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MacLean CH, Mojica WA, Morton SC, et al. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Lipids and Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome and on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal Disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and Osteoporosis. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2004 Mar. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 89.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Lipids and Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome and on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal Disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and Osteoporosis

Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Lipids and Glycemic Control in Type II Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome and on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Renal Disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and Osteoporosis.

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Listing of Excluded Studies

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    15. Robinson D X L, Tateno S, Guo M, Colvin R. Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids. Journal of Lipid Research. 1993;34:1435–1444. [PubMed: 8409774]
    16. Shohat J, Boner G. Role of lipids in the progression of renal disease in chronic renal failure: evidence from animal studies and pathogenesis. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences. 1993;29:228–239. [PubMed: 8491578]
    17. Stiefel P, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Gajon E. et al. Sodium transport kinetics, cell membrane lipid composition, neural conduction and metabolic control in type 1 diabetic patients. Changes after a low-dose n-3 fatty acid dietary intervention. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 1999;43:113–120. [PubMed: 10436310]
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    Rejected Study Design Descriptive

    1. Anonymous II: International conference on the health effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafoods. Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung 1991;85:196-
    2. Anonymous Inflammatory bowel diseases: Medecine et Chirurgie Digestives 1991;20:365–371.
    3. Anonymous Something fishy for them joints? Hospitals & Health Networks 1995;69:12-
    4. American Diabetes Association: Evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and related complications. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;7: [PubMed: 11794490]
    5. Ballou S P. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Controversies in management. Postgraduate Medicine. 1987;81:157–164. [PubMed: 3295833]
    6. Barth C. Prognostic risk factors as an indication for the early treatment of IgA nephritis. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 2000;125:1009. [PubMed: 11004913]
    7. Benedek T. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: from cod-liver oil to cyclosporin. Lancet. 1998;352:901–902. [PubMed: 9743005]
    8. Cotton P. New approaches may aid patients with inflammatory bowel disease. JAMA. 1990;263:3121–3122. [PubMed: 2348514]
    9. Daniel H, Metzger B. The pathogenesis and therapy of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung. 1990;130:2461–2468.
    10. Das U N. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia: Are they secondary to an alteration in the metabolism of essential fatty acids? Medical Science Research. 1994;22:243–245.
    11. Donadio J V, Bergstralh E J, Offord K P, Holley K E, Spencer D C. Clinical and histopathologic associations with impaired renal function in IgA nephropathy. Mayo Nephrology Collaborative Group. Clinical Nephrology. 1994;41:65–71. [PubMed: 8004831]
    12. Ernst E. Complementary/alternative medicine in rheumatology-between negligence, ignorance and arrogance. Osteoarthritis & Cartilage. 2002;10:671–672. [PubMed: 12202118]
    13. Funk C. Current drug therapy of colitis. Ars Medici. 1990;80:466–473.
    14. Gassull M A. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory bowel diseases. Pediatrika. 1997;17:75–76.
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    16. Hart F, Karmali R, Birtwistle S, McEwen L. Dietary fatty acids and rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet. 1985;1:699–700. [PubMed: 2858647]
    17. Hogg R J. A randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial evaluating alternate-day prednisone and fish oil supplements in young patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 1995;26:792–796. [PubMed: 7485134]
    18. Howard W J. Is it time for a clinical trial of dietary fish oil supplementation in individuals with NIDDM? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1993;683:341–342. [PubMed: 8352457]
    19. Korelitz B I, Stenson W F, Cort D. et al. Fish oil supplementation in ulcerative colitis. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 1993;118:925.
    20. Kremer J: Omega-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis. Delaware.Medical Journal 1988:679–681. [PubMed: 2852607]
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    23. Lorenz-Meyer H, Purrmann J, Scheurlen C. et al. Ergebnisse der Studie zur Erhaltung der Remission bei Morbus Crohn mit o-3 FS bzw. einer kohlenhydratarmen Kost. Z Gastroenterol. 1992;30:654.
    24. Luostarinen R, Wallin R, Wibell L, Saldeen T. Vitamin E supplementation counteracts the fish oil-induced increase of blood glucose in humans. Nutrition Research. 1995;15:953–968.
    25. Petrie K J, Cundy T. Alternative medicine recommendations to patients with Type 2 diabetes visiting health product shops and pharmacies. Diabetic Medicine. 2002;19:1035. [PubMed: 12647848]
    26. Shanahan F, Targan S. Medical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Annual Review of Medicine. 1992;43:125–133. [PubMed: 1580577]
    27. Siguel E. Low- and high-fat, peptide-based diets in adolescents with active Crohn's disease. Journal of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition. 1997;21:304. [PubMed: 9323695]
    28. Singer P. Third International Congress on Essential Fatty Acids and Eicosanoids. Aktuelle Ernahrungsmedizin Klinik und Praxis. 1992;17:244–245.
    29. Stotland B R, Cirigliano M D, Lchtenstein G R. Medical therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. Hospital Practice. 1998;33:141–168. [PubMed: 9606359]

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    1. Anonymous Fish oil: Alternative Medicine Review 2000;5:576–580. [PubMed: 11134981]
    2. Anonymous Fish oil supplements: Geneesmiddelenbulletin 1999;33:37–42.
    3. Anonymous Fish oils in rheumatoid arthritis: Lancet 1987;2:720–721. [PubMed: 2888946]
    4. Anonymous Minerva: BMJ 1996;312:322-
    5. Anonymous Nonspecific immunosuppressive therapies still the mainstay for SLE: Drugs & Therapy Perspectives 1996;8:5–9.
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    7. Adam O. immun system: Rheumatism. Aktuelle Ernahrungsmedizin. 2002;27:245–249.
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    9. Albertazzi P, Coupland K. Is there a role in postmenopausal osteoporosis prevention? Maturitas. 2002;42:13–22. [PubMed: 12020975]
    10. Alexander J. Immunonutrition: The role of omega-3 fatty acids. Nutrition. 1998;14:627–633. [PubMed: 9684267]
    11. Anderson J W, Smith B M, Washnock C S. Cardiovascular and renal benefits of dry bean and soybean intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;70:464S–474S. [PubMed: 10479219]
    12. Andreani D, Di Mario U, Pozzilli P. Prediction, prevention, and early intervention in insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetes-Metabolism Reviews. 1991;7:61–77. [PubMed: 1935536]
    13. Angelin B, Palmblad J: Fish liver oil instead of pharmaceuticals? Lakartidningen 1988; [PubMed: 3199922]
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    18. Barrett P H, Watts G F. HDL kinetics, fish oils and diabetes. Atherosclerosis. 2001;159:243–244. [PubMed: 11689229]
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    27. Belluzzi A, Boschi S, Miglio F, et al: Long-chain fatty acids for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Essential fatty acids and eicosanoids. invited papers from the Fourth International Congress, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, July 20 24, 1997 1998;30:
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    29. Berry E M. Dietary fatty acids in the management of diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997;66:991S–997S. [PubMed: 9322579]
    30. Berry E M. Who's afraid of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids? Methodological considerations for assessing whether they are harmful. Nutrition Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2001;11:181–188. [PubMed: 11590994]
    31. Best J D, O'Neal D N. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: Current treatment recommendations. Drugs. 2000;59:1101–1111. [PubMed: 10852642]
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    35. Bilo H J, Homan van der Heide J J, Gans R O, Donker A J. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in chronic renal insufficiency. Nephron. 1991;57:385–393. [PubMed: 2046820]
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    37. Boucher B J. Inadequate vitamin D status: Does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrome ‘X’? British Journal of Nutrition. 1998;79:315–327. [PubMed: 9624222]
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    39. Burke A, Lichtenstein G R, Rombeau J L. Nutrition and ulcerative colitis. Baillieres Clinical Gastroenterology. 1997;11:153–174. [PubMed: 9192066]
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    41. Cabre Gelada I, Esteve Comas I. Polysaturated fatty acids and their metabolites in chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterologia y Hepatologia. 1995;18:515–525. [PubMed: 8548588]
    42. Calder J, Issenman R, Cawdron R. Health information provided by retail health food outlets. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. 2000;14:767–771. [PubMed: 11064312]
    43. Calder P C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity. Lipids. 2001;36:1007–1024. [PubMed: 11724453]
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    51. Campieri M, Gionchetti P, Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Miglioli M, Barbara L. Medical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 1992;8:663–675.
    52. Casellas F, Guarner F. Eicosanoids in inflammatory bowel disease. Therapeutic implications. Clinical Immunotherapeutics. 1996;6:333–340.
    53. Cathcart E S, Gonnerman W A, Leslie C A, Hayes K C. Dietary n-3 fatty acids and arthritis. Journal of Internal Medicine Supplement. 1989;225:217–223. [PubMed: 2468344]
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    57. Clarke S D. Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription: a mechanism to improve energy balance and insulin resistance. British Journal of Nutrition. 2000;83:S59–S66. [PubMed: 10889793]
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    64. Connor W E. Diabetes, fish oil, and vascular disease. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995;123:950–952. [PubMed: 7486492]
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    Rejected Inappropriate Study Design

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    115. Spannagl M, Drummer C, Froschl H. et al. Plasmatic factors of haemostasis remain essentially unchanged except for PAI activity during n-3 fatty acid intake in type I diabetes mellitus. Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis. 1991;2:259–265. [PubMed: 1832569]
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    118. Stacpoole P W, Alig J, Kilgore L L. et al. Lipodystrophic diabetes mellitus. Investigations of lipoprotein metabolism and the effects of omega-3 fatty acid administration in two patients. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental. 1988;37:944–951. [PubMed: 3050365]
    119. Stene L C, Ulriksen J, Magnus P, Joner G. Use of cod liver oil during pregnancy associated with lower risk of Type I diabetes in the offspring.[erratum appears in Diabetologia. Diabetologia. 2000;43:1093–1098. [PubMed: 11043854]
    120. Stenson W, Cort D, Beeken Wea A trial of fish oil supplemented diet in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 1990;98:A475.
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    122. Sulikowska B, Manitius J, owski T, ysiak W, Rutkowski B. The effect of therapy with small doses of mega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on renal reserve and metabolic disturbances in patients with primary IGA glomerulopathy. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej. 2002;108:753–760. [PubMed: 12476895]
    123. Takahashi R, Inoue J, Ito H, Hibino H. Evening primrose oil and fish oil in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids. 1993;49:569–571. [PubMed: 8415806]
    124. Tilvis R S, Rasi V, Viinikka L, Ylikorkala O, Miettinen T A. Effects of purified fish oil on platelet lipids and function in diabetic women. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1987;164:315–322. [PubMed: 3594918]
    125. Tobin A. Eicosapentaenoic acid in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gut. 1989;30:A1502.
    126. Tsujikawa T, Satoh J, Uda K. et al. Clinical importance of n-3 fatty acid-rich diet and nutritional education for the maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Journal of Gastroenterology. 2000;35:99–104. [PubMed: 10680664]
    127. van Dam R M, Rimm E B, Willett W C, Stampfer M J, Hu F B, van Dam R M. Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2002;136:201–209. [PubMed: 11827496]
    128. Vessby B, Karlstrom B, Boberg M, Lithell H, Berne C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids may impair blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine. 1992;9:126–133. [PubMed: 1563246]
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    131. Wijendran V, Bendel R B, Couch S C, Philipson E H, Cheruku S, Lammi-Keefe C J. Fetal erythrocyte phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids are altered in pregnancy complicated with gestational diabetes mellitus. Lipids. 2000;35:927–931. [PubMed: 10984116]
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    134. Zak A, Zeman M, Tvrzicka E, Stolba P. Effects of fish oils in patients with type 2 diabetes with associated dyslipidaemia. Casopis Lekaru Ceskych. 1996;135:354–359. [PubMed: 8706072]
    135. Zambon S, Friday K E, Childs M T, Fujimoto W Y, Bierman E L, Ensinck J W. Effect of glyburide and omega 3 fatty acid dietary supplements on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1992;56:447–454. [PubMed: 1636624]

    Rejected Duplicate

    1. Dunstan D W, Mori T A, Puddey I B. et al. A randomised, controlled study of the effects of aerobic exercise and dietary fish on coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in type 2 diabetics. Thrombosis & Haemostasis. 1999;81:367–372. [PubMed: 10102462]
    2. Fox J, Manitius J, Debska Slizien A, et al: Influence of omega-3 acids administration on plasma lipids, functional status of erythrocyte membrane and function of the kidney in patients with primary glomerulopathies. Przeglad Lekarski 1996;13:12, 858–1286113.
    3. Nielsen G, Faarvang K, Tomsen B, Teglbjaerg K, Ernst E: Effects of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on clinical disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 21.
    4. Tulleken J, Limburg P, Muskiet F, van Rijswijk M. Vitamin E status during dietary fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33:1416–9. [PubMed: 2206140]

    Rejected Unable to Find Translator

    1. Faarvang K L, Nielsen G L, Thomsen B S. et al. Fish oils and rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized and double-blind study. Ugeskrift for Laeger. 1994;156:3495–3498. [PubMed: 8066866]
    2. Shunto S, Takahashi K, Negishi K. et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on glycemic control and lipid metabolism in healthy and NIDDM subjects. Therapeutic Research. 1992;13:257–265.
    3. Skoldstam L, Berglund U, Eriksson A, Akesson B. A diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids is of no help in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lakartidningen. 1988;14:4411. [PubMed: 3059115]
    4. Vargova V. Will administration of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids reduce the use of nonsteroidal antirheumatic agents in children with chronic juvenile arthritis? Casopis.Lekaru.Ceskych. 1998;137:651–653. [PubMed: 9929929]

    Rejected No difference in Omega-3 Content

    1. Buonfantino M, Marano M, Di Nuzzi L, Iorio G, Iuliano P, Tufano L. Use of fatty polyunsaturated acids (Fish oil) in diabetic nephropathy: Results of a preliminary study. Rassegna Internazionale di Clinica e Terapia. 1995;75:264–267.
    2. Dichi I, Frenhane P, Dichi J. et al. Comparison of omega-3 fatty acids and sulfasalazine in ulcerative colitis. Nutrition. 2000;16:87–90. [PubMed: 10696629]
    3. Gassull M A, Fernandez-Banares F, Cabre E. et al. Fat composition may be a clue to explain the primary therapeutic effect of enteral nutrition in Crohn's disease. results of a double blind randomised multicentre European trial. Gut. 2002;51:164–168. [PMC free article: PMC1773299] [PubMed: 12117873]
    4. Haugen M A, Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Bjerve K S, Hostmark A T, Forre O. Changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acids and their relationship to disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with a vegetarian diet. British Journal of Nutrition. 1994;72:555–566. [PubMed: 7986787]
    5. Herrmann W, Biermann J, Ratzmann K P, Lindhofer H G. Effect of fish oil concentrate on the lipoprotein profile of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Medizinische Klinik. 1992;87:12–15. [PubMed: 1545765]
    6. Katsuyama H, Ideguchi S, Fukunaga M, Saijoh K, Sunami S. Usual dietary intake of fermented soybeans (Natto) is associated with bone mineral density in premenopausal women. Journal of Nutritional Science & Vitaminology. 2002;48(3):207–15. [PubMed: 12350079]
    7. Leiper K, Woolner J, Mullan M M C. et al. A randomised controlled trial of high versus low long chain triglyceride whole protein feed in active Crohn's disease. Gut. 2001;49:790–794. [PMC free article: PMC1728544] [PubMed: 11709513]
    8. Leventhal L J, Boyce E G, Zurier R B. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with blackcurrant seed oil. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1994;33:847–852. [PubMed: 8081671]
    9. Lopez-Espinoza I, Howard-Williams J, Mann J I, Carter R D, Hockaday T D. Fatty acid composition of platelet phospholipids in non-insulin-dependent diabetics randomized for dietary advice. British Journal of Nutrition. 1984;52:41–47. [PubMed: 6743640]
    10. Louheranta A M, Sarkkinen E S, Vidgren H M, Schwab U S, Uusitupa M I. Association of the fatty acid profile of serum lipids with glucose and insulin metabolism during 2 fat-modified diets in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;76:331–337. [PubMed: 12145003]
    11. Potter S, Baum J, Teng H, Stillman R J, Shay N, Erdman J. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:1375S–1379S. [PubMed: 9848502]
    12. Provenzano C, Vero R, Oliva A. et al. Lispro insulin in type 1 diabetic patients on a Mediterranean or normal diet: a randomized, cross-over comparative study with regular insulin. Diabetes, Nutrition & Metabolism - Clinical & Experimental. 2001;14:133–139. [PubMed: 11476360]
    13. Rodriguez-Villar C, Manzanares J M, Casals E. et al. High-monounsaturated fat, olive oil-rich diet has effects similar to a high-carbohydrate diet on fasting and postprandial state and metabolic profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes. Metabolism. Clinical & Experimental. 2000;49:1511–1517. [PubMed: 11145109]
    14. Sakurai T, Matsui T, Yao T. et al. Short-term efficacy of enteral nutrition in the treatment of active Crohn's disease: a randomized, controlled trial comparing nutrient formulas. Journal of Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition. 2002;26:98–103. [PubMed: 11871742]
    15. Summers L K, Fielding B A, Bradshaw H A. et al. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat changes abdominal fat distribution and improves insulin sensitivity. Diabetologia. 2002;45:369–377. [PubMed: 11914742]

    Rejected No Outcomes or Criteria of Interest

    1. Astorga G. Active rheumatoid arthritis: effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 oils. A controlled double-blind trial. Revista Medica de Chile. 1991;119:267–272. [PubMed: 1842119]
    2. Belluzzi A, Brignola C, Campieri M. et al. Effects of a new fish oil derivative on fatty acid phospholipid-membrane pattern in a group of Crohn's disease patients. Dig Dis Sci. 1994;39:2589–2594. [PubMed: 7995183]
    3. Dahlan W, Richelle M, Kulapongse S, Rossle C, Deckelbaum R J, Carpentier Y A. Effects of essential fatty acid contents of lipid emulsions on erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in patients on long-term parenteral nutrition. Clinical Nutrition. 1992;11:262–268. [PubMed: 16840007]
    4. Espersen G, Grunnet N, Lervang H. et al. Decreased interleukin-1 beta levels in plasma from rheumatoid arthritis patients after dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Clinical Rheumatology. 1992;11:393–395. [PubMed: 1458789]
    5. Hillier K. Human colon mucosa: effect of marine oils on lipid fatty acid composition and eicosanoid synthesis in inflammatory bowel disease. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1988;25:129P–30P.
    6. Hillier K, Jewell R, Dorrell L, Smith C. Incorporation of fatty acids from fish oil and olive oil into colonic mucosal lipids and effects upon eicosanoid synthesis in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1991;32:1151–1155. [PMC free article: PMC1379376] [PubMed: 1955170]
    7. Ikehata A, Hiwatashi N, Kinouchi Y. et al. Effect of intravenously infused eicosapentaenoic acid on the leukotriene generation in patients with active Crohn's disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1992;56:938–942. [PubMed: 1329484]
    8. Jantti J V, Vapaatalo H, Seppala E, Ruutsalo H M, Isomaki H. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with fish oil, selenium, vitamins A and E, and placebo. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. 1991;20:225.
    9. Rubin M, Moser A, Vaserberg N, et al: Structured triacylglycerol emulsion, containing both medium- and long-chain fatty acids, in long-term home parenteral nutrition: a double-blind randomized cross-over study. Nutrition 2000;23:2, 95–10023. [PubMed: 10696631]
    10. Woodman R J, Mori T A, Burke V. et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular function in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis. 2003;166:85–93. [PubMed: 12482554]

    Duplicate Reports of Same Trial

    1. Almallah Y, Ewen S, El Tahir A. et al. Distal proctocolitis and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs): the mucosal effect in situ. Journal of Clinical Immunology. 2000;20:68–76. [PubMed: 10798610]
    2. Chan D, Watts G, Barrett P, Beilin L, Redgrave T, Mori T. Regulatory effects of HMG CoA reductase inhibitor and fish oils on apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics in insulin-resistant obese male subjects with dyslipidemia. Diabetes. 2002;51:2377–2386. [PubMed: 12145148]
    3. Dunstan D, Mori T, Puddey I. et al. The independent and combined effects of aerobic exercise and dietary fish intake on serum lipids and glycemic control in NIDDM. A randomized controlled study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:913–921. [PubMed: 9167099]
    4. McVeigh G, Brennan G, Cohn J, Finkelstein S, Hayes R, Johnston G. Fish oil improves arterial compliance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis. 1994;14:1425–1429. [PubMed: 8068603]
    5. McVeigh G, Brennan G, Johnston G. et al. Dietary fish oil augments nitric oxide production or release in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 1993;36:33–38. [PubMed: 8436250]
    6. Mori T, Dunstan D, Burke V. et al. Effect of dietary fish and exercise training on urinary F2-isoprostane excretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Metabolism. Clinical & Experimental. 1999;48:1402–1408. [PubMed: 10582548]
    7. Nielsen G, Faarvang K, Tomsen B, Teglbjaerg K, Ernst E: Effects of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on clinical disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 21.
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