle age. J Lipid Res. 1974;15(2):109–113. Not involving human participants. [PubMed: 4832753]
    25. Bruce A, Svennerholm L. Skeletal muscle lipids. I Changes in fatty acid composition of lecithin in man during growth. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1971;239(3):393–400. Not involving human participants. [PubMed: 5113502]
    26. Carlson S E. Functional effects of increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake.[comment] Eur J Pediatr. 1997;131(2):173–175. . Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 9290597]
    27. Carlson S E. Docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in infant development. Semin Neonatol. 2001;6(5):437–449. . Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 11988033]
    28. Carlson S E, Montalto M B, Ponder D L. et al. Lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in infants fed a preterm formula with egg phospholipids. Pediatr Res. 1998;44(4):491–498. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 9773836]
    29. Carroll. Essential fatty acids: what level in the diet is most desirable?. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology 1977;83535–546. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 920481]
    30. Carruth B R, Nevling W, Skinner J D. Developmental and food profiles of infants born to adolescent and adult mothers. J Adolesc Health. 1997;20(6):434–441. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 9178080]
    31. Cicmanec J L. Comparison of four human studies of perinatal exposure to methylmercury for use in risk assessment. Toxicology 1996;111(1–3). No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 8711732]
    32. Clandinin M T, VanAerde J. Formula supplementation and growth.[comment] Pediatrics. 2003;112(6 Pt 1):1456–1458. . Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 14654632]
    33. Clandinin M T, Chappell J E, Heim T. Do low weight infants require nutrition with chain elongation-desaturation products of essential fatty acids?. Prog Lipid Res 1981;20901–904. Not involving human participants. [PubMed: 7342142]
    34. Crawford M A. Is there a common denominator between fetal growth retardation and cardiovascular disease? Acta Cardiol. 1989;44(6):449–453. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 2626902]
    35. Crawford M A. Essential fatty acids and neurodevelopmental disorder. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology. 1992;318:pp 307–314. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 1636499]
    36. Crawford M A. Aspirin in pregnancy.[comment] Lancet. 1993 20–3;341(8847):753–754. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 8095644]
    37. Crawford M A, Ghebremeskel K, Phylactos A. The biochemistry of unsaturated fatty acids and development of preterm infants. Br J Clin Pract 1995;49(SUPPL. 80). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    38. Crawford M A, Hassam A G, Hall B M. Metabolism of essential fatty acids in the human fetus and neonate. Ann Nutr Metab. 1977;21(Suppl):1187–188. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 917382]
    39. Cunnane S C, Crawford M A. Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. [Review][39 refs]. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology 2003;Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 136(1):17–26. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 14527626]
    40. Cunnane S C, Francescutti V. Fatty acid profiles of maternal adipose tissue in relation to infant development. Br J Nutr. 1999;82(4):253–254. . Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 10655972]
    41. Cunnane S C, Francescutti V, Brenna J T. Docosahexaenoate requirement and infant development.[comment] Adv Nutr Res. 1999;15(10):801–802. . Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 10501301]
    42. Davidson M, Levine S Z, Bauer C H. et al. Feeding studies in low-birth-weight infants. I. Relationships of dietary protein, fat, and electrolyte to rates of weight gain, clinical courses, and serum chemical concentrations. Eur J Pediatr. 1967;70(5):695–713. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 6022175]
    43. Davis K C. Vitamin E: adequacy of infant diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1972;25(9):933–938. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 5054219]
    44. De Lucchi C, Pita M L, Faus M J. et al. Influences of diet and postnatal age on the lipid composition of red blood cell membrane in newborn infants. Ann Nutr Metab. 1988;32(4):231–239. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 3195991]
    45. Deckelbaum R J, Williams C L. Fat intake in children: is there a need for revised recommendations?[comment] Eur J Pediatr. 2000;136(1):7–9. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 10636965]
    46. Decsi T. Plasma lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in full term infants fed formula supplemented with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Eur J Pediatr. 1997;156(5):397–400. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 9177986]
    47. Decsi T, Boehm G, Tjoonk H M R. et al. Trans isomeric octadecenoic acids are related inversely to arachidonic acid and DHA and positively related to mead acid in umbilical vessel wall lipids. Lipids. 2002 1–10;37(10):01. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 12530555]
    48. de Swiet M. Pre-eclampsia. III: The role of aspirin in prevention. Modern Midwife. 1994;4(12):20–22. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 7697403]
    49. Diener U C, Fink M M, Demmelmair H. Docosahexaenoic acid intake affects alpha-linolenic acid metabolism in preterm infants [abstract] Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;18(Suppl 1):55. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    50. Diener U. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on conversion of linoleic and a-linolenic acid in preterm infants. J 1999;Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr 28(05):589. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    51. Drane D L, Logemann J. An explanation for the association between specific language impairment and toxemia. Med Hypotheses. 2003 1–8;61(2):01. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 12888308]
    52. Drongelen M M H P, Zeijdner E E, Houwelingen A C V. et al. Essential fatty acid status measured in umbilical vessel walls of infants born after a multiple pregnancy. Early Hum Dev. 1996;46(3):205–215. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 8922565]
    53. Duchen K, Yu G, Bjorksten B. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast milk in relation to atopy in the mother and her child. International Archives of Allergy & Immunology 1999;118(2–4). Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 10224429]
    54. Duhamel J F, Travert G, Briere S. et al. [Nutritional management of neonates and infants with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas detected at birth]. [French] Arch Fr Pediatr. 1986;43(4):229–233. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 3767582]
    55. Dunstan J A, Mori T A, Barden A. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology. 2003;112(6):1178–1184. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 14657879]
    56. Dyerberg J, Bang H O. Pre-eclampsia and prostaglandins. Lancet 1985;1(8440). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    57. Elswyk ME, van Hatch S D, Stella G G et al. Eggs as a functional food alternative to fish and supplements for the consumption of DHA. Egg nutrition and biotechnology 1999;121–133; 25 ref. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    58. Fairey A K, Butte N F, Mehta N. et al. Nutrient accretion in preterm infants fed formula with different protein:energy ratios. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition. 1997;25(1):37–45. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 9226525]
    59. Fasching P. [Fish oil as lipostatic factor]. [German]. Vasa - Supplementum 1990;3062–63. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    60. Figueira F, Mendonca S, Rocha J. et al. Absorption of vitamin A by infants receiving fat-free or fat-containing dried skim milk formulas. Am J Clin Nutr. 1969;22(5):588–593. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 5819115]
    61. Fokkema M R, Smit E N, Martini I A. et al. Assessment of essential fatty acid and [omega]3-fatty acid status by measurement of erythrocyte 20:3[omega]9 (Mead acid), 22:5[omega]6/20:4[omega]6 and 22:5[omega]6/22:6[omega]3. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2002;67(5):345–356. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 12445496]
    62. Fomon S J, Thomas L N, Filer L J. et al. Requirements for protein and essential amino acids in early infancy. Studies with a soy-isolate formula. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1973;62(1):33–45. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 4734855]
    63. Foreman-van Drongelen M M, Westdorp J M, van Houwelingen A C et al. The essential fatty acid status of premature infants and the fatty acid composition of their diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57(5 SUPPL.). Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    64. Forsyth J S, Willatts P, Agostoni C. et al. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infant formula and blood pressure in later childhood: Follow up of a randomised controlled trial. Br Med J. 2003 3–5;326(7396):03. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PMC free article: PMC153849] [PubMed: 12727766]
    65. Friedman G, Goldberg S J. An evaluation of the safety of a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet beginning in infancy. Pediatrics. 1976;58(5):655–657. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 980598]
    66. Friedman Z, Shochat S J, Maisels M J. et al. Correction of essential fatty acid deficiency in newborn infants by cutaneous application of sunflower-seed oil. Pediatrics. 1976;58(5):650–654. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 824609]
    67. Fronczak C M. In utero dietary exposures and risk of islet autoimmunity in children. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(12):3237–3242. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 14633808]
    68. Gallo A, Kohan A, Schele C. et al. [Use of soybean flour in infant nutrition]. [Spanish] Rev Chil Pediatr. 1971;42(6):433–442. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 5167609]
    69. German J B, Dillard C J, Whelan J. Biological effects of dietary arachidonic acid. Introduction. Br J Nutr. 1996;126(4 Suppl):1076S–1080S. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 8642436]
    70. Ghebremeskel K, Leighfield M. Infant brain lipids and diet.[comment] Lancet. 1992 31–10;340(8827):1093. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 1357473]
    71. Ghisolfi J. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and brain development. Arch Pediatr 1996;3(SUPPL. 1). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 8795988]
    72. Ghraf R, Jelinek J, Lehwalder D. Innovations in infant formulas: Clinical development of formulas containing the fat blend LCP Milupan. Br J Clin Pract 1995;49(SUPPL. 80). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    73. Gibson R A. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and infant development.[comment] Lancet. 1999 4–12;354(9194):1919–1920. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 10622289]
    74. Gross S, Vanderhoof J, Hegvi T et al. A new arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplemented preterm formula: effect on plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids. Pediatr Res 1997;232A1376. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    75. Guesnet P, Alessandri J M. Milk essential fatty acids and central nervous system development in the newborn. Cahiers de Nutrition et de Dietetique. 1995;30(2):109–116. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    76. Haggarty P. Placental regulation of fatty acid delivery and its effect on fetal growth--a review. [Review] [101 refs] Placenta. 2002;23(Suppl A):S28–S38. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 11978057]
    77. Hamosh M. The milky way: From mammary gland to milk to newborn. Macy-Gyorgy award presentation (1999) Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology. 2002;503:pp 17–25. . Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 12026017]
    78. Hamosh M. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in neonatal nutrition.[comment] J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13(6):546–548. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 7706584]
    79. Hansen H S, Olsen S F. Sleep patterns, docosahexaenoic acid, and gestational length.[comment] Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(2):334–335. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 14749243]
    80. Harvie A. Randomised controlled trial of a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC PUFA) supplemented low phe infant formula. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1998;21(Suppl. 2):13. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
    81. Hawkes J S, Bryan D L, Neumann M A. et al. Transforming growth factor beta in human milk does not change in response to modest intakes of docosahexaenoic acid. Lipids. 2001;36(10):1179–1181. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 11768164]
    82. Heird W C, Jensen C L, Gomez M R. Practical aspects of achieving positive energy balance in low birth weight infants. Eur J Pediatr 1992;120(4 II SUPPL.). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 1560324]
    83. Hernell O. The requirements and utilization of dietary fatty acids in the newborn infant. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica - Supplement 1990;36520–27. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 2402997]
    84. Herrera E. Implications of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental, fetal and postnatal development--a review. [Review] [166 refs] Placenta. 2002;23(Suppl A):S9–19. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 11978055]
    85. Heymans H S, van den, Heuvel C G. et al. Catch-up growth following long-term administration of essential fatty acids in a girl with growth failure and essential fatty acid deficiency. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1982;71(6):1037–1039. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 7158328]
    86. Houwelingen A C, Drongelen M M H P, Nicolini U. et al. Essential fatty acid status of fetal plasma phospholipids: Similar to postnatal values obtained at comparable gestational ages. Early Hum Dev. 1996;46(12):141–152. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 8899362]
    87. Houwelingen A C, Puls J, Hornstra G. Essential fatty acid status during early human development. Early Hum Dev. 1992;31(2):97–111. Not involving human participants. [PubMed: 1292926]
    88. Houwelingen A C, van Sorensen J D, Hornstra G. et al. Essential fatty acid status in neonates after fish-oil supplementation during late pregnancy. Br J Nutr. 1995;74(5):723–731. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 8541278]
    89. Huang Y, Shao X M, Neu J. Immunonutrients and neonates. [Review] [39 refs] Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162(3):122–128. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 12655412]
    90. Hull D, Elphick M C. Evidence for fatty acid transfer across the human placenta. Ciba Found Symp 30-3-1978;(63):75–91. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 256547]
    91. Hurgoiu V, Mark S. [The fat ration for the premature infant]. [Romanian] Pediatrie. 1992;41(2):71–75. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 1327223]
    92. Hurgoiu V, Ciupe R, Adam M. et al. [Optimization of nutrition for premature infants using essential fatty acids]. [Romanian] Revista de Pediatrie, Obstetrica Si Ginecologie - Pediatria. 1986;35(4):367–370. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 3105029]
    93. Infante J P, Huszagh V A. Impaired arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid synthesis by phenylalanine metabolites as etiological factors in the neuropathology of phenylketonuria. [Review] [170 refs] Molecular Genetics & Metabolism. 2001;72(3):185–198. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 11243724]
    94. Innis S M. Maternal diet, length of gestation, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of infants at birth.[comment] Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(2):181–182. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review) [PubMed: 10426693]
    95. Innis S M. Essential fatty acid requirements in human nutrition. Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology 1993;71(9). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    96. Innis S, Uauy R, Heird W et al. Mechanisms of action of LCPUFA effects on infant growth and neurodevelopment: Perinatal biochemistry and physiology of LCPUFA discussion. Eur J Pediatr 2003;143(4 SUPPL.). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    97. Jacobson SWretlind. The role of fat in total parenteral nutrition. [Monograph Citation] 1976;(161):170. Not involving human participants.
    98. James W P T, Vadillo-Ortega F, Valencia J et al. Long-term fetal programming of body composition and longevity. Nutr Rev 1997;55(1 II). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    99. Johns T, Sibeko L. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women Using Herbal Therapies. Birth Defects Research. Part B. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology. 2003;68(6):501–504. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 14745987]
    100. Jong N, de Dusseldorp M, van Bergsma J S. et al. Growth and nutritional status of macrobiotically fed children until 10 years of age. Aktuel Ernahrungsmed. 1996;21(1):14–15. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    101. Jorgensen M H, Lauritzen L, Fleischer-Michaelsen K. The role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in neonatal nutrition.[comment] (multiple letters) Acta Paediatr. 1999;88(8):916–918. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 10503696]
    102. Kaapa P, Uhari M, Nikkari T. et al. Dietary fatty acids and platelet thromboxane production in puerperal women and their offspring. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1986;155(1):146–149. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 3089014]
    103. Kaempf-Rotzoll D E H. Influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid formula feeds on vitamin E status in preterm infants. International Journal for Vitamin & Nutrition Research. 2003;73(5):377–387. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 14639802]
    104. Kagan B M, Stanincova V, Felix N S. et al. Body composition of premature infants: relation to nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1972;25(11):1153–1164. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 5086038]
    105. Kashyap S, Ohira-Kist K, Abildskov K. et al. Effects of quality of energy intake on growth and metabolic response of enterally fed low-birth-weight infants. Pediatr Res. 2001;50(3):390–397. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 11518827]
    106. Kashyap S, Schulze K F, Forsyth M. et al. Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response in low birth weight infants fed varying intakes of protein and energy. Eur J Pediatr. 1988;113(4):713–721. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 3139856]
    107. Keil T U. Advantages of a lipid adapted infant nutrition. Fortschr Med 1993;111(13). Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    108. Kekomaki M P. Food requirements in normal children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1969;Supplementum. 3718–23. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers)
    109. King K C, Adam P A, Laskowski D E. et al. Sources of fatty acids in the newborn. Pediatrics. 1971;47(1):Suppl-8. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 5551036]
    110. Klenoff-Brumberg H L, Genen L H. High versus low medium chain triglyceride content of formula for promoting short term growth of preterm infants. [Review][34 refs]. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(1):CD002777. No omega-3 fatty acid focus (intervention/exposure or biomarkers) [PubMed: 12535437]
    111. Knapp H R. Fatty acids and hypertension. [Review][29 refs]. World Review of Nutrition & Dietetics 1994;769–14. Not a first publication of empirical evidence (e.g., review)
    112. Kohn G. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994;48(Suppl 2):S1–S7. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes. [PubMed: 7995259]
    113. Koletzko B. Parenteral feeding of preterm infants with fat emulsions based on soybean and olive oils: effects on plasma phospholipid fatty acids [abstract] Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;17(Suppl 1):25. Not related to predefined child or maternal health outcomes.
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