Evidence Table 9. Studies associating other correlates / outcomes with Failure to Thrive patients compared to healthy control subjects in developed countries Part I

Author, Year, UIDemographicsMaternal / household demographicsInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaDefinition of FTTStudy design
Pollitt, 1976 76109110Country: US FTT Ctrl Outpatient clinic, 12–60 mo, ht & wt < 3%, bw = 2500 gm, GA = 36 wks, nl birth, nonorganic, singleton, maternal ht = 154.5 cm & English-speaking abilityBirth complications, physical disability, genetic or organic retardation, brain damage, organic growth retardationBoston Growth Standards - ht & wt = 3rd percentileProspective cross-sectional
Setting: OutpatientMaternal1112Controls matched for age (± 3 mo), sex, race, ht & wt = 25%Weekly interviews for 7–11 sessions
FTT Ctrl educ(2)(1)
Mean age(SD)*Income
Male33(14)34(13) Gross69439541
Female39(14)39(15) annual(3444)(4768)
Mean ht† Per capita15572648
Male93(2)101(1)(725)(1517)
Female90(2)102(3)Health Insur: ND
Enrolled/Eval1919
% Male4747
Race: ND
* months, † centimeters
Mitchell, 1980 80166667Country: USMaternal educ: NDSee Definition of FTTOrganic cause of FTT, single anomalous low wt recorded, clinic registration by age 6 mo, < 3 visitsWt for age < 80% of nl up to age 24 moAmbidirectional longitudinal
Setting: Outpatient clinicIncome: NDControls: wt = 80% of nl, matched for age, sex, mother's age / marital status & family problems1 fwup at age 3 – 6 y
FTT Ctrl Health insur:
Age(y)2–52–5 FTT-53% Medicaid
Wt/ageNDND Ctrl-49% Medicaid
Ht/lengthNDND
Enrolled: cohort of 312
Evaluated30282
% Male36.751.8
% Black7070
Hack, 1982 82227864Country: US Gp1 Gp2 VLBW, < 1500g, divided into two groups: SGA < 2 SD or AGANDWt < 2 SD below mean for age @ term and/or @ 8 mo of ageProspective longitudinal
Setting-Recruitment: HospitalMaternalAssessments at age 40 wk & 8 mo
Follow-up: hospital/cliniceduc <HS1232
Gp1*Gp2†Income*2899
Mean age‡32(2.8)29(1.9)Health
Wt/age(g)1141(285)1197(206)InsurNDND
Length(cm)37.9(3.8)38(2.7)
Enrolled||NDND* Hollingshead Social Class 4 & 5
Evaluated38154
% Male4747
% Black5263
* SGA, † AGA, ‡ wks gestatin, || n = 204
Haynes, 1984 84233543Country: USMaternalConsecutive admissions for NOFTTND< 5 percentile or significant decline from birth wt percentilesProspective longitudinal
Setting: In & Out-patient educ Income* Controls - thriving non-hospitalized patients matched for age, sex, birth wt, & mother's age, ethnicity, number of living children1 assessment 6 mo after intake
Age: NDGp110379(0–750)
Wt/age: NDGp211372(0–950)
Ht/length: NDCtrl10362(0–1100)
FTT1* FTT2 Ctrl Helath insur: ND
Enrolled/Eval252525* @mo
% Race
Sp-Am M444444
Sp-Am F405252
White M364436
White F362428
Black M201220
Black F242420
% Male: ND
* std care & lay helath visitor intervention, † std care only; M=male; F=female
Sherrod, 1984 85026403Country: US NOFTT Ctrl NOFTT, abused, or neglectedNDWt gain fallen below 2/3 of Harvard 50th percentile on growth curveRetrospective longitudinal
Setting-Recruitment: Prenatal clinicMaternalControls - no hx of abuse, FTT, or neglect3 annual assessments
Follow-up: Pediatric cliniceduc10.311.2
NOFTT Ctrl Income*1313
Birthwt(g)30313054Health
Enrolled/Eval*3124Insur†NDND
Race-White10ND* # employed, † p < .05, ‡ p < .01
Black21ND
% Male: ND
* 4 arm study - Data for FTT & Ctrl only; abused or neglected cases excluded
Casey, 1985 84206364Country: US FTT Ctrl All pts referred for FTT evaluation, > 12 wks age, FTT as defined or wt % decreased > 2 SD over time, residence ≤ 30 miles of clinicOrganic illnessWeight < 3rd percentile for corrected ageProspective cross-sectional
Setting: Outpatient clinic or homeMaternalControl with normal growth, matched for age, race, sex, maternal education, household income, marital status, & crowdedness3 wk assessment from time of diagnosis
FTT Ctrl educ11.310.9
Age(mo)*16.416.9Income5,4516,188
Wt/age*72.5%94.5%Helath insur: ND
Ht/length*93.9%98.5%
Enrolled/Eval2323
% Male5757
Race:
% White2626
* At diagnosis
Hutcheson, 1993 94015754Country: US FTT Ctrl Age 8 – 24 mo, NOFTTCongenital disorder, chronic disease, < 37 wk gestation, SGAWt for age ≤ 5th percentile, or wt for ht ≤ 10th percentile, based on NCHSProspective cross-sectional
Setting: Primary care clinicMaternalControls matched for age, sex, race
FTT Ctrl educ*3870
Age(mo)15.1(5.2)14.9(5.1)Income†6470
Wt/age2.8363.17Helath insurNDND
Ht/age2363
Enrolled/Eval3434* % HS graduate
% Male6262† % receiving AFDC
Race: Black3232
Kelleher, 1993 93234174Country: US FTT Ctrl Gestation age ≤ 37 wks, birth wt ≤ 2500 g, FTTLive outside catchment area, D/C outside recruitment period, D/C or died within 48 hr, hospitalized > 60 d, oxygen support > 90 d, twin, triplet or quadruplet of ineligible child, maternal drug/ alcohol abuse, insufficient Eng skills, psychiatric hosp< 5th percentile for gestation corrected age based on NCHS, growth status on “wt curve below that recorded at last regular assessment visit.”Prospective longitudinal
Setting: Primary care clinicMaternalControls matched for - birth wt +/- 250 g, maternal education, maternal race, & infant sexFwup at ages 12, 24, 36 mo
FTT Ctrl educ* <HS40.638.1
GA(wk)*33.033.1 HS30.029.3
Wt(g)*16791845 Some col14.420.8
Enrolled: 842* ≥col grad15.011.8
Evaluated180591Income <10K38.634.5
% Male52.247.9 10–20K19.923.9
Race: % Black5053.8 >20K38.137.4
* At birthHealth insurNDND
* % HS graduate
Drotar, 1994 94308313Country: US FTT Ctrl Hospitalized for NOFTT, ages 1–9 mPhysical abuse, residence > 1 hr from hospital, bw < 1500 gmWt = 5th percentile based on NCHS, absence of disease, wt gain with inpatient tx, poor wt velocityProspective longitudinal
Setting: Inpatient with outpatient follow-upMaternal10.911.3Controls matched for age at intake, sex, race, birth order, gestational age, maternal educ & age, family income & size1 follow-up at 3 yrs
FTT Ctrl educ(2.0)(1.4)
Age(mo)*4.7(2.8)5.0(2.7)Income64147495
Wt/age:NDND(6669)(10721)
Ht/length:NDNDHealth Insur:ND
Enrolled4852Mean (SD)
Evaluated3139
Male23(74%)25(64%)
Race: Black17(55%)28(72%)
White14(45%)11(28%)
*Mean (SD), at enrollment
Skuse, 1994, 1995 94253258 96091265Country: UKMaternal education: NDDistrict-centered until 12 mo of age, singleton deliveries of 38–41 wks gestation≤ 3rd centile, no wt dataWt for age ≥ - 1.88 by 12 mo of age & sustained 3 mo (based on NCHS)Prosepective longitudinal
Setting: OutpatientIncome: income/welfare support FTT-16, Ctrl-11Control matched for sex, age, ethnic origin, bw within 300 g, ordinal position, SESAssessments at age 15 mo & 4y
FTT Ctrl Health insur: National healthcare
Mean age(SD)*14.6(1.4)14.2(1.4)
Wt/age†-2.07(.44).10(.96)
Ht/length†-1.27(.94).18(.73)
Enrolled4950
Evaluated4747
% Male4949
% Non-white4334
* Age in months † z score, p < .001
Puckering, 1995 95378341Country: UK FTT Ctrl From inner city population sample - Caucasian born in 1980 with longitudinal growth data from birth to 4 yearsPrematurity, congenital defects/ diseases affecting growth, no perinatal insultsHt & wt < 10% based on Tanner & Whitehouse growth chartsAmbidirectional cross-sectional
Setting: OutpatientMaternal15.615.6Controls matched for sex, gestational age ≥ 38 wks, & ethnic origin
FTT Ctrl educ*(1.4)(1.4)
Age(mo)48.9(1.8)48.2(0.8)Income†117
Wt/age*-2.01(0.6)-0.32(1.1)48%30%
Ht/length*-2.24(0.5)-0.6(0.9)Health insur:
Enrolled/Eval2323 Socialized medicine
% Male4848
Race: 100% White* Age leaving full-time education
* SDS, based on NCHS, p < .001† Income support/welfare
Wilensky, 1996 97022837Country: Israel FTT Ctrl FTT infants by review of records who have reached 15 months born in 1991Birth wt < 2500 gm, < 37 weeks, wt/ht ratio > 10 %, organic cause of FTTWt < 3% by NCHS for = 3 months prior to age 15 monthsAmbidirectional cross-sectional
Setting: Community pediatric clinicMaternal13.813.4Controls from same maternal & child health clinic matched for birth month, maternal educ, maternal age, parity, and infants' birth wt
FTT Ctrl educ*(1.62)(1.44)
Mean age(mo)*15/2015/20Income: AFDC 76%
Wt/ageNDNDHealth insur: ND
Ht/lengthNDND
Enrolled†551352* Mean (SD), based on record reiew of potential subjects
Evaluated5050
% MaleNDND
Race: ND;
Maternal country of birth - 68% Israel, 25% Europe/America, 5% N Africa, 2% Asia
* At entry / assessment
Drewett, 1999 99284054Country: UK FTT Ctrl At least 1 wt at age 0–2 mo & 2 subsequent wts, thrive index < 5th centile = 2 occasions between 3–18 moNDLowest 5% for change of SD score; avg taken of SD scores for all wt bet 0–2 mo, expected wt from 3–18 mo calculated for “thrive index”Ambidirectional longitudinal
Setting: Clinic / home visitsMaternal educ*7266Controls - at least 1 wt at age 0–2 mo & 2 subsequent wts, no thrive index < 10th centile, age ± 1 mo, similar/same residential area or GP practiceFive years from enrollment of 1 y old cases
FTT Ctrl
Age(y)8.12(0.62)8.10(0.57)Income: NA
Wt(kg)*23.827.9Health insur: National healthcare
BMI*14.916.3
Enrolled136136
Evaluated†107/111117/122* % left school at 16 y
% Male‡4038
%White‡9191
* Median, † Psychological / anthropometric evaluation, ‡ FTT = 107, Ctrl = 117
Wright, 2000 20161504Country: UKMaternal educ: NDBaseline wt at 6–8 wk & 2nd wt at 9–18 mo2nd twin siblingWeight decline of 1.26 SD from age 6–8 wks to 2nd weighing at 9–18 monthsProspective cross-sectional
Setting: OutpatientIncome: NDControls from 3 “generally representative” of Newcastle
FTT Ctrl FTT* Ctrl*
Median age*15.1NDUnemployed parent3913
range(7–28 m)(16–18 m)
Wt/age-2.00(.93)NDNonhome-owner54.753.6
Ht/length-1.06(.96)ND
Enrolled12040No car48.350
Evaluated9728Health insur: National healthcare
% Male5461
% Nonwhite90* Percent

From: Evidence Tables

Cover of Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Failure to Thrive
Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Failure to Thrive.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 72.
Perrin EC, Frank DA, Cole CH, et al.

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