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Norris SL, Kansagara D, Bougatsos C, et al. Screening for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Update of 2003 Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2008 Jun. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 61.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Screening for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Update of 2003 Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Screening for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Update of 2003 Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].

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Appendix C Detailed Methods

Appendix C1. Literature Search Strategies

Adverse Effects - Overall

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

Search Strategy:

1.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

2.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

3.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

6.

4 and 5

7.

(adverse effect$ or harm or harmed or harming or harms or iatrogen$ or nosocom$ or drug interaction$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

8.

((Diagnos$ adj5 (Error$ or mistak$)) or (false$ adj3 (positiv$ or negativ$)) or (observer$ adj variation$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

9.

(prejudic$ or bias$ or stigma$ or discriminat$ or unfair$ or illegal$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

10.

((Stress$ or tension$) adj5 (Psychologic$ or emotion$ or mental$ or family or families or interpersonal$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

11.

(((Life or living) adj3 (Chang$ or style$)) or lifestyl$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

12.

7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11

13.

4 and 12

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Search Strategy:

1.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text])

2.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

3.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

6.

4 and 5

7.

(adverse effect$ or harm or harmed or harming or harms or iatrogen$ or nosocom$ or drug interaction$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

8.

((Diagnos$ adj5 (Error$ or mistak$)) or (false$ adj3 (positiv$ or negativ$)) or (observer$ adj variation$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

9.

(prejudic$ or bias$ or stigma$ or discriminat$ or unfair$ or illegal$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

10.

((Stress$ or tension$) adj5 (Psychologic$ or emotion$ or mental$ or family or families or interpersonal$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

11.

(((Life or living) adj3 (Chang$ or style$)) or lifestyl$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

12.

7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11

13.

4 and 12

Database: EBM Reviews - Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects

Search Strategy:

1.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

2.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

3.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

6.

4 and 5

7.

(adverse effect$ or harm or harmed or harming or harms or iatrogen$ or nosocom$ or drug interaction$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords])

8.

((Diagnos$ adj5 (Error$ or mistak$)) or (false$ adj3 (positiv$ or negativ$)) or (observer$ adj variation$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

9.

(prejudic$ or bias$ or stigma$ or discriminat$ or unfair$ or illegal$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

10.

((Stress$ or tension$) adj5 (Psychologic$ or emotion$ or mental$ or family or families or interpersonal$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

11.

(((Life or living) adj3 (Chang$ or style$)) or lifestyl$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

12.

7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11

13.

4 and 12

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/

2.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

5.

1 or 2 or 3 or 4

6.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7.

5 and 6

8.

(200109$ or 20011$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$).ed.

9.

7 and 8

10.

limit 9 to (humans and english language

11.

(adverse effect$ or harm or iatrogen$ or nosocom$ or drug interaction$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

12.

exp Diagnostic Errors/

13.

(prejudic$ or stigma$ or discriminat$ or unfair$ or illegal$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word

14.

exp Stress, Psychological/

15.

exp Life Change Events/

16.

11 or 12 or 13 or 14 or 15

17.

5 and 16

18.

8 and 17

19.

limit 18 to english language

20.

limit 19 to humans

Adverse Effects of Treatment - Systematic Reviews

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Hypoglycemic Agents/ae, po, ct, to [Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Toxicity]

2.

exp Sulfonylurea Compounds/ae, po, ct, to [Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Toxicity]

3.

exp Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/ae, po, ct, to [Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Toxicity]

4.

exp Receptors, Angiotensin/ai [Antagonists & Inhibitors]

5.

(ae or po or to or ct).fs.

6.

(adverse effect$ or poison$ or toxic$ or contraindicat$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7.

5 or 6

8.

4 and 7

9.

exp Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/ae, po, ct, to

10.

8 or 9

11.

exp Calcium Channel Blockers/ae, po, ct, to [Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Toxicity]

12.

exp Thiazides/ae, ct [Adverse Effects, Contraindications]

13.

exp Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/ae, po, ct, to [Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Toxicity]

14.

orlistat.mp.

15.

7 and 14

16.

exp Insulin/ae, po, ct, to [Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Toxicity]

17.

exp Aspirin/ae, po, ct, to [Adverse Effects, Poisoning, Contraindications, Toxicity]

18.

1 or 2 or 3 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 15 or 16 or 17

19.

(systematic$ adj review$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

20.

(data adj synthesis).tw.

21.

(published adj studies).ab.

22.

(data adj extraction).ab.

23.

meta-analysis/

24.

(meta-analy$ or metaanaly$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

25.

19 or 20 or 21 or 22 or 23 or 24

26.

comment.pt.

27.

letter.pt.

28.

editorial.pt.

29.

Animals/

30.

Humans/

31.

29 not (29 and 30)

32.

18 not 31

33.

32 and (19 or 20 or 21 or 22 or 23 or 24)

34.

limit 33 to yr=“2001 - 2007”

Hemoglobin Alc

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

Search Strategy:

1.

((Diabet$ adj3 (type II or type 2 or non-insulin depend$)) or NIDDM or MODY).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

exp Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/

6.

(hba 1c or a 1c or a1c).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

7.

((glycat$ or glycosyl$) adj7 (hemoglobin$ or hgb or red blood cell$ or rbc$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

8.

5 or 6 or 7

9.

4 and 8

10.

((Diagnos$ adj5 (Error$ or mistake$)) or (false$ adj3 (positiv$ or negativ$)) or (observer$ adj3 variation$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

11.

(sensitivity adj2 specificity).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

12.

(Reproduc$ adj5 (Result$ or outcome$ or reading$ or value$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

13.

(accura$ or reliab$ or prevalen$ or yield$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

14.

10 or 11 or 12 or 13

15.

exp Mass Screening/

16.

(screen$ or diagnos$ or test$ or detect$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

17.

15 or 16

18.

9 and 17

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Search Strategy:

1.

((Diabet$ adj3 (type II or type 2 or non-insulin depend$)) or NIDDM or MODY).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

[exp Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/]

6.

(hba 1c or a 1c or a1c).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

7.

((glycat$ or glycosyl$) adj7 (hemoglobin$ or hgb or red blood cell$ or rbc$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

8.

5 or 6 or 7

9.

4 and 8

10.

((Diagnos$ adj5 (Error$ or mistake$)) or (false$ adj3 (positiv$ or negativ$)) or (observer$ adj3 variation$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

11.

(sensitivity adj2 specificity).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

12.

(Reproduc$ adj5 (Result$ or outcome$ or reading$ or value$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

13.

(accura$ or reliab$ or prevalen$ or yield$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

14.

10 or 11 or 12 or 13

15.

[exp Mass Screening/]

16.

(screen$ or diagnos$ or test$ or detect$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

17.

15 or 16

18.

9 and 17

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Diabetes Mellitus, type II/

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

exp Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated/

6.

a1c.mp.

7.

(glycosyl$ adj7 (hemoglobin$ or hgb or red blood cell$ or rbc$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

8.

5 or 6 or 7

9.

4 and 8

10.

(systematic adj review$).tw.

11.

(data adj synthesis).tw.

12.

(published adj studies).ab.

13.

(data adj extraction).ab.

14.

meta-analysis/

15.

comment.pt.

16.

letter.pt.

17.

editorial.pt.

18.

animal/

19.

human/

20.

18 not (18 and 19)

21.

9 not (15 or 16 or 17 or 20)

22.

21 and (10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14)

23.

(200109$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$ or 2007$).ed.

24.

22 and 23

Screening

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

Search Strategy:

1.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

2.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

3.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

6.

4 and 5

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Search Strategy:

1.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

2.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

3.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

6.

4 and 5

Database: EBM Reviews - Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects

Search Strategy:

1.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

2.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords] (0)

3.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

6.

4 and 5

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/

2.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word

5.

1 or 2 or 3 or 4

6.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7.

5 and 6

8.

(200109$ or 20011$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$).ed.

9.

7 and 8

10.

limit 9 to (humans and english language

11.

limit 10 to yr=“2004 - 2007”

12.

(200109$ or 20011$ or 2002$ or 2003$).ed.

13.

9 and 12

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/

2.

((fasting glucose or glucose tolerance) adj3 impair$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4.

((type 2 or type II or non-insulin dependent) adj3 diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

5.

1 or 2 or 3 or 4

6.

(screen$ or diagnos$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7.

5 and 6

8.

(200109$ or 20011$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$).ed.

9.

7 and 8

10.

limit 9 to (humans and english language)

11.

limit 10 to yr=“2004 - 2007”

Treatment

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

Search Strategy:

1.

((Diabet$ adj3 (type II or type 2 or non-insulin depend$)) or MODY or NIDDM).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

Hypoglycemic Agent$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

6.

Glipizide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

7.

Glyburide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

8.

Glimepiride.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

9.

Metformin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

10.

Rosiglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

11.

Pioglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

12.

Repaglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

13.

Nateglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

14.

Acarbose.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

15.

6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14

16.

5 or 15

17.

4 and 16

18.

(Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor$ or ace inhibitor$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

19.

(Angiotensin adj3 (block$ or antagon$ or receptor$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

20.

(Calcium Channel$ adj3 (antagon$ or Block$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

21.

(antihypertensi$ or anti-hypertensi$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

22.

18 or 19 or 20 or 21

23.

4 and 22

24.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductase$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

25.

Lovastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

26.

Pravastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

27.

Fluvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

28.

Atorvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

29.

Rosuvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

30.

25 or 26 or 27 or 28 or 29

31.

24 or 30

32.

4 and 31

33.

Antilipemic$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

34.

Gemfibrozil.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

35.

Fenofibrate.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

36.

Nicotinic Acid.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

37.

Cholestyramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword])

38.

Colestipol.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

39.

Colesevelam.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

40.

Ezetimibe.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

41.

34 or 35 or 36 or 37 or 38 or 39 or 40

42.

33 or 41

43.

4 and 42

44.

Aspirin.mp.

45.

4 and 44

46.

(Life Style$ or lifestyle$ or ((living or live or lived) adj5 style$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

47.

4 and 46

48.

Exercis$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

49.

(tai chi or tai ji or relaxation or walk$ or yoga or jog or jogging).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword

50.

(Physical$ adj3 (Fitness or fit)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

51.

48 or 49 or 50

52.

4 and 51

53.

((Gastric or stomach) adj3 Bypass$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

54.

gastroplast$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

55.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (surger$ or surgic$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

56.

53 or 54 or 55

57.

4 and 56

58.

anti-obesity agent$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

59.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (drug$ or pharmaco$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

60.

orlistat.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

61.

sibutramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

62.

fluoxetine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

63.

58 or 59 or 60 or 61 or 62

64.

4 and 63

65.

Counsel$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

66.

4 and 65

67.

(Patient$ adj3 (Educat$ or inform$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

68.

4 and 67

69.

footcare.mp.

70.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (care or cares or caring or cared)).mp.

71.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (disease$ or ulcer$ or sore$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

72.

69 or 70 or 71

73.

4 and 72

74.

17 or 23 or 32 or 43 or 45 or 47 or 52 or 57 or 64 or 66 or 68 or 73

75.

limit 74 to yr=“2001 - 2007”

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials

Search Strategy:

1.

((Diabet$ adj3 (type II or type 2 or non-insulin depend$)) or MODY or NIDDM).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

Hypoglycemic Agent$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

6.

Glipizide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

7.

Glyburide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

8.

Glimepiride.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

9.

Metformin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

10.

Rosiglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

11.

Pioglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

12.

Repaglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

13.

Nateglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

14.

Acarbose.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

15.

6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14

16.

5 or 15

17.

4 and 16

18.

(Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor$ or ace inhibitor$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

19.

(Angiotensin adj3 (block$ or antagon$ or receptor$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

20.

(Calcium Channel$ adj3 (antagon$ or Block$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

21.

(antihypertensi$ or anti-hypertensi$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

22.

18 or 19 or 20 or 21

23.

4 and 22

24.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductase$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

25.

Lovastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

26.

Pravastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

27.

Fluvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

28.

Atorvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

29.

Rosuvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

30.

25 or 26 or 27 or 28 or 29

31.

24 or 30

32.

4 and 31

33.

Antilipemic$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

34.

Gemfibrozil.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

35.

Fenofibrate.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

36.

Nicotinic Acid.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

37.

Cholestyramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

38.

Colestipol.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

39.

Colesevelam.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

40.

Ezetimibe.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

41.

34 or 35 or 36 or 37 or 38 or 39 or 40

42.

33 or 41

43.

4 and 42

44.

Aspirin.mp.

45.

4 and 44

46.

(Life Style$ or lifestyle$ or ((living or live or lived) adj5 style$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

47.

4 and 46

48.

Exercis$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

49.

(tai chi or tai ji or relaxation or walk$ or yoga or jog or jogging).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

50.

(Physical$ adj3 (Fitness or fit)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword])

51.

48 or 49 or 50

52.

4 and 51

53.

((Gastric or stomach) adj3 Bypass$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

54.

gastroplast$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

55.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (surger$ or surgic$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

56.

53 or 54 or 55

57.

4 and 56

58.

anti-obesity agent$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

59.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (drug$ or pharmaco$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

60.

orlistat.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

61.

sibutramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

62.

fluoxetine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

63.

58 or 59 or 60 or 61 or 62

64.

4 and 63

65.

Counsel$.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

66.

4 and 65

67.

(Patient$ adj3 (Educat$ or inform$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

68.

4 and 67

69.

footcare.mp.

70.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (care or cares or caring or cared)).mp.

71.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (disease$ or ulcer$ or sore$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, mesh headings, heading words, keyword]

72.

69 or 70 or 71

73.

4 and 72

74.

17 or 23 or 32 or 43 or 45 or 47 or 52 or 57 or 64 or 66 or 68 or 73

75.

limit 74 to yr=“2001 - 2007”

Database: EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Search Strategy:

1.

((Diabet$ adj3 (type II or type 2 or non-insulin depend$)) or MODY or NIDDM).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

Hypoglycemic Agent$.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

6.

Glipizide.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

7.

Glyburide.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

8.

Glimepiride.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

9.

Metformin.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

10.

Rosiglitazone.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

11.

Pioglitazone.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

12.

Repaglinide.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

13.

Nateglinide.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

14.

Acarbose.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

15.

6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14

16.

5 or 15

17.

4 and 16

18.

(Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor$ or ace inhibitor$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

19.

(Angiotensin adj3 (block$ or antagon$ or receptor$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

20.

(Calcium Channel$ adj3 (antagon$ or Block$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

21.

(antihypertensi$ or anti-hypertensi$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

22.

18 or 19 or 20 or 21

23.

4 and 22

24.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductase$.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

25.

Lovastatin.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

26.

Pravastatin.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

27.

Fluvastatin.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

28.

Atorvastatin.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

29.

Rosuvastatin.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

30.

25 or 26 or 27 or 28 or 29

31.

24 or 30

32.

4 and 31

33.

Antilipemic$.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

34.

Gemfibrozil.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

35.

Fenofibrate.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

36.

Nicotinic Acid.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

37.

Cholestyramine.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

38.

Colestipol.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

39.

Colesevelam.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

40.

Ezetimibe.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

41.

34 or 35 or 36 or 37 or 38 or 39 or 40

42.

33 or 41

43.

4 and 42

44.

Aspirin.mp.

45.

4 and 44

46.

(Life Style$ or lifestyle$ or ((living or live or lived) adj5 style$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

47.

4 and 46

48.

Exercis$.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

49.

(tai chi or tai ji or relaxation or walk$ or yoga or jog or jogging).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

50.

(Physical$ adj3 (Fitness or fit)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

51.

48 or 49 or 50

52.

4 and 51

53.

((Gastric or stomach) adj3 Bypass$).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

54.

gastroplast$.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

55.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (surger$ or surgic$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

56.

53 or 54 or 55

57.

4 and 56

58.

anti-obesity agent$.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

59.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (drug$ or pharmaco$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

60.

orlistat.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

61.

sibutramine.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

62.

fluoxetine.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

63.

58 or 59 or 60 or 61 or 62

64.

4 and 63

65.

Counsel$.mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

66.

4 and 65

67.

(Patient$ adj3 (Educat$ or inform$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

68.

4 and 67

69.

footcare.mp.

70.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (care or cares or caring or cared)).mp.

71.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (disease$ or ulcer$ or sore$)).mp. [mp=title, abstract, full text, keywords, caption text]

72.

69 or 70 or 71

73.

4 and 72

74.

17 or 23 or 32 or 43 or 45 or 47 or 52 or 57 or 64 or 66 or 68 or 73

Database: EBM Reviews - Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects

Search Strategy:

1.

((Diabet$ adj3 (type II or type 2 or non-insulin depend$)) or MODY or NIDDM).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

Hypoglycemic Agent$.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

6.

Glipizide.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

7.

Glyburide.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

8.

Glimepiride.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

9.

Metformin.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

10.

Rosiglitazone.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

11.

Pioglitazone.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

12.

Repaglinide.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

13.

Nateglinide.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

14.

Acarbose.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

15.

6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14

16.

5 or 15

17.

4 and 16

18.

(Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor$ or ace inhibitor$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

19.

(Angiotensin adj3 (block$ or antagon$ or receptor$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

20.

(Calcium Channel$ adj3 (antagon$ or Block$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords)

21.

(antihypertensi$ or anti-hypertensi$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

22.

18 or 19 or 20 or 21

23.

4 and 22

24.

Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductase$.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

25.

Lovastatin.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

26.

Pravastatin.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

27.

Fluvastatin.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

28.

Atorvastatin.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

29.

Rosuvastatin.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

30.

25 or 26 or 27 or 28 or 29

31.

24 or 30

32.

4 and 31

33.

Antilipemic$.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

34.

Gemfibrozil.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

35.

Fenofibrate.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

36.

Nicotinic Acid.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

37.

Cholestyramine.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

38.

Colestipol.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

39.

Colesevelam.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

40.

Ezetimibe.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

41.

34 or 35 or 36 or 37 or 38 or 39 or 40

42.

33 or 41

43.

4 and 42

44.

Aspirin.mp.

45.

4 and 44

46.

(Life Style$ or lifestyle$ or ((living or live or lived) adj5 style$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

47.

4 and 46

48.

Exercis$.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

49.

(tai chi or tai ji or relaxation or walk$ or yoga or jog or jogging).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

50.

(Physical$ adj3 (Fitness or fit)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

51.

48 or 49 or 50

52.

4 and 51

53.

((Gastric or stomach) adj3 Bypass$).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

54.

gastroplast$.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

55.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (surger$ or surgic$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

56.

53 or 54 or 55

57.

4 and 56

58.

anti-obesity agent$.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

59.

((obese or obesity) adj3 (drug$ or pharmaco$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

60.

orlistat.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

61.

sibutramine.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

62.

fluoxetine.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

63.

58 or 59 or 60 or 61 or 62

64.

4 and 63

65.

Counsel$.mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

66.

4 and 65

67.

(Patient$ adj3 (Educat$ or inform$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

68.

4 and 67

69.

footcare.mp.

70.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (care or cares or caring or cared)).mp.

71.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (disease$ or ulcer$ or sore$)).mp. [mp=title, full text, keywords]

72.

69 or 70 or 71

73.

4 and 72

74.

17 or 23 or 32 or 43 or 45 or 47 or 52 or 57 or 64 or 66 or 68 or 73

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Diabetes Mellitus, type II/

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

exp Hypoglycemic Agents/

6.

Glipizide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7.

Glyburide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

8.

Glimepiride.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

9.

Metformin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

10.

Rosiglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

11.

Pioglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

12.

Repaglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

13.

Nateglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

14.

Acarbose.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

15.

6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14

16.

5 or 15

17.

4 and 16

18.

exp Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/

19.

exp Angiotensin II/

20.

exp Receptors, Angiotensin/ai [Antagonists & Inhibitors]

21.

19 and 20

22.

exp Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Block

23.

21 or 22

24.

exp Calcium Channel Blockers/

25.

exp antihypertensive agents/

26.

18 or 23 or 24 or 25

27.

4 and 26

28.

exp Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/

29.

Lovastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

30.

Pravastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

31.

Fluvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

32.

Atorvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

33.

Rosuvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

34.

29 or 30 or 31 or 32 or 33

35.

28 or 34

36.

4 and 35

37.

exp Antilipemic Agents/

38.

Gemfibrozil.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

39.

Fenofibrate.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

40.

Nicotinic Acid.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

41.

Cholestyramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

42.

Colestipol.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

43.

Colesevelam.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

44.

Ezetimibe.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

45.

38 or 39 or 40 or 41 or 42 or 43 or 44

46.

37 or 45

47.

4 and 46

48.

exp Aspirin/

49.

4 and 48

50.

exp Life Style/

51.

4 and 50

52.

exp Exercise/ or exp Exercise Movement Techniques/

53.

exp Physical Fitness/

54.

52 or 53

55.

4 and 54

56.

exp Gastric Bypass/

57.

exp gastroplasty/

58.

exp obesity/su

59.

56 or 57 or 58

60.

4 and 59

61.

exp anti-obesity agents/

62.

exp obesity/dt

63.

orlistat.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

64.

sibutramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

65.

fluoxetine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

66.

61 or 62 or 63 or 64 or 65

67.

4 and 66

68.

exp Counseling/

69.

4 and 68

70.

exp Patient Education/

71.

4 and 70

72.

exp Foot Diseases/nu, pc, dh, dt, rh, su, tu [Nursing, Prevention & Control, Diet Therapy, Drug Therapy, Rehabilitation, Surgery, Therapeutic Use]

73.

footcare.mp.

74.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (care or cares or caring or cared)).mp.

75.

72 or 73 or 74

76.

4 and 75

77.

(200109$ or 20011$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$).ed.

78.

17 and 77

79.

27 and 77

80.

36 and 77

81.

47 not 36

82.

77 and 81

83.

49 and 77

84.

51 and 77

85.

55 and 77

86.

60 and 77

87.

67 and 77

88.

69 and 77

89.

71 and 77

90.

76 and 77

91.

randomized controlled trial.pt.

92.

controlled clinical trial.pt.

93.

randomized controlled trials/

94.

random allocation/

95.

double-blind method/

96.

single blind method/

97.

91 or 92 or 93 or 94 or 95 or 96

98.

animal/ not human/

99.

97 not 98

100.

clinical trial.pt.

101.

(clinic$ adj25 trial$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

102.

exp Clinical Trials/

103.

((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj (mask$ or blind$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

104.

exp Placebos/

105.

placebo$.mp.)

106.

random$.mp.

107.

Research Design/

108.

(latin adj square).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

109.

100 or 101 or 102 or 103 or 104 or 105 or 106 or 107 or 108

110.

109 not 98

111.

110 not 99

112.

99 or 111

113.

78 and 112

114.

79 and 112

115.

80 and 112

116.

82 and 112

117.

83 and 112

118.

84 and 112

119.

85 and 112

120.

86 and 112

121.

87 and 112

122.

88 and 112

123.

89 and 112

124.

90 and 112

125.

113 or 114 or 115 or 116 or 117 or 118 or 119 or 120 or 121 or 122 or 123 or 124

126.

limit 125 to english language

127.

limit 125 to abstracts

128.

126 or 127

129.

limit 128 to yr=“2001 - 2007”

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Diabetes Mellitus, type II/

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word])

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

exp Hypoglycemic Agents/

6.

Glipizide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7.

Glyburide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

8.

Glimepiride.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

9.

Metformin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

10.

Rosiglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

11.

Pioglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

12.

Repaglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

13.

Nateglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

14.

Acarbose.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

15.

6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14

16.

5 or 15

17.

4 and 16

18.

exp Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/

19.

exp Angiotensin II/

20.

exp Receptors, Angiotensin/ai [Antagonists & Inhibitors]

21.

19 and 20

22.

exp Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/

23.

21 or 22

24.

exp Calcium Channel Blockers/

25.

exp antihypertensive agents/

26.

18 or 23 or 24 or 25

27.

4 and 26

28.

exp Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/

29.

Lovastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

30.

Pravastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

31.

Fluvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

32.

Atorvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

33.

Rosuvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

34.

29 or 30 or 31 or 32 or 33

35.

28 or 34

36.

4 and 35

37.

exp Antilipemic Agents/

38.

Gemfibrozil.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

39.

Fenofibrate.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

40.

Nicotinic Acid.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

41.

Cholestyramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

42.

Colestipol.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

43.

Colesevelam.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

44.

Ezetimibe.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

45.

38 or 39 or 40 or 41 or 42 or 43 or 44

46.

37 or 45

47.

4 and 46

48.

exp Aspirin/

49.

4 and 48

50.

exp Life Style/

51.

4 and 50

52.

exp Exercise/ or exp Exercise Movement Techniques/

53.

exp Physical Fitness/

54.

52 or 53

55.

4 and 54

56.

exp Gastric Bypass/

57.

exp gastroplasty/

58.

exp obesity/su

59.

56 or 57 or 58

60.

4 and 59

61.

exp anti-obesity agents/

62.

exp obesity/dt

63.

orlistat.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

64.

sibutramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

65.

fluoxetine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

66.

61 or 62 or 63 or 64 or 65

67.

4 and 66

68.

exp Counseling/

69.

4 and 68

70.

exp Patient Education/

71.

4 and 70

72.

exp Foot Diseases/nu, pc, dh, dt, rh, su, tu [Nursing, Prevention & Control, Diet Therapy, Drug Therapy, Rehabilitation, Surgery, Therapeutic Use]

73.

footcare.mp.

74.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (care or cares or caring or cared)).mp.

75.

72 or 73 or 74

76.

4 and 75

77.

(200109$ or 20011$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$).ed.

78.

17 and 77

79.

27 and 77

80.

36 and 77

81.

47 not 36

82.

77 and 81

83.

49 and 77

84.

51 and 77

85.

55 and 77

86.

60 and 77

87.

67 and 77

88.

69 and 77

89.

71 and 77

90.

76 and 77

91.

randomized controlled trial.pt.

92.

controlled clinical trial.pt.

93.

randomized controlled trials/

94.

random allocation/

95.

double-blind method/

96.

single blind method/

97.

91 or 92 or 93 or 94 or 95 or 96

98.

animal/ not human/

99.

97 not 98

100.

clinical trial.pt.

101.

(clinic$ adj25 trial$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

102.

exp Clinical Trials/

103.

((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj (mask$ or blind$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word])

104.

exp Placebos/

105.

placebo$.mp.

106.

random$.mp.

107.

Research Design/

108.

(latin adj square).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

109.

100 or 101 or 102 or 103 or 104 or 105 or 106 or 107 or 108

110.

109 not 98

111.

110 not 99

112.

99 or 111

113.

78 and 112

114.

79 and 112

115.

80 and 112

116.

82 and 112

117.

83 and 112

118.

84 and 112

119.

85 and 112

120.

86 and 112

121.

87 and 112

122.

88 and 112

123.

89 and 112

124.

90 and 112

1.

125 113 or 114 or 115 or 116 or 117 or 118 or 119 or 120 or 121 or 122 or 123 or 124 126 limit 125 to english language

127.

limit 125 to abstracts

128.

126 or 127

129.

limit 128 to yr=“2001 - 2003”

130.

limit 128 to yr=“2004 - 2007”

Database: Ovid MEDLINE(R)

Search Strategy:

1.

exp Diabetes Mellitus, type II/

2.

(impair$ adj3 (fasting glucose or glucose tolerance)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

3.

(prediabet$ or pre-diabet$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

4.

1 or 2 or 3

5.

exp Hypoglycemic Agents/

6.

Glipizide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

7.

Glyburide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

8.

Glimepiride.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

9.

Metformin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

10.

Rosiglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

11.

Pioglitazone.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

12.

Repaglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

13.

Nateglinide.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

14.

Acarbose.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

15.

6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14

16.

5 or 15

17.

4 and 16

18.

exp Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/

19.

exp Angiotensin II/

20.

exp Receptors, Angiotensin/ai [Antagonists & Inhibitors]

21.

19 and 20

22.

exp Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/

23.

21 or 22

24.

exp Calcium Channel Blockers/

25.

exp antihypertensive agents/

26.

18 or 23 or 24 or 25

27.

4 and 26

28.

exp Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/

29.

Lovastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

30.

Pravastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

31.

Fluvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

32.

Atorvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

33.

Rosuvastatin.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

34.

29 or 30 or 31 or 32 or 33

35.

28 or 34

36.

4 and 35

37.

exp Antilipemic Agents/

38.

Gemfibrozil.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

39.

Fenofibrate.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word] (

40.

Nicotinic Acid.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

41.

Cholestyramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

42.

Colestipol.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

43.

Colesevelam.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

44.

Ezetimibe.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

45.

38 or 39 or 40 or 41 or 42 or 43 or 44

46.

37 or 45

47.

4 and 46

48.

exp Aspirin/

49.

4 and 48

50.

exp Life Style/

51.

4 and 50

52.

exp Exercise/ or exp Exercise Movement Techniques/

53.

exp Physical Fitness/

54.

52 or 53

55.

4 and 54

56.

exp Gastric Bypass/

57.

exp gastroplasty/

58.

exp obesity/su

59.

56 or 57 or 58

60.

4 and 59

61.

exp anti-obesity agents/

62.

exp obesity/dt

63.

orlistat.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

64.

sibutramine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

65.

fluoxetine.mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

66.

61 or 62 or 63 or 64 or 65

67.

4 and 66

68.

exp Counseling/

69.

4 and 68

70.

exp Patient Education/

71.

4 and 70

72.

exp Foot Diseases/nu, pc, dh, dt, rh, su, tu [Nursing, Prevention & Control, Diet Therapy, Drug Therapy, Rehabilitation, Surgery, Therapeutic Use]

73.

footcare.mp.

74.

((foot or feet or toe or toes or heel or plantar) adj5 (care or cares or caring or cared)).mp.

75.

72 or 73 or 74

76.

4 and 75

77.

(200109$ or 20011$ or 2002$ or 2003$ or 2004$ or 2005$ or 2006$).ed.

78.

17 and 77

79.

27 and 77

80.

36 and 77

81.

47 not 36

82.

77 and 81

83.

49 and 77

84.

51 and 77

85.

55 and 77

86.

60 and 77

87.

67 and 77

88.

69 and 77

89.

71 and 77

90.

76 and 77

91.

randomized controlled trial.pt.

92.

controlled clinical trial.pt.

93.

randomized controlled trials/

94.

random allocation/

95.

double-blind method/

96.

single blind method/

97.

91 or 92 or 93 or 94 or 95 or 96

98.

animal/ not human/

99.

97 not 98

100.

clinical trial.pt.

101.

(clinic$ adj25 trial$).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

102.

exp Clinical Trials/

103.

((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj (mask$ or blind$)).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

104.

exp Placebos/

105.

placebo$.mp.

106.

random$.mp.

107.

Research Design/

108.

(latin adj square).mp. [mp=title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word]

109.

100 or 101 or 102 or 103 or 104 or 105 or 106 or 107 or 10

110.

109 not 98

111.

110 not 99

112.

99 or 111

113.

78 and 112

114.

79 and 112

115.

80 and 112

116.

82 and 112

117.

83 and 112

118.

84 and 112

119.

85 and 112

120.

86 and 112

121.

87 and 112

122.

88 and 112

123.

89 and 112

124.

90 and 112

125.

113 or 114 or 115 or 116 or 117 or 118 or 119 or 120 or 121 or 122 or 123 or 124

126.

limit 125 to english language

127.

limit 125 to abstracts

128.

126 or 127

130.

limit 128 to yr=“2004 - 2007”

131.

128 not (129 or 130)

Appendix C2. Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria For Key Questions

Population

Study participants were aged 18 years or older with DM2 (type 2 diabetes) or prediabetes. Persons labeled as “non-insulin dependent diabetes” were assumed to have DM2. The acceptable diagnostic criteria for DM2 included those of the National Diabetes Data Group Standards,1 the World Health Organization,2, 3 or the American Diabetes Association.4 If the criteria for diagnosis of DM2 were not given in a study, the authors' statement of the diagnosis among participants was accepted.

Prediabetes was defined as either or both of IFG (impaired fasting glucose) or IGT (impaired glucose tolerance).5 IFG is defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 100 and <126 mg/dl and IGT as random glucose ≥ 140 and <200 mg/dl.5 The lower threshold for IFG was changed in 2003 from 110 mg/dl to 100 mg/dl;6 either definition was included in our review.

As the purpose of examining treatment interventions among persons with DM2 was to indirectly address the question of whether knowledge of the diagnosis of diabetes would change clinical management because effective interventions were available after diagnosis, we focused on intervention studies where the populations were either screen-detected or newly diagnosed (defined as a clinical diagnosis in the last 12 months). We felt that examination of persons with diabetes for short duration was important as the lower glycemic levels and rates of cardiovascular risk factors among these persons were more readily extrapolated to a screen-detected population. For intervention studies comparing DM2 to nondiabetic populations, we did not restrict duration of disease as we wanted to determine if there were any differences in treatment approaches between these two populations.

Setting

As in most USPSTF (US Preventive Services Task Force reviews),7 we focused on traditional primary care settings as well as other clinical settings where general populations obtain primary care (e.g., urgent care facilities, emergency rooms, nursing homes, work-site and school clinics, etc.). Interventions involved a variety of health care providers, including physicians, dieticians, nurses, and other ancillary staff. In-patient interventions and interventions delivered by specialty providers were, in general, excluded. However, large and important clinical trials that were delivered by specialists were included if we felt that the intervention could also be delivered in the primary care setting. We felt that such critical studies must be considered as part of the body of evidence upon which to make recommendations.

Study Design

For Key Questions examining direct evidence for screening programs and the adverse effects of screening (Key Questions #1 and #4), we included studies of any design as we anticipated a paucity of trial evidence and we wanted to examine as broad a literature as possible. We confined our review of intervention effectiveness (Key Questions #2 and #3) to RCTs (randomized controlled trials) and controlled clinical trials, the latter defined as studies where the investigator assigned exposure to the intervention in a non-randomized fashion. There is a large volume of literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of diabetes treatments and we therefore chose to limit our review of treatment interventions to study designs with the lowest inherent risk of bias.

We focused generally on placebo or usual care comparators, rather than active-control or head-to-head trials. Studies comparing one treatment approach to another among persons with DM2 do not inform the question of whether it is beneficial to have knowledge of whether a person has diabetes or not. For example, studies were excluded that compared one insulin regime to another. Similarly, diet and physical activity counseling interventions were excluded if they compared one type of diet or counseling approach to another. However, for studies comparing diabetic to nondiabetic populations, we also included head-to-head trials as they inform the question of whether persons with diabetes should be treated with different drugs than persons without diabetes.

Adverse effects of treatment (Key Question #5) were reviewed using data from included studies. For interventions that were considered by the authors to be potentially critically important to the decision-making process of the USPSTF, we looked for recent, fair- or high-quality systematic reviews on the adverse effects of these interventions.

Interventions

A variety of treatment interventions were examined in this review (Figure 2, the Analytic Framework) to address the question of whether knowledge of diabetes (either through screening or from clinical presentation) followed by appropriate treatment, would improve health outcomes. All interventions among persons with diabetes were subject to the inclusion criteria of disease duration (either screen-detected or duration ≤ 1 year), as discussed above. Person with prediabetes are, by definition, screen-detected, so no duration of disease was relevant for interventions among this population.

For populations with diabetes, we included interventions which focused on treatments for known risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (hyperlipidemia and hypertension), treatments optimizing glycemic control, the management and prevention of progression of potential diabetes complications (foot care, counseling for improved diet and physical activity levels), and health care system interventions that manage diabetes and related complications and comorbidities (disease management and multicomponent interventions at the system level). We excluded general diabetes education interventions, interventions focused on self-monitoring of blood glucose, interventions focused on optimal medication usage (most commonly insulin), and complementary and alternative medicines and approaches. These interventions were felt to be beyond the scope of the review, they primarily report intermediate outcomes, and their relationship to distal health outcomes is unclear.

For prediabetes, we included interventions which potentially diminish or delay the progression to diabetes, as well as interventions which minimize cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk factors, including both lifestyle interventions or pharmacotherapy.

Interventions focused on tight versus usual glycemic control in screen-detected DM2 populations or in persons with disease duration ≤ 1 year were included as these interventions indirectly inform the question of whether knowledge of diabetes will alter treatment and therefore improve outcomes. Therapy for different blood pressure and lipid targets were also included in screen-detected or recently diagnosed populations, for similar reasons.

Various comparisons were examined for DM2 treatment studies. We included studies which compared the treatment effect of an intervention in persons with screen-detected DM2 to the effect in persons with clinically-detected diabetes. Studies were also included which compared intervention effect or safety between persons with diabetes and normoglycemic populations. Such studies answer the question as to whether knowledge of diabetes will alter choice of treatment approach. Here we included studies where duration of diabetes was greater than one year or where duration was unknown, recognizing that some caution is needed in extrapolating from populations with longer duration diabetes to screen-detected persons. Comparisons of diabetic and nondiabetic populations across studies were not included in this review as it was considered too difficult to control for potential confounding across studies.

Combination therapy (where both the treatment and control groups received identical therapy [of one or more drugs] in addition to either the study drug or placebo) for glycemic control or for lipid and blood pressure management were also included if participants had diabetes for ≤ 1 year. When an additional drug for a new indication was added to an existing drug treatment regime (e.g., an antihypertensive drug for newly-diagnosed hypertension in a study population already using one or more hypoglycemic agents), these studies were also included, again subject to the inclusion criteria of diagnosis during the last 1 year.

Multicomponent health care system and clinical practice interventions aimed at the primary care setting were included, as long as they reported final health outcomes. In view of the large value of literature available, we used a recent, high-quality systematic review of quality improvement and disease management strategies, updating their literature search (dated April, 2006) using Shojania and colleagues' search strategy.8

Studies of diabetes and prediabetes treatments as well as studies of screening interventions that are in progress (i.e., final health outcomes data have not yet been published) at the time of our final searches are presented in tabulated form with the anticipated date of completion. These studies will include persons with diabetes of any duration, as awareness of these studies may be useful to the reader and duration data (if not an inclusion criteria) may not yet be available.

Outcomes

This review focuses primarily on final health outcomes (Figure 2, the Analytic Framework) as the USPSTF does not generally base recommendations on intermediate outcomes. For studies of persons with prediabetes, we examined the intermediate outcome of incidence of DM2, as this outcome is usually a primary one for these studies, and the important and emerging literature on treatment for prediabetes does not, for the most part, yet encompass long-term health outcomes.

The final health outcomes that we examined included cardiovascular morbidity, symptomatic neuropathy, non-healing ulcers, lower extremity amputations, stage IV (glomerular filtration rate 15–29 mg/min) and V (patients on renal replacement therapy or with a glomerular filtration rate of <15 ml/min) chronic kidney disease, severe visual impairment, mortality, and quality of life.

Mathematical Modeling

In the absence of direct evidence on the effectiveness of screening or treatment of newly-diagnosed DM2, researchers have applied mathematical models to attempt to answer these questions. Such models are useful to assess effectiveness and efficiency when trials are infeasible or long-term outcomes are not available.9 We searched systematically for publications examining the health outcomes of interest to us using models of either screening for DM2 or prediabetes, or treatment of newly-diagnosed DM2. We also consulted experts in the economics of diabetes screening to locate any additional studies.

References for Appendix C2

1.
National Diabetes Data Group. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes. 1979;28:1039–1057. [PubMed: 510803]
2.
World Health Organization. WHO Expert Committee on Diabetes Mellitus. World Health Organization Technical Report 1980.
3.
Alberti K, Zimmet P. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and it complications. Part I: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Med. 1998;15:539–553. [PubMed: 9686693]
4.
American Diabetes Association. Screening for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(Supp 1):S20–22.
5.
American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(Supp 1):S42–47. [PubMed: 17192378]
6.
Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P. et al. Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(11):3160–3167. [PubMed: 14578255]
7.
Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH. et al. Current methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(3 Suppl):21–35. [PubMed: 11306229]
8.
Shojania KG, Ranji SR, McDonald KM. et al. Effects of quality improvement strategies for type 2 diabetes on glycemic control: a meta-regression analysis. JAMA. 2006;296(4):427–440. [PubMed: 16868301]
9.
Glumer C, Yuyun M, Griffin S. et al. What determines the cost-effectiveness of diabetes screening? Diabetologia. 2006;49(7):1536–1544. [PubMed: 16752172]

Appendix C3. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Quality Rating Criteria For Rcts And Observational Studies*

DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY STUDIES

Criteria:

  • Screening test relevant, available for primary care, adequately described
  • Study uses a credible reference standard, performed regardless of test results
  • Reference standard interpreted independently of screening test
  • Handles indeterminate results in a reasonable manner
  • Spectrum of patients included in study
  • Sample size
  • Administration of reliable screening test

Definition of ratings based on above criteria:

Good: Evaluates relevant available screening test; uses a credible reference standard; interprets reference standard independently of screening test; reliability of test assessed; has few or handles indeterminate results in a reasonable manner; includes large number (more than 100) broad-spectrum patients with and without disease.

Fair: Evaluates relevant available screening test; uses reasonable although not best standard; interprets reference standard independent of screening test; moderate sample size (50 to 100 subjects) and a “medium” spectrum of patients.

Poor: Has important limitation such as: uses inappropriate reference standard; screening test improperly administered; biased ascertainment of reference standard; very small sample size of very narrow selected spectrum of patients.

RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS (RCTS) AND COHORT STUDIES

Criteria:

  • Initial assembly of comparable groups: RCTs—adequate randomization, including concealment and whether potential confounders were distributed equally among groups; cohort studies—consideration of potential confounders with either restriction or measurement for adjustment in the analysis; consideration of inception cohorts
  • Maintenance of comparable groups (includes attrition, cross-overs, adherence, contamination)
  • Important differential loss to follow-up or overall high loss to follow-up
  • Measurements: equal, reliable, and valid (includes masking of outcome assessment)
  • Clear definition of interventions
  • Important outcomes considered
  • Analysis: adjustment for potential confounders for cohort studies, or intension-to-treat analysis for RCTs

Definition of ratings based on above criteria:

Good: Meets all criteria: Comparable groups are assembled initially and maintained throughout the study (follow-up at least 80 percent); reliable and valid measurement instruments are used and applied equally to the groups; interventions are spelled out clearly; important outcomes are considered; and appropriate attention to confounders in analysis.

Fair: Studies will be graded “fair” if any or all of the following problems occur, without the important limitations noted in the “poor” category below: Generally comparable groups are assembled initially but some question remains whether some (although not major) differences occurred in follow-up; measurement instruments are acceptable (although not the best) and generally applied equally; some but not all important outcomes are considered; and some but not all potential confounders are accounted for.

Poor: Studies will be graded “poor” if any of the following major limitations exists: Groups assembled initially are not close to being comparable or maintained throughout the study; unreliable or invalid measurement instruments are used or not applied at all equally among groups (including not masking outcome assessment); and key confounders are given little or no attention.

CASE CONTROL STUDIES

Criteria:

  • Accurate ascertainment of cases
  • Nonbiased selection of cases/controls with exclusion criteria applied equally to both
  • Response rate
  • Diagnostic testing procedures applied equally to each group
  • Measurement of exposure accurate and applied equally to each group
  • Appropriate attention to potential confounding variable

Definition of ratings based on criteria above:

Good: Appropriate ascertainment of cases and nonbiased selection of case and control participants; exclusion criteria applied equally to cases and controls; response rate equal to or greater than 80 percent; diagnostic procedures and measurements accurate and applied equally to cases and controls; and appropriate attention to confounding variables.

Fair: Recent, relevant, without major apparent selection or diagnostic work-up bias but with response rate less than 80 percent or attention to some but not all important confounding variables.

Poor: Major selection or diagnostic work-up biases, response rates less than 50 percent, or inattention to confounding variables.

Appendix C4. Quality Rating Criteria For Systematic Reviews *

1.

Comprehensiveness of sources/search strategy used:

a.

Were search terms reported?

b.

Was the search comprehensive (Medline, search reference lists and/ or experts)?

c.

Were the search terms applicable?

2.

Standard appraisal of included studies:

a.

Were inclusion/exclusion criteria reported?

b.

Are criteria valid?

3.

Quality/validity assessment:

a.

Were criteria for validity/quality assessment explicit and applied to all studies?

b.

Were quality criteria appropriate (e.g. criteria appropriate for study design)?

4.

Analysis/synthesis:

a.

Were methods used to combine studies reported?

b.

Were studies that were combined similar to one another (e.g. appropriate to combine, similar patient populations etc)?

5.

Validity of conclusions:

a.

Were conclusions supported by the data?

6.

Recency and relevance:

a.

Is the study recent and relevant to scope?

7.

Application to practice:

a.

Are your patients largely different from patients in this study?

b.

Is this feasible in your setting?

Appendix C5. Expert Reviewers

Ann Albright, PhD, RD

Director, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Alison Avenell, MD, MB BS, MSc, BSc

Career Scientist, Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Scotland

Michael M. Engelgau, MD, MS

Senior Public Health Specialist, South Asia Human Development Unit, World Bank

Richard Kahn, PhD

Chief Scientific and Medical Officer, American Diabetes Association

Linda Kinsinger, MD, MPH

Director, VA National Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Leonard Pogach, MD, MBA

National Program Director, Diabetes VA New Jersey Health Care System

Diabetes Treatment Studies with a Duration of Diabetes > 1 Year

Appendix C6 Flow Diagram of Literature Evaluated for Inclusion

Image es-diabmelappC6f1.jpg

Appendix C7. Excluded Studies

Diabetes Treatment Studies with a Duration of Diabetes > 1 Year

  1. Aas AM, Bergstad I, Thorsby PM. et al. An intensified lifestyle intervention programme may be superior to insulin treatment in poorly controlled Type 2 diabetic patients on oral hypoglycaemic agents: results of a feasibility study. Diabet Med. 2005;22(3):316–322. [PubMed: 15717881]
  2. Abraira C, Duckworth W, McCarren M. et al. Design of the cooperative study on glycemic control and complications in diabetes mellitus type 2: Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial. J Diabetes Complications. 2003;17(6):314–322. [PubMed: 14583175]
  3. ADVANCE Collaborative Group. Rationale and design of the ADVANCE study: a randomised trial of blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN Modified-Release Controlled Evaluation. J Hypertens Suppl. 2001;19(4):S21–28. [PubMed: 11848259]
  4. ADVANCE Collaborative Group. ADVANCE—Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: patient recruitment and characteristics of the study population at baseline. Diabet Med. 2005;22(7):882–888. [PubMed: 15975103]
  5. ADVANCE Management Committee. Study rationale and design of ADVANCE: action in diabetes and vascular disease—preterax and diamicron MR controlled evaluation. Diabetologia. 2001;44(9):1118–1120. [PubMed: 11596665]
  6. Alexander CM, Lyle PA, Keane WF, et al. Losartan and the United States costs of end-stage renal disease by baseline albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. Kidney Int Suppl. 2004(92):S115–117. [PubMed: 15485403]
  7. Andersen S, Brochner-Mortensen J, Parving HH. et al. Kidney function during and after withdrawal of long-term irbesartan treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(12):3296–3302. [PubMed: 14633817]
  8. Ansquer JC, Foucher C, Rattier S. et al. Fenofibrate reduces progression to microalbuminuria over 3 years in a placebo-controlled study in type 2 diabetes: results from the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study (DAIS) Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(3):485–493. [PubMed: 15754270]
  9. Appel GB, Radhakrishnan J, Avram MM. et al. Analysis of metabolic parameters as predictors of risk in the RENAAL study. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(5):1402–1407. [PubMed: 12716796]
  10. Arredondo A, Burke TA, Carides GW. et al. The impact of losartan on the lifetime incidence of ESRD and costs in Mexico. Rev Invest Clin. 2005;57(3):399–405. [PubMed: 16187699]
  11. Atkins RC, Briganti EM, Lewis JB. et al. Proteinuria reduction and progression to renal failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and overt nephropathy. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;45(2):281–287. [PubMed: 15685505]
  12. Atli A, Dogra S. Zonisamide in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Pain Med. 2005;6(3):225–234. [PubMed: 15972086]
  13. Bailey CJ. Fenofibrate and cardiovascular risk: a synopsis and commentary on (FIELD) Diabet Med. 2006;23(2):109–112. [PubMed: 16433706]
  14. Bakris GL, Weir MR, Shanifar S. et al. Effects of blood pressure level on progression of diabetic nephropathy: results from the RENAAL study. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(13):1555–1565. [PubMed: 12860578]
  15. Barnett AH, Grant PJ, Hitman GA. et al. Rosiglitazone in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: an evaluation in British Indo-Asian patients. Diabet Med. 2003;20(5):387–393. [PubMed: 12752488]
  16. Bech P, Moses R, Gomis R. The effect of prandial glucose regulation with repaglinide on treatment satisfaction, wellbeing and health status in patients with pharmacotherapy naive Type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Qual Life Res. 2003;12(4):413–425. [PubMed: 12797714]
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Diabetes Treatment Studies with Unknown Duration

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Wrong Treatment/Intervention

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Wrong Outcome(s)

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  4. Aronoff S, Rosenblatt S, Braithwaite S. et al. Pioglitazone hydrochloride monotherapy improves glycemic control in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled dose-response study. The Pioglitazone 001 Study Group. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1605–1611. [PubMed: 11092281]
  5. Barnett AH, Anderson DM, Shelley S. et al. A placebo-controlled crossover study comparing the effects of nateglinide and glibenclamide on postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004;6(2):104–113. [PubMed: 14746575]
  6. Bennett SM, Agrawal A, Elasha H. et al. Rosiglitazone improves insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabet Med. 2004;21(5):415–422. [PubMed: 15089784]
  7. Berne C. the Orlistat Swedish Type 2 diabetes Study Group. A randomized study of orlistat in combination with a weight management programme in obese patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with metformin. Diabet Med. 2005;22(5):612–618. [PubMed: 15842517]
  8. Boule NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP. et al. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of Control Clin Trials. JAMA. 2001;286(10):1218–1227. [PubMed: 11559268]
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  10. Buse JB, Tan MH, Prince MJ. et al. The effects of oral anti-hyperglycaemic medications on serum lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004;6(2):133–156. [PubMed: 14746579]
  11. Carnevale Schianca GP, Rossi A, Sainaghi PP. et al. The significance of impaired fasting glucose versus impaired glucose tolerance: importance of insulin secretion and resistance. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(5):1333–1337. [PubMed: 12716784]
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  14. Chaturvedi N, Sjoelie AK, Svensson A. The DIabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT) Programme, rationale and study design. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2002;3(4):255–261. [PubMed: 12584669]
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Footnotes

*Reference: Harris RP, Helfand M, Woolf SH, et al. Current methods of the US Preventive Services Task Force: a review of the process. Am J Prev Med. 2001:20(3S);21–35.

*References: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The Guidelines Manual. London: Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2006.

Oxman AD, Guyatt GH. Validation of an index of the quality of review articles. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44:1271–8.

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