Table 6Randomized Controlled Trials ofLonger (Before 34 Weeks Gestation) Antiretroviral Regimens for Reduction of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Infection in Non-breastfeeding Women

Study, yearLocationInterventionsNumber in trial (mother-child pairs)Mother-to-child transmission rateCesarean section rateInternal validity rating
PACTG 076 (Connor et al, 1994)83 USA. Zidovudine from 14–34 weeks gestation, intrapartum and postpartum to infantA. 180A. 8.3%A. 41.6%GOOD
B. PlaceboB. 183B. 25.5%B. 33.7%
PACTG 316 (Dorenbaum et al, 2002)151 US, Europe, Brazil, and the BahamasA. Usual antiretroviral treatment + placeboA. 628A. 1.6%A. 53.1%GOOD
B. Usual antiretroviral treatment + nevirapine intrapartum + nevirapine to the newborn (77% on combination therapy)B. 642B. 1.4%B. 49.8%
Perinatal HIV Prevention Trial (Lallemant et al, 2004)152 ThailandA. Standard zidovudine + nevirapine intrapartum + nevirapine to the newbornA. 636A. 1.9%A. 19.2%GOOD
B. Standard zidovudine + nevirapine intrapartumB. 628B. 2.8%B. 22.5%
C. Standard zidovudineC. 316C. 6.3%C. 21.3%

HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; ZDV zidovudine.

From: 3, Results

Cover of Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Pregnant Women
Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Pregnant Women [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 39.
Chou R, Smits AK, Huffman LH, et al.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.