Table 1Description of neurocognitive sequelae

Ataxia Unsteadiness in gait or fine manipulation
Hemiparesis/monoparesis Weakness of one side of the body (hemiparesis) or limb (monoparesis). Rarely complete paralysis (hemiplegia)
Severe motor deficit Quadriparesis (weakness of all four limbs) with spasticity. Unable to walk. Often associated with severe learning difficulties, epilepsy, and blindness.
Dysphasia/dysarthria Difficulty in talking; the studies do not distinguish between language impairment and difficulty in talking
Behavioral difficulties Parents report difficulty in controlling behavior of the child. Child is aggressive and does not obey commands.
Severe learning difficulties Severe cognitive impairment as assessed by a clinician, manifesting as difficulty in understanding commands.
Visual impairment Cortical blindness i.e., unable to navigate through doors or pick up objects, but eyes are normal
Hearing impairment Does not appear to hear, does not turn towards sound
Cognitive impairment Scoring at least 2 standard deviations below the age-specific unexposed group mean or below the 2.0 centile of the unexposed group results for normally distributed and skewed data, respectively. Some tests have established a priori defined criteria for impairment
Language impairment As in cognitive impairment
Epilepsy Two or more seizures following discharge, unprovoked by fever

From: The Burden of the Neurocognitive Impairment Associated with Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa

Cover of The Intolerable Burden of Malaria II: What's New, What's Needed
The Intolerable Burden of Malaria II: What's New, What's Needed: Supplement to Volume 71(2) of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Breman JG, Alilio MS, Mills A, editors.
Copyright © 2004, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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