NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Cook D, Meade M, Guyatt G, et al. Criteria for Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2000 Nov. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 23.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Criteria for Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation

Criteria for Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation.

Show details


  1. Abalos A, Leibowitz AB, Distefano D, et al Myocardial ischemia during the weaning period. Am J Crit Care. 1992;1(3):32–6. [PubMed: 1307904]
  2. Abay G, Coruh T, Aykac Z, et al Intravenous clonidine administration during cardiac surgery: Effects on haemodynamic parameters and extubation time. Br J Anaesth. 1997;78(Suppl 2):–.
  3. Abdel-Hady H, Mohareb S, Khashaba M, et al Randomized controlled trial of discontinuation of nasal-CPAP in stable preterm infants breathing room air. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(1):82–7. [PubMed: 9510453]
  4. Abele-Horn M, Dauber A, Bauernfeind A, et al Decrease in nosocomial pneumonia in ventilated patients by selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(2):187–95. [PubMed: 9069004]
  5. Abraham E, Park YC, Covington P, Conrad SA, Schwartz M Liposomal prostaglandin E-1 in acute respiratory distress syndrome: A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(1):10–5. [PubMed: 8565513]
  6. Achauer BM, Mueller G, Vanderkam VM Prevention of accidental extubation in burn patients. Ann Plast Surg. 1997;38(3):280–2. [PubMed: 9088468]
  7. Adam SK Protocol directed weaning reduced time spent on mechanical ventilation [commentary on Kollef MH, Shapiro SD, Silver P, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of protocol-directed versus physician-directed weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 1997 Apr; 25: 567-74] Evidence Based Nurs. 1998;1(1):–. [PubMed: 9142019]
  8. Adderley RJ, Mullins GC When to extubate the croup patient: The "leak" test. Can J Anaesth. 1987;34(3 Pt 1):304–6. [PubMed: 3581402]
  9. Aerts JG, van den Berg, Bogaard JM Ventilator-CPAP with the Siemens Servo 900C compared with continuous flow-CPAP in intubated patients: Effect on work of breathing. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1997;25(5):487–92. [PubMed: 9352760]
  10. Aerdts SJ, van Dalen R, Clasener HL, et al Antibiotic prophylaxis of respiratory tract infection in mechanically ventilated patients: A prospective, blinded, randomized trial of the effect of a novel regimen. Chest. 1991;100(3):783–91. [PubMed: 1889273]
  11. Afessa B, Hogans L, Murphy R Predicting 3-day and 7-day outcomes of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1999;116:456–61. [PubMed: 10453876]
  12. Ahlstrom H, Jonson B, Svenningsen NW Continuous postive airways pressure treatment by a face chamber in idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1976;51(1):13–21. [PMC free article: PMC1545876] [PubMed: 782373]
  13. Ahmed Z, Mohyuddin Z Management of flail chest injury: Internal fixation versus endotracheal intubation and ventilation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;110(6):1676–80. [PubMed: 8523879]
  14. Ahonen J, Olkkola KT, Salmenpera M, et al Effect of diltiazem on midazolam and alfentanil disposition in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Anesthesiology. 1996;85(6):1246–52. [PubMed: 8968170]
  15. Al-Alaiyan S, Dyer D, Khan B Chest physiotherapy and post-extubation atelectasis in infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1996;21(4):227–30. [PubMed: 9121851]
  16. al-Saady NM, Blackmore CM, Bennett ED High fat, low carbohydrate, enteral feeding lowers PaCO2and reduces the period of ventilation in artificially ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med. 1989;15(5):290–5. [PubMed: 2504796]
  17. Albert DM, Mills RP, Fysh J, et al Endoscopic examination of the neonatal larynx at extubation: A prospective study of variables associated with laryngeal damage. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1990;20(3):203–12. [PubMed: 2089018]
  18. Alberti A, Gallo F, Fongaro A, et al P0.1 is a useful parameter in setting the level of pressure support ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(7):547–53. [PubMed: 7593895]
  19. Aldrich TK, Karpel JP, Uhrlass RM, et al Weaning from mechanical ventilation: Adjunctive use of inspiratory muscle resistive training. Crit Care Med. 1989;17(2):143–7. [PubMed: 2914446]
  20. Aleksi-Meskhishvili VV, Nikoliuk AP [The first experience with intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) in infants following cardiosurgery.] Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1981;1:25–8. [PubMed: 7011102]
  21. Alexander WA, Cooper JR Preoperative risk stratification identifies low-risk candidates for early extubation after aortocoronary bypass grafting. Tex Heart Inst J. 1996;23(4):267–9. [PMC free article: PMC325369] [PubMed: 8969025]
  22. Alonso Chico A, Rodriguez Faile JR, Pacheco JA, et al [Comparative study of recovery times and psychomotor function after anesthesia with desflurane or isoflurane.][Spanish] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1998;45(5):184–8. [PubMed: 9646667]
  23. Als H, Lawhon G, Duffy FH, et al Individualized developmental care for the very low-birth-weight preterm infant. Medical and neurofunctional effects. JAMA. 1994;272(11):853–8. [PubMed: 8078162]
  24. Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM, et al Beneficial effects of the "open lung approach" with low distending pressures in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A prospective randomized study on mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152(6 Pt 1):1835–46. [PubMed: 8520744]
  25. Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM, et al Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(6):347–54. [PubMed: 9449727]
  26. Amato M, Pasquier S, Carasso A, et al Postnatal thyroxine administration for idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Horm Res. 1988;29(1):27–30. [PubMed: 3397040]
  27. Ambrosino N Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Eur Respir J. 1996;9(4):795–807. [PubMed: 8726948]
  28. Ambrosino N Ventilation techniques: invasive versus noninvasive. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1994;49(6):513–5. [PubMed: 7711705]
  29. Amoateng-Adjepong Y, Jacob BK, Ahmad M, et al The effect of sepsis on breathing pattern and weaning outcomes in patients recovering from respiratory failure. Chest. 1997;112(2):472–7. [PubMed: 9266886]
  30. Anderson GJ, Tom LW, Wetmore RF, et al The anterior cricoid split: The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia experience. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1988;16(1):31–8. [PubMed: 3203984]
  31. Anderson J, O'Brien M Challenges for the future: The nurse's role in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 1995;11:1–5. [PubMed: 7711394]
  32. Andreasson B, Lindroth M, Svenningsen NW, et al Effects on respiration of CPAP immediately after extubation in the very preterm infant. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1988;4(4):213–8. [PubMed: 3292996]
  33. Anene O, Meert KL, Uy H, et al Dexamethasone for the prevention of postextubation airway obstruction: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(10):1666–9. [PubMed: 8874303]
  34. Angelillo VA, Bedi S, Durfee D, et al Effects of low and high carbohydrate feeding in ambulatory patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic hypercapnia. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:(6 (Pt 1) ):883–5. [PubMed: 3933397]
  35. Annat GJ, Viale JP, Dereymez CP, et al Oxygen cost of breathing and diaphragmatic pressure-time index. Measurement in patients with COPD during weaning with pressure support ventilation. Chest. 1990;98(2):411–4. [PubMed: 2198141]
  36. Annest SJ, Gottlieb M, Paloski WH, et al Detrimental effects of removing end-expiratory pressure prior to endotracheal extubation. Ann Surg. 1980;191(5):539–45. [PMC free article: PMC1344730] [PubMed: 6989330]
  37. Annibale DJ, Hulsey TC, Engstrom PC, et al Randomized, controlled trial of nasopharyngeal continuous positive airway pressure in the extubation of very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 1994;124(3):455–60. [PubMed: 8120721]
  38. Anzueto A, Andrade FH, Maxwell LC, et al Resistive breathing activates the glutathione redox cycle and impairs performance of rat diaphragm. J Appl Physiol. 1992;72(2):529–34. [PubMed: 1559928]
  39. Appendini L, Purro A, Patessio A, et al Partitioning of inspiratory muscle workload and pressure assistance in ventilator-dependent COPD patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(5):1301–9. [PubMed: 8912740]
  40. Armaganidis A, Dhainaut JF [Weaning from artificial respiration: value of continuous monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation]. [French] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1989;8(6):708–15. [PubMed: 2633669]
  41. Arnold C, Adams E, Torres E, et al Exosurf versus Survanta surfactant preparations: Proportional-hazards regression analysis of time to successful extubation and discontinuation of oxygen therapy. J Perinatol. 1996;16(1):9–14. [PubMed: 8869533]
  42. Arnon S, Grigg J, Silverman M Effectiveness of budesonide aerosol in ventilator-dependent preterm babies: A preliminary report. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1996;21(4):231–5. [PubMed: 9121852]
  43. Arola MK, Puhakka H, Makela P Healing of lesions caused by cuffed tracheostomy tubes and their late sequelae; a follow-up study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1980;24(3):169–77. [PubMed: 7445932]
  44. Arom KV, Emery RW, Petersen RJ, et al Cost-effectiveness and predictors of early extubation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;60(1):127–32. [PubMed: 7598574]
  45. Asai T, Koga K, Vaughan RS Respiratory complications associated with tracheal intubation and extubation. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(6):767–75. [PubMed: 9771306]
  46. Ashton MR, Postle AD, Smith DE, et al Surfactant phosphatidylcholine composition during dexamethasone treatment in chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child. 1994;71(2):F114–F117. [PMC free article: PMC1061095] [PubMed: 7979464]
  47. Ashutosh K Gradual vs abrupt weaning from respiratory support in acute respiratory failure and advanced chronic obstructive lung disease. South Med J. 1983;76:1244–8. [PubMed: 6623135]
  48. Ashutosh K, Lee H, Mohan CK, et al Prediction criteria for successful weaning from respiratory support: Statistical and connectionist analyses [published erratum appears in Crit Care Med 1994 Jan;22(1):183] Crit Care Med. 1992;20(9):1295–301. [PubMed: 1521445]
  49. Asuero de Lis MS, Rubial Alvarez M [The use of propofol in carotid surgery.][Spanish] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1997;44(4):144–9. [PubMed: 9244941]
  50. Atkins PM, Mion LC, Mendelson W, et al Characteristics and outcomes of patients who self-extubate from ventilatory support: A case-control study. Chest. 1997;112(5):1317–23. [PubMed: 9367475]
  51. Atkinson S, Sieffert E, Bihari D A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial of enteral immunonutrition in the critically ill. Guy's Hospital Intensive Care Group. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(7):1164–72. [PubMed: 9671364]
  52. Avery GB, Fletcher AB, Kaplan M, et al Controlled trial of dexamethasone in respirator-dependent infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1985;75(1):106–11. [PMC free article: PMC375534] [PubMed: 3880879]
  53. Bach A, Boehrer H, Schmidt H, et al Nosocomial sinusitis in ventilated patients. Nasotracheal versus orotracheal intubation. Anaesthesia. 1992;47(4):335–9. [PubMed: 1519688]
  54. Bach JR, Saporito LR Criteria for extubation and tracheostomy tube removal for patients with ventilatory failure. A different approach to weaning. Chest. 1996;110(6):1566–71. [PubMed: 8989078]
  55. Bagley PH, Cooney E A community-based regional ventilator weaning unit: Development and outcomes. Chest. 1997;111(4):1024–9. [PubMed: 9106584]
  56. Bagley PH, Davis SM, O'Shea M, et al Lung volume reduction surgery at a community hospital: Program development and outcomes. Chest. 1997;111(6):1552–159. [PubMed: 9187173]
  57. Bai CX, Xiu SF, Xu FP [The changes in blood gases, hemodynamics and oxygen delivery after weaning and the treatment of sodium nitroprusside in mechanically ventilated patients with cor pulmonale]. [Chinese] Chung-Hua Chieh Ho Ho Hu Hsi Tsa Chih. 1993;16(6):335–7, 373. [PubMed: 8033229]
  58. Bailey CR, Jones RM, Kelleher AA The role of continuous positive airway pressure during weaning from mechanical ventilation in cardiac surgical patients. Anaesthesia. 1995;50(8):677–81. [PubMed: 7645695]
  59. Baktai G, Szekely E, Marialigeti T, et al Use of midazolam ('Dormicum') and flumazenil ('Anexate') in paediatric bronchology. Curr Med Res Opin. 1992;12(9):552–9. [PubMed: 1582237]
  60. Bando K, Sun K, Binford RS, et al Determinants of longer duration of endotracheal intubation after adult cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63(4):1026–33. [PubMed: 9124900]
  61. Barash PG, Lescovich F, Katz JD, et al Early extubation following pediatric cardiothoracic operation: A viable aternative. Ann Thorac Surg. 1980;29(3):228–33. [PubMed: 7362311]
  62. Barbe F, Togores B, Rubi M, et al Noninvasive ventilatory support does not facilitate recovery from acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 1996;9(6):1240–5. [PubMed: 8804944]
  63. Barham NJ, Boomers OW, Sherry KM, et al Myocardial ischaemia during tracheal extubation in patients after cardiac surgery: An observational study. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(6):832–3. [PubMed: 9771316]
  64. Barlett RH, Niccole M, Tavis MJ, et al Acute management of the upper airway in facial burns and smoke inhalation. Arch Surg. 1976;111(7):744–9. [PubMed: 938221]
  65. Barnett MB Weaning patients from ventilators. Br J Clin Equipoise. 1980;5(4):151–3.
  66. Barr PA, Milliken ST Mechanical ventilation of infants with severe hyaline membrane disease in a regional newborn intensive care unit. Aust Paediatr J. 1980;16(2):83–9. [PubMed: 6893546]
  67. Barrachina F, Guardiola JJ, Ano T, et al Percutaneous dilatational cricothyroidotomy: Outcome with 44 consecutive patients. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(9):937–40. [PubMed: 8905429]
  68. Barrientos-Vega R, Mar Sanchez-Soria M, Morales-Garcia C, et al Prolonged sedation of critically ill patients with midazolam or propofol: impact on weaning and costs. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(1):33–40. [PubMed: 8989173]
  69. Barrington KJ, Finer NN A randomized, controlled trial of aminophylline in ventilatory weaning of premature infants. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(6):846–50. [PubMed: 8504651]
  70. Barrington KJ, Finer NN Treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: A review. Clin Perinatol. 1998;25(1):177–202. [PubMed: 9523082]
  71. Barrington KJ, Muttitt SC Randomized, controlled, blinded trial of doxapram for extubation of the very low birthweight infant. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(2):191–4. [PubMed: 9512207]
  72. Bartdome Benito M, Cervera Escario J, Ortega del Alamo P, et al [Surgical treatment of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis in children]. [Spanish] Cir Pediatr. 1995;8(4):135–8. [PubMed: 8679385]
  73. Barton DM, Burns SM, Fahey SA A microcomputer application for managing information used when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Comput Nurs. 1992;10(2):65–71. [PubMed: 1562901]
  74. Bassili H, Dietel M Effect of nutritional support on weaning patients off mechanical ventilators. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1981;5:–. [PubMed: 6787232]
  75. Battaglia JD, Lockhart CH Management of acute epiglottitis by nasotracheal intubation. Am J Dis Child. 1975;129(3):334–6. [PubMed: 1092153]
  76. Bauer J, Beedgen B, Bohler T, et al [Bronchopulmonary dysplasia - Retrospective analysis of various forms of treatments and development of a staged therapeutic plan.][German] Klin Padiatr. 1996;208(2):56–60. [PubMed: 8901183]
  77. Baugnee PE, Marquette CH, Ramon P, et al [Endoscopic treatment of post-intubation tracheal stenosis. A review of 58 cases.][French] Rev Mal Respirol. 1995;12(6):585–92. [PubMed: 8677352]
  78. Baumeister BL, el-Khatib M, Smith PG, et al Evaluation of predictors of weaning from mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1997;24(5):344–52. [PubMed: 9407568]
  79. Baxter AD, Laganiere S, Samson B, et al A comparison of lumbar epidural and intravenous fentanyl infusions for post-thoracotomy analgesia. Can J Anaesth. 1994;41(3):184–91. [PubMed: 8187254]
  80. Bayindir O, Askin D, Cakali E, et al A comparison of early and late extubation after open heart surgery. Turk Anesteziyol Reanim. 1990;18(4):257–9.
  81. Beaussier M, Deriaz H, Abdelahim Z, et al Comparative effects of desflurane and isoflurane on recovery after long lasting anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth. 1998;45(5 (Pt 1) ):429–34. [PubMed: 9598257]
  82. Belani KG, Gilmour IJ, McComb RC, et al Physical ventilatory weaning parameters in neonates and infants. Anesthesiology. 1933;51(3 Suppl):–.
  83. Belani KG, Gilmour IJ, McComb C, et al Preextubation ventilatory measurements in newborns and infants. Anesth Analg. 1980;59(7):467–72. [PubMed: 7190782]
  84. Bell J, Sartain J, Wilkinson GA, et al Propofol and fentanyl anaesthesia for patients with low cardiac output state undergoing cardiac surgery: Comparison with high-dose fentanyl anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 1994;73(2):162–6. [PubMed: 7917729]
  85. Benjamin PK, Thompson JE, O'Rourke PP Complications of mechanical ventilation in a children's hospital multidisciplinary intensive care unit. Respir Care. 1994;35(9):873–8. [PubMed: 10145335]
  86. Bergbom-Engberg I, Haljamae H A retrospective study of patients recall of respirator treatment (2): Nursing care factors and feelings of security/insecurity. Intensive Care Nurs. 1988;4(3):95–101. [PubMed: 3171150]
  87. Bergbom-Engberg I, Haljamae H Assessment of patients' experience of discomforts during respirator therapy. Crit Care Med. 1989;17(10):1068–72. [PubMed: 2791570]
  88. Bergbom-Engberg I, Hallenberg B, Wickstrom I, et al A retrospective study of patients' recall of respirator treatment (1): Study design and basic findings. Intensive Care Nurs. 1988;4(2):56–61. [PubMed: 3288693]
  89. Berkowitz RG Experience with anterior cricoid split for infantile subglottic stenosis. J Paediatr Child Health. 1994;30(4):345–9. [PubMed: 7946549]
  90. Bernstein G, Mannino FL, Heldt GP, et al Randomized multicenter trial comparing synchronized and conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates. J Pediatr. 1996;128(4):453–63. [PubMed: 8618177]
  91. Berry CB, Butler PJ, Myles PS Lung management during cardiopulmonary bypass: Is continuous positive airways pressure beneficial? Br J Anaesth. 1993;71(6):864–8. [PubMed: 8280555]
  92. Berry PD, Thomas SD, Mahon SP, et al Myocardial ischaemia after coronary artery bypass grafting: Early vs late extubation. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(1):20–5. [PubMed: 9505772]
  93. Betbese AJ, Perez M, Bak E, et al A prospective study of unplanned endotracheal extubation in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(7):1180–6. [PubMed: 9671366]
  94. Bhatt SB Esophageal balloon manometry and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(1):179–80. [PubMed: 8565529]
  95. Bhende MS, Thompson AE Evaluation of an end-tidal CO-2 detector during pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Pediatrics. 1995;95(3):395–9. [PMC free article: PMC161813] [PubMed: 7862479]
  96. Bhutani VK, Ritchie WG, Shaffer TH Acquired tracheomegaly in very preterm neonates Am J Dis Child 1986140(5)449–52.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 3962939]
  97. Biller HF, Harvey E, Bone RC, et al Laryngeal edema. An experimental study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1970;79(6):1084–7. [PubMed: 4992424]
  98. Bingham RM, Hatch DJ, Helms PJ Assisted ventilation and the Servo ventilator in infants. An assessment of three systems used for CPAP/IMV. Anaesthesia. 1986;41(2):168–72. [PubMed: 3513659]
  99. Birdi I, Regragui IA, Izzat MB, et al Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass temperature on pulmonary gas exchange after coronary artery operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;61(1):118–23. [PubMed: 8561535]
  100. Birdsall C, Barker K, Setti K Developing a teaching video on mechanical ventilation weaning to facilitate effective nursing research. J Cont in Ed uc Nurs. 1995;26(6):272–5. [PubMed: 7494074]
  101. Bizouarn P, Blanloeil Y, Billaud-Debarre C Right ventricular function during weaning from mechanical ventilation after coronary artery bypass grafting: effect of volume loading. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(12):1231–6. [PubMed: 9470078]
  102. Black AE, Hatch DJ, Nauth-Misir N Complications of nasotracheal intubation in neonates, infants and children: A review of 4 years' experience in a children's hospital. Br J Anaesth. 1990;65(4):461–7. [PubMed: 2248814]
  103. Blanch L, Joseph D, Fernandez R, et al Hemodynamic and gas exchange responses to inhalation of nitric oxide in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome and in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(1):51–7. [PubMed: 9037640]
  104. Blanch PB, Banner MJ Is tracheal pressure ventilator control comparable to an equivalent level of pressure support ventilation? Respir Care. 1997;42(11):1022–33.
  105. Blanchard N, Jezraoui P, Milazzo S, et al [Changes in intra-ocular pressure during anaesthesia with intratracheal intubation or laryngeal mask.][French] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1996;15(7):1008–12. [PubMed: 9180975]
  106. Bland RD, Kim MH, Light MJ, et al High frequency mechanical ventilation in severe hyaline membrane disease an alternative treatment? Crit Care Med. 1980;8(5):275–80. [PubMed: 6989552]
  107. Blosser SA, Stauffer JL Intubation of critically ill patients. Clin Chest Med. 1996;17(3):355–78. [PubMed: 8875001]
  108. Bobin S, Rheims D, Geoffray B, et al [Intubation or tracheotomy in severe subglottic laryngitis]. [French] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 1983;100(1):39–43. [PubMed: 6847058]
  109. Boeing MH, Mongera CO Powerlessness in critical care patients. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 1989;8(5):274–9. [PubMed: 2776616]
  110. Boix JH, Bataller A, Aznar O, et al [Acute respiratory failure in chronic obstructive lung disease. Effective weaning and excess base]. [Spanish] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1994;41(6):332–5. [PubMed: 7839001]
  111. Boix RJ, Tejeda AM, Alvarez CF, et al Extrathoracic high frequency oscillation ventilation in COPD. Med Intensiva. 1994;18(7):323–7.
  112. Boldt J, Muller M, Uphus D, et al Cardiorespiratory changes in patients undergoing pulmonary resection using different anesthetic management techniques. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1996;10(7):854–9. [PubMed: 8969390]
  113. Bone RC Acute respiratory failure and chronic obstructive lung disease: Recent advances. Med Clin North Am. 1981;65(3):563–78. [PubMed: 7242174]
  114. Bone RC, Eubanks DH Second- and third-generation ventilators: Sorting through available options. When, and for which patients, are special functions needed? J Crit Illn. 1994;(3):399–416. [PubMed: 10148162]
  115. Bongard F, Wu Y, Lee TS, et al Capnographic monitoring of extubated postoperative patients. J Investig Surg. 1994;7(3):259–64. [PubMed: 7918248]
  116. Bonten MJ, Bergmans DC, Stobberingh EE, et al Implementation of bronchoscopic techniques in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia to reduce antibiotic use. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(6):1820–4. [PubMed: 9412561]
  117. Bonten MJ, Gaillard CA, Van-der Hulst R, et al Intermittent enteral feeding: The influence on respiratory and digestive tract colonization in mechanically ventilated intensive-care-unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(2 (Pt 1) ):394–9. [PubMed: 8756812]
  118. Borman KR, Weigelt JA, Aurbakken CM Guidelines for weaning from positive end-expiratory pressure in ventilated patients. Am J Surg. 1986;152(6):687–90. [PubMed: 3538924]
  119. Bottiger BW, Soder M, Rauch H, et al Semicontinuous versus injectate cardiac output measurement in intensive care patients after cardiac surgery. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(4):312–8. [PubMed: 8708168]
  120. Bouachour G, Guiraud MP, Gouello JP, et al Gastric intramucosal pH: An indicator of weaning outcome from mechanical ventilation in COPD patients. Eur Respir J. 1996;9(9):1868–73. [PubMed: 8880104]
  121. Bouget J, Chevret S, Chastang C, et al Plasma exchange morbidity in Guillain-Barre syndrome: Results from the French prospective, double-blind, randomized, multicenter study. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(5):651–8. [PubMed: 8482086]
  122. Boulain T Unplanned extubations in the adult intensive care unit: A prospective multicenter study. Association des Reanimateurs du Centre-Ouest. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157(4 Pt 1):1131–7. [PubMed: 9563730]
  123. Boulanger BR, Gann DS Management of the trauma victim with pre-existing endocrine disease. Crit Care Clin. 1994;10(3):537–54. [PubMed: 7922737]
  124. Boulay K, Blanloeil Y, Bourveau M, et al Effects of oral ranitidine, famotidine and omeprazole on gastric volume and pH at induction and recovery from general anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 1994;73(4):475–8. [PubMed: 7999487]
  125. Bouley GH, Froman R, Shah H The experience of dyspnea during weaning. Heart Lung. 1992;21(5):471–6. [PubMed: 1399666]
  126. Boyd AD, Romita MC, Conlan AA, et al A clinical evaluation of cricothyroidotomy Surg Gynecol Obstet 1979149(3)365–8.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 472996]
  127. Boylan JF, Katz J, Kavanagh BP, et al Epidural bupivacaine-morphine analgesia versus patient-controlled analgesia following abdominal aortic surgery. Analgesic, respiratory, and myocardial effects. Anesthesiology. 1998;89(3):585–93. [PubMed: 9743393]
  128. Boysen PG Weaning from mechanical ventilation: Does technique make a difference? Respir Care. 1991;36:407–16.
  129. Breitenbucher A, Ershowski P, Krieger B Rapid shallow breathing as a predictor of weaning outcome in the elderly [abstract] Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;145:–.
  130. Bridges EJ Transition from ventilatory support: knowing when the patient is ready to wean. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1992;15(1):14–20. [PubMed: 1568152]
  131. Brimacombe J The advantages of the LMA over the tracheal tube or facemask: A meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth. 1995;42(11):1017–23. [PubMed: 8590490]
  132. Brimacombe JR, Berry A The incidence of aspiration associated with the laryngeal mask airway: A meta-analysis of published literature. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7(4):297–305. [PubMed: 7546756]
  133. Brochard L, Harf A, Lorino H, et al Inspiratory pressure support prevents diaphragmatic fatigue during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;139(2):513–21. [PubMed: 2643905]
  134. Brochard L, Rauss A, Benito S, et al Comparison of three methods of gradual withdrawal from ventilatory support during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150(4):896–903. [PubMed: 7921460]
  135. Brochard L, Rua F, Lorino H, et al Inspiratory pressure support compensates for the additional work of breathing caused by the endotracheal tube. Anesthesiology. 1991;75(5):739–45. [PubMed: 1952198]
  136. Brock WA, Nolan K, Nolan T Pragmatic science: Accelerating the improvement of critical care. New Horiz. 1998;6(1):61–8. [PubMed: 9508259]
  137. Brodner G, Pogatzki E, Van Aken H, et al A multimodal approach to control postoperative pathophysiology and rehabilitation in patients undergoing abdominothoracic esophagectomy. Anesth Analg. 1998;86(2):228–34. [PubMed: 9459224]
  138. Brooks-Brunn JA Commentary on evaluation of risk factors for laryngeal edema after tracheal extubation in adults and its prevention by dexamethasone [original article by Darmon J, et al. appears in Anesthesiology 1992; 77(2): 245-51] AACN Nurs Scan Crit Care. 1993;3(1):5–6.
  139. Broseghini C, Brandolese R, Poggi R, et al Respiratory mechanics during the first day of mechanical ventilation in patients with pulmonary edema and chronic airway obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988;138(2):355–61. [PubMed: 3195835]
  140. Brown BR Understanding mechanical ventilation: Indications for and initiation of therapy. J Okla State Med Assoc. 1994;87(8):353–7. [PubMed: 7931772]
  141. Brown BR Understanding mechanical ventilation: Patient monitoring, complications, and weaning. J Okla State Med Assoc. 1994;87(9):411–8. [PubMed: 7996315]
  142. Brown MS Prevention of accidental extubation in newborns Am J Dis Child 1988142(11)1240–3.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 3269711]
  143. Browne D Weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1984:10(2):55–8. [PubMed: 6371092]
  144. Browning IB, D'Alonzo GE, Tobin MJ Importance of respiratory rate as an indicator of respiratory dysfunction in patients with cystic fibrosis. Chest. 1990;97(6):1317–21. [PubMed: 2347215]
  145. Bruce RD, Stock MC, Tarras E, et al Does a sigh breath improve oxygenation in the intubated patient receiving CPAP? Respir Care. 1992;37(12):1409–13.
  146. Bryan H Physiologic changes in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 1979;95(5 (Pt 2) ):–. [PubMed: 490261]
  147. Bucek S, Echun DA Inhalation injury by paraffin flames (an African experience) Acta Chir Plast. 1994;36(3):74–6. [PubMed: 7618409]
  148. Buchda VL Loneliness in critically ill adults. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 1987;6(6):335–40. [PubMed: 3691286]
  149. Bufalo CD, Fasano L, Quarta CC, et al Use of extrathoracic negative pressure ventilation in weaning COPD and kyphoscoliotic patients from mechanical ventilation. Respir Care. 1994;39(1):21–9.
  150. Bufi M, Conti G, Costa MG, et al Comparative evaluation of the cardiorespiratory effects of assist control ventilation vs pressure support ventilation in patients following orthotopic liver transplantation. Minerva Anestesiol. 1997;63(12):389–93. [PubMed: 9586411]
  151. Bunnell JB The costs of starting too late & weaning too fast. Unpublished 1999; 1-3.
  152. Burgess KR, Burgess EE, Whitelaw WA Impaired ventilatory response to carbon dioxide in patients with chronic renal failure: Implications for the intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(3):413–9. [PubMed: 8124991]
  153. Burns S, Barton D, Truwit J, et al A bedside tool for evaluating wean potential in chronically ventilated patients. Heart Lung. 1992;21(3):–.
  154. Burns SM, Burns JE, Truwit JD Comparison of five clinical weaning indices. Am J Crit Care. 1994;3(5):342–52. [PubMed: 8000457]
  155. Burns SM, Carpenter R, Harris R, et al Developing a team approach to weaning. Nursing. 1995;25(5):32TT–WW. [PubMed: 7746532]
  156. Burns SM, Clochesy JM, Hanneman SK, et al Weaning from long-term mechanical ventilation. Am J Crit Care. 1995;4(1):4–22. [PubMed: 7894554]
  157. Burns SM, Egloff MB, Ryan B, et al Effect of body position on spontaneous respiratory rate and tidal volume in patients with obesity, abdominal distension and ascites. Am J Crit Care. 1994;3(2):102–6. [PubMed: 8167771]
  158. Burns SM, Fahey SA, Barton DM, et al Weaning from mechanical ventilation: A method for assessment and planning. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1991;2(3):372–89. [PubMed: 1873114]
  159. Burns SM, Marshall M, Burns JE, et al Design, testing, and results of an outcomes-managed approach to patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Am J Crit Care. 1998;7(1):45–57. [PubMed: 9429683]
  160. Burrows FA, Taylor RH, Hillier SC Early extubation of trachea after repair of secundum-type atrial septal defects in children. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1992;39(10):1041–4. [PubMed: 1464130]
  161. Buschbacher R Outcomes and problems in pediatric pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1995;74(4):287–93. [PubMed: 7632385]
  162. Butler J, Chong GL, Pillai R, et al Early extubation after coronary artery bypass surgery: Effects on oxygen flux and haemodynamic variables. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;33(3):276–80. [PubMed: 1601908]
  163. Butt W, Shann F, Walker C, et al Acute epiglottitis: A different approach to management. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(1):43–7. [PubMed: 3276447]
  164. Butterworth J, James R, Prielipp RC, et al Do shorter-acting neuromuscular blocking drugs or opioids associate with reduced intensive care unit or hospital lengths of stay after coronary artery bypass grafting? Anesthesiology. 1998 ;88(6):1437–46. [PubMed: 9637635]
  165. Byrne K, Tatum JL, Henry DA, et al Increased morbidity with increased pulmonary albumin flux in sepsis-related adult respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 1992;20(1):28–34. [PubMed: 1729040]
  166. Caba F, Echevarria M, Guerrero JM, et al [Comparison of plasma levels of ACTH and beta -endorphin in cholecystectomies under general anesthesia and general plus epidural anesthesia.][Spanish] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1995;42(9):364–8. [PubMed: 8584772]
  167. Cabillic M [Role of physiotherapist during weaning from mechanical ventilation: Results of a multicentric survey.][French] Reamin Soins Intensifs Med Urgence. 1991;7(4):195–8.
  168. Cagnolati CA, Machado NA, Serzedo PM, et al A comparative study of sevoflurane versus halothane for induction and maintenance of anesthesia in pediatric outpatients. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 1995;45(4):215–23.
  169. Cai YY, Niu SF, Bai CX [A comparison between nasotracheal and orotracheal intubation in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated by respiratory failure]. [Chinese] Chung-Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih. 1938;31(6):332–4. [PubMed: 1286580]
  170. Cakar N, Tutuncu AS, Esen F, et al Percutaneous dilational tracheostomy: Safety and ease of performance at the bedside in the ICU. Clin Intensive Care. 1997;8(1):4–9.
  171. Calafiore AM, Di Giammarco G, Teodori G, et al Midterm results after minimally invasive coronary surgery (LAST operation) J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;115(4):763–71. [PubMed: 9576208]
  172. Calafiore AM, Teodori G, Di Giammarco G, et al Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting on a beating heart. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;63(6 Suppl):S72–5. [PubMed: 9203603]
  173. Caldwell MP, Murphy PG, Page R, et al Timing of extubation after oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 1993;80(12):1537–9. [PubMed: 7832820]
  174. Calhoun CJ, Specht L Standardizing the weaning process. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1991;2(3):398–404. [PubMed: 1873116]
  175. Calzia E, Lindner KH, Witt S, et al Pressure-time product and work of breathing during biphasic continuous positive airway pressure and assisted spontaneous breathing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150(4):904–10. [PubMed: 7921461]
  176. Campbell RS, Sinamban RP, Johannigman FA, et al Clinical evaluation of a new closed loop ventilation mode: adaptive supportive ventilation (ASV) 44thInt. Respiratory Congress AARC Nov. 7-10, 1998 Atlanta GA.
  177. Cane RD, Shapiro BA Ventilator discontinuance and weaning. Anesth Clin North Am. 1987;5(4):749–55.
  178. Cantillo J, Goldberg ME, Larijani GE, et al Recovery parameters after sevoflurane and isoflurane anesthesia. Pharmacotherapy. 1997;17(4):779–82. [PubMed: 9250557]
  179. Canver CC, Nichols RD, Kroncke GM Influence of age-specific lung function on survival after coronary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg. 1998;66(1):144–7. [PubMed: 9692454]
  180. Capdevila X, Perrigault PF, Ramonatxo M, et al Changes in breathing pattern and respiratory muscle performance parameters during difficult weaning. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(1):79–87. [PubMed: 9428547]
  181. Capdevila XJ, Perrigault PF, Perey PJ, et al Occlusion pressure and its ratio to maximum inspiratory pressure are useful predictors for successful extubation following T-piece weaning trial. Chest. 1995;108(2):482–9. [PubMed: 7634888]
  182. Capers CC, Ward ES, Murphy JE, et al Use of theophylline in neonates as an aid to ventilator weaning. Ther Drug Monit. 1992;14(6):471–4. [PubMed: 1485368]
  183. Carlsson AJ, Bindslev L, Hedensierna G Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in the human lung. The effect of isoflurane anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1987;66(3):312–6. [PubMed: 3826689]
  184. Carmona MJ, Auler JO Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on respiratory system mechanics, hemodynamics, and gas exchange after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;12(2):157–61. [PubMed: 9583545]
  185. Carr DB, Todres ID Fentanyl infusion and weaning in the pediatric intensive care unit: Toward science-based practice. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(5):725–7. [PubMed: 8181276]
  186. Carrasco G, Cabre L, Sobrepere G, et al Synergistic sedation with propofol and midazolam in intensive care patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(5):844–51. [PubMed: 9590313]
  187. Carroll GL, Hartsfield SM, Hambleton R Anesthetic effects of tiletamine-zolazepam, alone or in combination with butorphanol, in goats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;211(5):593–7. [PubMed: 9290827]
  188. Carson JA, Grant JL, Moulton DP, et al Use of biofeedback in weaning paralyzed patients from respirators. Chest. 1979;76(543):–. [PubMed: 291505]
  189. Carson SS, Stocking C, Podsadecki T, et al Effects of organizational change in the medical intensive care unit of a teaching hospital: A comparison of 'open' and 'closed' formats. JAMA. 1996;276(4):322–8. [PubMed: 8656546]
  190. Cartwright DP, Kvalsvik O, Cassuto J, et al A randomized, blind comparison of remifentanil and alfentanil during anesthesia for outpatient surgery. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(5):1014–9. [PubMed: 9356093]
  191. Caruso DM, al-Kasspooles MF, Matthews MR, et al Rationale for 'early' percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy in patients with burn injuries. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1997;18(5):424–8. [PubMed: 9313124]
  192. Cason CL, deSalvo SK, Ray WT Changes in oxygen saturation during weaning from short-term ventilator support after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Heart Lung. 1994;23(5):368–75. [PubMed: 7989205]
  193. Castaing Y, Manier G, Guenard H [Influence of almitrine dimesylate on gas exchange. Preliminary results in patients with chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathies under artificial ventilation]. [French] Presse Med. 1984;13(34):2078–82. [PubMed: 6149535]
  194. Chalmers RM, Howard RS, Wiles CM, et al Use of the rocking bed in the treatment of neurogenic respiratory insufficiency. Q J Med. 1994;87(7):423–9. [PubMed: 7922294]
  195. Chan D Clinical forum. Critical care nursing series: Weaning patients from mechanical ventilatory support. Hong Kong Nurs J. 1997;33(4):35–40.
  196. Chan V, Greenough A Comparison of weaning by patient triggered ventilation or synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation in preterm infants. Acta Paediatr. 1994;83(3):335–7. [PubMed: 8038542]
  197. Chan V, Greenough A Randomised controlled trial of weaning by patient triggered ventilation or conventional ventilation. Eur J Pediatr. 1993;152(1):51–4. [PubMed: 8444205]
  198. Chan V, Greenough A Randomised trial of methods of extubation in acute and chronic respiratory distress. Arch Dis Child. 1993;68(5 Spec No):570–2. [PMC free article: PMC1029305] [PubMed: 8323357]
  199. Chan V, Greenough A, Cheeseman P, et al Vitamin A levels and feeding practice in neonates with and without chronic lung disease. J Perinat Med. 1993;21(3):205–10. [PubMed: 8229611]
  200. Chaney MA, Furry PA, Fluder EM, et al Intrathecal morphine for coronary artery bypass grafting and early extubation. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(2):241–8. [PubMed: 9024009]
  201. Chaney MA, Nikolov MP, Blakeman BP, et al Hemodynamic effects of methylprednisolone in patients undergoing cardiac operation and early extubation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(4):1006–11. [PubMed: 10320243]
  202. Chaney MA, Nikolov MP, Blakeman B, et al Pulmonary effects of methylprednisolone in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and early tracheal extubation. Anesth Analg. 1998;87(1):27–33. [PubMed: 9661540]
  203. Chao DC, Scheinhorn DJ, Stearn-Hassenpflug M Patient-ventilator trigger asynchrony in prolonged mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1997;112(6):1592–9. [PubMed: 9404759]
  204. Chaten FC, Lucking SE, Young ES, et al Stridor: intracranial pathology causing postextubation vocal cord paralysis. Pediatrics. 1991;87(1):39–43. [PubMed: 1984616]
  205. Chatila W, Ani S, Guaglianone D, et al Cardiac ischemia during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1996;109(6):1577–83. [PubMed: 8769514]
  206. Chatila W, Jacob B, Guaglianone D, et al The unassisted respiratory rate-tidal volume ratio accurately predicts weaning outcome. Am J Med. 1996;101(1):61–7. [PubMed: 8686717]
  207. Chelimsky-Fallick C, Middlekauff HR, Stevenson WG, et al Amiodarone therapy does not compromise subsequent heart transplantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;20(7):1556–61. [PubMed: 1452930]
  208. Chen JY Maximum inspiratory pressure: a neonatal criterion for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Kao-Hsiung I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Tsa Chih. 1992;8(10):535–41. [PubMed: 1296031]
  209. Chen JY, Ling UP, Chen JH Comparison of synchronized and conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1997;39(5):578–83. [PubMed: 9363656]
  210. Cheng DC Pro: Early extubation after cardiac surgery decreases intensive care unit stay and cost. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9(4):460–4. [PubMed: 7579120]
  211. Cheng DC, Karski J, Peniston C, et al Early tracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery reduces costs and improves resource use. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 1996;85(6):1300–10. [PubMed: 8968177]
  212. Cheng DC, Karski J, Peniston C, et al Morbidity outcome in early versus conventional tracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting: A prospective randomized controlled trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;112(3):755–64. [PubMed: 8800165]
  213. Cheng EY, Renschler MF, Mihm FG, et al Noninvasive respiratory monitoring of patients during weaning from mechanical respoiratory support. Anesth Analg. 1986;65:–.
  214. Cheung HK, Jawan B, Lee JH Arterial blood gas changes associated with different methods of extubation. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin. 1988;26(2):191–4. [PubMed: 3141733]
  215. Chevalier JY, Couprie C, Larroquet M, et al Venovenous single lumen cannula extracorporeal lung support in neonates. A five year experience. ASAIO J. 1993;39(3):M654–M658. [PubMed: 8268619]
  216. Chevrolet JC Difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. Lung. 1990;168(Suppl):829–32. [PubMed: 2117200]
  217. Chevron V, Menard JF, Richard JC, et al Unplanned extubation: Risk factors of development and predictive criteria for reintubation. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(6):1049–53. [PubMed: 9635654]
  218. Chiang AA, Lee KC, Lee JC, et al Effectiveness of a continuous quality improvement program aiming to reduce unplanned extubation: A prospective study. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(11):1269–71. [PubMed: 9120125]
  219. Chinsky K, John R, Lefrak S A randomized, prospective comparison of intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) weaning with and without pressure support ventilation (PSV) Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991:–.
  220. Chipley PS, Castresana M, Bridges MT, et al Prolonged use of an endotracheal tube changer in a pediatric patient with a potentially compromised airway. Chest. 1994;105(3):961–2. [PubMed: 8131581]
  221. Cho JY, Lee SY, Lee SH, et al Clinical application of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation with bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) Tuberc Respir Dis. 1995;42(5):723–30.
  222. Choi JE, Koh YS, Cho WK, et al A comparison of clinical efficacy of weaning method between the mode of intermittent mandatory ventilation and intermittent mandatory ventilation plus pressure support. Tuberc Respir Dis. 1994;41(4):372–8.
  223. Chonabayashi N, Aoshima M, Yokota N, et al [Mechanical ventilation and long-term respiratory care in the intensive care unit of a general hospital]. [Japanese] Nippon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1995;33(Suppl):159–67. [PubMed: 8752500]
  224. Chong JL, Grebenik C, Sinclair M, et al The effect of a cardiac surgical recovery area on the timing of extubation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7(2):137–41. [PubMed: 8477015]
  225. Chong JL, Pillai R, Fisher A, et al Cardiac surgery: Moving away from intensive care. Br Heart J. 1992;68(4):430–3. [PMC free article: PMC1025147] [PubMed: 1449931]
  226. Chopin C, Chambrin MC, Mangalaboyi J, et al Carbon dioxide mandatory ventilation (CO2MV): A new method for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Description and comparative clinical study with I.M.V. and T. tube method in COPD patients. Int J Clin Monit Comput. 1989;6(1):11–9. [PubMed: 2498449]
  227. Chopin C, Fourrier F, Chambrin MC, et al [New method of weaning from respiratory assistance. Ventilation based on carbon dioxide]. [French] Presse Med. 1983;12(8):495–7. [PubMed: 6219357]
  228. Christakis GT, Weisel RD, Buth KJ, et al Is body size the cause for poor outcomes of coronary artery bypass operations in women? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;110(5):1344–56. [PubMed: 7475187]
  229. Christie JM, Dethlefsen M, Cane RD Unplanned endotracheal extubation in the intensive care unit. J Clin Anesth. 1996;8(4):289–93. [PubMed: 8695132]
  230. Christopher KL, Good JT, Bowman JL, et al Should COPD patients be weaned by T-piece or intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)? A comparison of pressure and resistance in different systems. Chest. 1981;80S:–.
  231. Claris O, Salle BL, Lapillonne A, et al [Nasal continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.] Arch Pediatr. 1996;3(5):452–6. [PubMed: 8763715]
  232. Clark K Psychosocial aspects of prolonged ventilator dependency. Respir Care. 1986;31(4):329–33. [PubMed: 10315698]
  233. Clark RH, Dykes FD, Bachman TE, et al Intraventricular hemorrhage and high-frequency ventilation: A meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials. Pediatrics. 1996;98(6 Pt 1):1058–61. [PubMed: 8951253]
  234. Clark RH, Gerstmann DR, Null DM, et al Prospective randomized comparison of high-frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics. 1992;89(1):5–12. [PMC free article: PMC198277] [PubMed: 1728021]
  235. Clement JM, Buck EA Education STATPack. Assessing patients' readiness to wean: Applying current research... DCCN STATPack. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 1996;15(3):131–2.
  236. Clochesy JM, Burns SM, Shekleton ME, et al A volunteers in participatory sampling survey of weaning practices. The Third National Study Group on Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation. Crit Care Nurse. 1997;17(2):72–8. [PubMed: 9136334]
  237. Clochesy JM, Daly BJ, Montenegro HD Weaning chronically critically ill adults from mechanical ventilatory support: A descriptive study. Am J Crit Care. 1995;4(2):93–9. [PubMed: 7749454]
  238. Cohen AT Experience with alfentanil infusion as an intensive care sedative analgesic. Eur J Anaesthesiol Suppl. 1987;4(1):63–6. [PubMed: 2894308]
  239. Cohen CA, Zagelbaum G, Gross D, et al Clinical manifestations of inspiratory muscle fatigue. Am J Med. 1982;73(3):308–16. [PubMed: 6812417]
  240. Cohen L Weaning from mechanical ventilation - The team approach and beyond. Intensive Care Med. 1994;20(5):317–8. [PubMed: 7930024]
  241. Cohen IL, Bari N, Strosberg MA, et al Reduction of duration and cost of mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit by use of a ventilatory management team. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(10):1278–84. [PubMed: 1914485]
  242. Colgan FJ, Stewart S PEEP and CPAP following open-heart surgery in infants and children. Anesthesiology. 1979;50(4):336–41. [PMC free article: PMC362874] [PubMed: 434537]
  243. Colice GL Resolution of laryngeal injury following translaryngeal intubation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;145(2 Pt 1):361–4. [PubMed: 1736742]
  244. Colice GL, Stukel TA, Dain B Laryngeal complications of prolonged intubation. Chest. 1989;96(4):877–84. [PubMed: 2791687]
  245. Collard E, Delire V, Mayne A, et al Propofol-alfentanil versus fentanyl-midazolam in coronary artery surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1996;10(7):869–76. [PubMed: 8969393]
  246. Conner GH, Maisels MJ Orotracheal intubation in the newborn. Laryngoscope. 1977;87(1):87–91. [PubMed: 831051]
  247. Contencin P Size of endotracheal tube and neonatal acquired subglottic stenosis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119(8):815–9. [PubMed: 8343241]
  248. Conti G, De Blasie R, Pelaia P, et al Early prediction of successful weaning during pressure support ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Crit Care Med. 1992;20(3):366–71. [PubMed: 1541097]
  249. Conti J, Smith D Haemodynamic responses to extubation after cardiac surgery with and without continued sedation. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(6):834–6. [PubMed: 9771317]
  250. Cook DJ, Walters S, Brun-Buisson C, et al, and for the Clinical Trials Group Ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence and risk factors. Ann Intern Med. 1998;129(6):433–40. [PubMed: 9735080]
  251. Coombs DW, Hooper DW Cimetidine as a prophylactic against acid aspiration at tracheal extubation. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1981;28(1):33–8. [PubMed: 7237201]
  252. Cooper A, Tempe DK, Tomar AS, et al Mechanical ventilation after open heart surgery. Indian Heart J. 1992;44(3):167–71. [PubMed: 1427950]
  253. Cooper RM The use of an endotracheal ventilation catheter in the management of difficult extubations. Can J Anaesth. 1996;43(1):90–3. [PubMed: 8665644]
  254. Coppolo DP, May JJ Self-extubations. A 12-month experience. Chest. 1990;98(1):165–9. [PubMed: 2361385]
  255. Corbo BH Endotracheal intubation: Adolescent ICU experiences. Crit Care Q. 1985;8(1):35–46. [PubMed: 10271316]
  256. Corbridge TC, Hall JB Techniques for ventilating patients with obstructive pulmonary disease. J Crit Illn. 1994;9(11):1027–36. [PubMed: 10150697]
  257. Corrado A, Bruscoli G, Messori A, et al Iron lung treatment of subjects with COPD in acute respiratory failure: Evaluation of short- and long-term prognosis. Chest. 1992;101(3):692–6. [PubMed: 1541134]
  258. Cote CJ, Liu LM, Szyfelbein SK, et al Intraoperative events diagnosed by expired carbon dioxide monitoring in children. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1986;33(3 (Pt 1) ):315–20. [PubMed: 3087606]
  259. Cote CJ, Rolf N, Liu LM, et al A single-blind study of combined pulse oximetry and capnography in children. Anesthesiology. 1991;74(6):980–7. [PubMed: 1904206]
  260. Cotton RB, Stahlman MT, Bender HW, et al Randomized trial of early closure of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus in small preterm infants. J Pediatr. 1978;93(4):647–51. [PubMed: 702245]
  261. Cotton RT Prevention and management of laryngeal stenosis in infants and children. J Pediatr Surg. 1985;20(6):845–51. [PubMed: 4087111]
  262. Cotton RT, Myer CM, O'Connor DM Innovations in pediatric laryngotracheal reconstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(2):196–200. [PubMed: 1564618]
  263. Cotton RT, Seid AB Management of the extubation problem in the premature child. Anterior cricoid split as an alternative to tracheotomy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1980;89(6 (Pt 1) ):508–11. [PubMed: 7458136]
  264. Courtney SE, Weber KR, Siervogel RM, et al Effects of dexamethasone on pulmonary function following extubation. J Perinatol. 1992;12(3):246–51. [PubMed: 1432282]
  265. Couser RJ, Ferrara TB, Falde B, et al Effectiveness of dexamethasone in preventing extubation failure in preterm infants at increased risk for airway edema. J Pediatr. 1992;121(4):591–6. [PubMed: 1403397]
  266. Couser RJ, Ferrara TB, Wheeler W, et al Pulmonary follow-up 2.5 years after a randomized, controlled, multiple dose bovine surfactant study of preterm newborn infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1993;15(3):163–7. [PubMed: 8327279]
  267. Cranfield KA, Bromley LM Minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane for tracheal extubation in deeply anaesthetized, unpremedicated children. Br J Anaesth. 1997;78(4):370–1. [PubMed: 9135353]
  268. Crawford SW, Petersen FB Long-term survival from respiratory failure after marrow transplantation for malignancy. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;145(3):510–4. [PubMed: 1546828]
  269. Crimlisk JT, Bernardo J, Blansfield JS, et al Endotracheal reintubation: A closer look at a preventable condition. Clin Nurse Spec. 1997;11(4):145–50. [PubMed: 9274152]
  270. Cropp A, DiMarco AF Effects of intermittent negative pressure ventilation on respiratory muscle function in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;135(5):1056–61. [PubMed: 3107444]
  271. Crossley DJ, McGuire GP, Barrow PM, et al Influence of inspired oxygen concentration on deadspace, respiratory drive, and PaCO-2 in intubated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(9):1522–6. [PubMed: 9295826]
  272. Cummings JJ, D'Eugenio DB, Gross SJ A controlled trial of dexamethasone in preterm infants at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med. 1989;320(23):1505–10. [PubMed: 2657423]
  273. D'Arsigny C, Goldberg P Mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure postthoracotomy. Chest Surg Clin North Am. 1998;8(3):585–610. [PubMed: 9742338]
  274. D'Attellis N, Nicolas-Robin A, Delayance S, et al Early extubation after mitral valve surgery: A target-controlled infusion of propofol and low-dose sufentanil. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1997;11(4):467–73. [PubMed: 9187997]
  275. da Silva OP Factors influencing acquired upper airway obstruction in newborn infants receiving assisted ventilation because of respiratory failure: an overview. J Perinatol. 1996;16(4):272–5. [PubMed: 8866296]
  276. da Silva BJ, Vieira CV, Eira-Garcia VZ Lumbar epidural anesthesia in children. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 1995;45(5):315–20.
  277. Dagostino DW, DeHaven CB, Kirton OC, et al Elective extubation failures in a surgical ICU using a room air-CPAP trial: Frequency and cause. Chest. 1993;104(suppl):–.
  278. Daley BJ, Garcia-Perez F, Ross SE Reintubation as an outcome predictor in trauma patients. Chest. 1996;110(6):1577–80. [PubMed: 8989080]
  279. Daly BJ, Phelps C, Rudy EB A nurse-managed special care unit. J Nurs Admin. 1991;21(7-8):31–8. [PubMed: 1870004]
  280. Dane TE, King EG A prospective study of complications after tracheostomy for assisted ventilation. Chest. 1975;67(4):398–404. [PubMed: 1122767]
  281. Dantzker DR, Cowenhaven WM, Willoughby WJ Gas exchange alterations associated with weaning from mechanical ventilation following coronary artery bypass grafting. Chest. 1982;82(6):674–7. [PubMed: 6754271]
  282. Darmon JY, Rauss A, Dreyfuss D, et al Evaluation of risk factors for laryngeal edema after tracheal extubation in adults and its prevention by dexamethasone. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study. Anesthesiology. 1992;77(2):245–51. [PMC free article: PMC60651] [PubMed: 1642342]
  283. Das K, Kaul HL, Batra RK, et al Evaluation of BIPAP as a mode of weaning from prolonged ventilation: Comparison with CPAP and PSV. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol. 1997;13(3):219–22.
  284. Davies DW, Moylan SL, O'Sullivan G Topical anaesthesia of the larynx: Cocaine or lignocaine? Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1992;9(5):393–7. [PubMed: 1396626]
  285. Davies L, Dolgin S, Kattan M Morbidity and mortality of open lung biopsy in children. Pediatrics. 1997;99(5):660–4. [PMC free article: PMC317313] [PubMed: 9113941]
  286. Davies MW, Cartwright DW Postextubation chest X-rays in neonates: A routine no longer necessary. J Paediatr Child Health. 1998;34(2):147–50. [PubMed: 9588638]
  287. Davis DA, Tucker JA, Russo P Management of airway obstruction in patients with congenital heart defects. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1993;102(3 Pt 1):163–6. [PubMed: 8457116]
  288. Davis P, Jankov R, Doyle L, et al Randomised, controlled trial of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in the extubation of infants weighing 600 to 1,250 g. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonat Ed. 1998;79(1):F54–F57. [PMC free article: PMC1720820] [PubMed: 9797626]
  289. Davis PG, Henderson-Smart DJ Intravenous dexamethasone for extubation of newborn infants. In: The Cochrane Library, 1998; Issue 2 (8 p) (5 ref 4 bib). Oxford: Update Software, disk or CD-ROM, updated quarterly.
  290. Davis PG, Henderson-Smart DJ Prophylactic post-extubation nasal CPAP in preterm infants. In: The Cochrane Library 1998; Issue 2 (7 p) (6 ref 1 bib). Oxford: Update Software, disk or CD-ROM, updated quarterly.
  291. Davis S, Potgieter PD, Linton DM Mandatory minute volume weaning in patients with pulmonary pathology. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1989;17(2):170–4. [PubMed: 2719237]
  292. Day RW, Guarin M, Lynch JM, et al Inhaled nitric oxide in children with severe lung disease: Results of acute and prolonged therapy with two concentrations. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(2):215–21. [PubMed: 8605791]
  293. De Berker D, Moraine JJ, Berre J, et al Effects of dobutamine on oxygen consumption in septic patients: Direct versus indirect determinations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150(1):95–100. [PubMed: 8025780]
  294. De Boer RC, Jones A, Ward PS, et al Long term trigger ventilation in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 1993;68(3 Spec No):308–11. [PMC free article: PMC1590383] [PubMed: 8466268]
  295. De Larminat V, Dureuil B, Montravers P, et al [Swallowing reflex impairment after prolonged intubation.][French] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1992;11(1):17–21. [PubMed: 1443810]
  296. De Witte J, Rietman GW, Vandenbroucke G, et al Post-operative effects of tramadol administered at wound closure. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1998;15(2):190–5. [PubMed: 9587725]
  297. Deakers TW, Reynolds G, Stretton M, et al Cuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care. J Pediatr. 1994;125(1):57–62. [PubMed: 8021785]
  298. DeBehnke D Resuscitation time limits in experimental pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest using cardiopulmonary bypass. Resuscitation. 1994;27(3):221–9. [PubMed: 8079056]
  299. Deblieux P, Wadell C, McClarity Z, et al Facilitation of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy by use of a perforated endotracheal tube exchanger. Chest. 1995;108(2):572–4. [PubMed: 7634903]
  300. Dechant KL, Faulds D Colfosceril palmitate: A review of the therapeutic efficacy and clinical tolerability of a synthetic surfactant preparation (Exosurf registered Neonatal(TM)) in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Drugs. 1991;42(5):877–94. [PubMed: 1723378]
  301. DeHaven CB, Hurst JM, Branson RD Evaluation of two different extubation criteria: Attributes contributing to success. Crit Care Med. 1986;14(2):92–4. [PubMed: 3510814]
  302. DeHaven CB, Kirton OC, Morgan JP, et al Breathing measurement reduces false-negative classification of tachypneic preextubation trial failures. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(6):976–80. [PubMed: 8681601]
  303. Del Rosario N, Sassoon CS, Chetty KG, et al Breathing pattern during acute respiratory failure and recovery. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(11):2560–5. [PubMed: 9426095]
  304. Delius RE, Bove EL, Meliones JN, et al Use of extracorporeal life support in patients with congenital heart disease. Crit Care Med. 1992;20(9):1216–22. [PubMed: 1521436]
  305. Dellinger RP, Zimmerman JL, Taylor RW, et al Effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: Results of a randomized phase II trial. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(1):15–23. [PubMed: 9428538]
  306. Delooz HH Factors influencing successful discontinuance of mechanical ventilation after open heart surgery: A clinical study of 41 patients. Crit Care Med. 1976;4(5):265–70. [PubMed: 975853]
  307. Demling RH, Read T, Lind LJ, et al Incidence and morbidity of extubation failure in surgical intensive care patients. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(6):573–7. [PubMed: 3371019]
  308. Dershwitz M, Randel GI, Rosow CE, et al Initial clinical experience with remifentanil, a new opioid metabolized by esterases. Anesth Analg. 1995;81(3):619–23. [PubMed: 7653833]
  309. Desai G, Seriff N, Khan F A multidisciplinary approach to weaning of respiratory dependent patients, abstracted. Chest. 1976;70:–.
  310. Destuynder R, Menget A, Fromentin C, et al [Search for early indications for reintubation after mechanical ventilation weaning of the newborn]. [French] Pediatrie. 1991;46(8-9):633–6. [PubMed: 1660124]
  311. DeVita MA, Spierer-Rundback L Swallowing disorders in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation or tracheostomy tubes. Crit Care Med. 1990;18(12):1328–30. [PubMed: 2245604]
  312. Devlin JW, Holbrook AM, Fuller HD The effect of ICU sedation guidelines and pharmacist interventions on clinical outcomes and drug cost. Ann Pharmacother. 1997;31(6):689–95. [PubMed: 9184706]
  313. Collaborative Dexamathasone Trial Group Dexamethasone therapy in neonatal chronic lung disease: An international placebo-controlled trial. Collaborative Dexamethasone Trial Group. Pediatrics. 1991;88(3):421–7. [PubMed: 1881718]
  314. Dexter F, Tinker JH Comparisons between desflurane and isoflurane or propofol on time following commands and time to discharge: A metaanalysis. Anesthesiology. 1995;83(1):77–82. [PubMed: 7605021]
  315. Di Fabio D, Benetti D, Benvenuti M, et al [Surgical stabilization of traumatic flail chest. Analysis of 116 treated patients.][Italian] Minerva Chir. 1995;50(3):227–33. [PubMed: 7659257]
  316. Dias FS, Milius G, Posenato AA, et al [Prolonged mechanical ventilation following heart surgery]. [Portuguese] Arq Bras Cardiol. 1992;59(4):269–73. [PubMed: 1341183]
  317. DiCarlo JV, Raphaely RC, Steven JM, et al Pulmonary mechanics in infants after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 1992;20(1):22–7. [PubMed: 1729039]
  318. Diehl JL, Lofaso F, Deleuze P, et al Clinically relevant diaphragmatic dysfunction after cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;107(2):487–98. [PubMed: 8302068]
  319. Dimitriou G, Greenough A, Griffin F, et al Synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation modes compared with patient triggered ventilation during weaning. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1995;72(3):F188–F190. [PMC free article: PMC2528429] [PubMed: 7796236]
  320. Dittman M, Steenblock U, Kranzlin M, et al Epidural analgesia or mechanical ventilation for multiple rib fractures? Intensive Care Med. 1982;8(2):89–92. [PubMed: 7076979]
  321. Djunaedi H, Cardinal P, Greffe-Laliberte G, et al A ventilatory management protocol adaptable to the patient's needs. Can J Respir Ther. 1996;32:49–53.
  322. Djunaedi H, Cardinal P, Greffe-Laliberte G, et al Does a ventilatory management protocol improve the care of ventilated patients? Respir Care. 1997;42(6):604–10.
  323. Doering LV Relationship of age, sex, and procedure type to extubation outcome after heart surgery. Heart Lung. 1997;26(6):439–47. [PubMed: 9431490]
  324. Doering LV, Imperial-Perez F, Monsein S, et al Preoperative and postoperative predictors of early and delayed extubation after coronary artery bypass surgery. Am J Crit Care. 1998;7(1):37–44. [PubMed: 9429682]
  325. Doerksen K, Ladyshewsky A, Stansfield K A comparative study of systemized vs. random tracheostomy weaning. Axone. 1994;16(1):5–13. [PubMed: 7880766]
  326. Doglio GR, Pusajo JF, Egurrola MA, et al Gastric mucosal pH as a prognostic index of mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(8):1037–40. [PubMed: 1860328]
  327. Dojat M, Brochard L, Lemaire F, et al A knowledge-based system for assisted ventilation of patients in intensive care units. Int J Clin Monit Comput. 1992;9(4):239–50. [PubMed: 1484275]
  328. Dojat M, Harf A, Touchard D, et al Evaluation of a knowledge-based system providing ventilatory management and decision for extubation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153(3):997–1004. [PubMed: 8630586]
  329. Dojat M, Pachet F, Guessoum Z, et al NeoGanesh: A working system for the automated control of assisted ventilation in ICUs. Artif Intell Med. 1997;11(2):97–117. [PubMed: 9332706]
  330. Donn SM, Nicks JJ, Becker MA Flow-synchronized ventilation of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. J Perinatol. 1994;14(2):90–4. [PubMed: 8014707]
  331. Dorow P, Thalhofer S, Meissner P, et al [Long term observation with CPAP-breathing in patient with sleep-apnoea-syndrome.][German] Pneumologie. 1993;47(Suppl 4):776–7. [PubMed: 8153108]
  332. Doull I Corticosteroids in the management of croup [editorial] BMJ. 1995;311(7015):–. [PMC free article: PMC2551178] [PubMed: 7496221]
  333. Downes JJ, Pilmer SL Chronic respiratory failure-controversies in management. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(9 Suppl):S363–S364. [PubMed: 7689944]
  334. Downing GJ, Hayen LK, Kilbride HW Acquired subglottic cysts in the low-birth-weight infant. Characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Am J Dis Child. 1993;147(9):971–4. [PubMed: 8362815]
  335. Downs JB Extubation criteria. Crit Care Med. 1986;14(2):–. [PubMed: 3943325]
  336. Downs JB, Perkins HM, Model JH Intermittent mandatory ventilation: An evaluation. Arch Surg. 1974;109(4):519–23. [PubMed: 4606681]
  337. Downs JB, Stock MC, Tabeling B Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV): A primary ventilatory support mode. Ann Chir Gynaecol Suppl. 1982;196:57–63. [PubMed: 6760780]
  338. Doyle LW, Kitchen WH, Ford GW, et al Outcome to 8 years of infants less than 1,000 g birthweight: Relationship with neonatal ventilator and oxygen therapy. J Paediatr Child Health. 1991;27(3):184–8. [PubMed: 1888566]
  339. Drake AF, Babyak JW, Niparko JK, et al The anterior cricoid split. Clinical experience with extended indications. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1988;114(12):1404–6. [PubMed: 3190868]
  340. Drew K, Brayton M, Ambrose A, et al End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring for weaning patients: A pilot study. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 1998;17(3):127–34. [PubMed: 9633342]
  341. Dreyfuss D, Djedaini K, Weber P, et al Prospective study of nosocomial pneumonia and of patient and circuit colonization during mechanical ventilation with circuit changes every 48 hours versus no change. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143(4 Pt 1):738–43. [PubMed: 2008985]
  342. Dries DJ Weaning from mechanical ventilation. J Trauma. 1997;43(2):372–84. [PubMed: 9291393]
  343. Dryden C, McLintic A, Smith D, et al Cardiovascular responses to extubation after cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1994;8(3 Suppl 2):–.
  344. Dryden CM, Smith DC, McLintic AJ, et al The effect of preoperative beta -blocker therapy on cardiovascular responses to weaning from mechanical ventilation and extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7(5):547–50. [PubMed: 7903563]
  345. du Toit PW, Muller FO, Van Tonder WM, et al Experience with the intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning. S Afr Med J. 1981;60(6):227–9. [PubMed: 7256468]
  346. Dudley DL, Marin CJ, Holmes TH Psychophysiologic studies of pulmonary ventilation. Psycyhosom Med. 1964;26:645–60. [PubMed: 14230409]
  347. Dull JL, Dull WL Are maximal inspiratory breathing exercises or incentive spirometry better than early mobiliazation after cardiopulmonary bypass? Phys Ther. 1983;63(5):655–9. [PubMed: 6844410]
  348. Dumas A, Dupuis GH, Searle N, et al Early versus late extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting: Effects on cognitive function. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1999;13(2):130–5. [PubMed: 10230943]
  349. Dumas C, Patriquin HB, Pare C, et al Iatrogenic lesions of the upper airway in the newborn. J Can Assoc Radiol. 1983;34(1):3–7. [PubMed: 6841417]
  350. Dunham CM, Frankenfield D, Belzberg H, et al Gut failure-predictor of or contributor to mortality in mechanically ventilated blunt trauma patients? J Trauma. 1994;37(1):30–4. [PubMed: 8028055]
  351. Dunn WF, Nelson SB, Hubmayr RD The control of breathing during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1991;100(3):754–61. [PubMed: 1909619]
  352. Durand DJ, Goodman A, Ray P, et al Theophylline treatment in the extubation of infants weighing less than 1,250 grams: A controlled trial. Pediatrics. 1987;80(5):684–8. [PMC free article: PMC138812] [PubMed: 3313257]
  353. Durand M, Combes P, Eisele JH, et al Pulmonary function tests predict outcome after cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 1993;44(1):17–23. [PubMed: 8342400]
  354. Durand M, Sardesai S, McEvoy C Effects of early dexamethasone therapy on pulmonary mechanics and chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 1995;95(4):584–90. [PMC free article: PMC161813] [PubMed: 7700763]
  355. Durbin CG Therapist-driven protocols in adult intensive care unit patients. Respir Care Clin North Am. 1996;2(1):105–16. [PubMed: 9390873]
  356. Dyson A, Isaac PA, Pennant JH, et al Esmolol attenuates cardiovascular responses to extubation. Anesth Analg. 1990;71(6):675–8. [PubMed: 1978612]
  357. East TD, Morris AH, Wallace CJ, et al A strategy for development of computerized critical care decision support systems. Int J Clin Monit Comput. 1991;8(4):263–9. [PubMed: 1820416]
  358. Edde RR Cardiovascular responses to extubation. Anesthesiology. 1979;51(3 Suppl):–.
  359. Edmends S, Denny NM Audit: Use of the laryngeal mask airway in cataract surgery. Eur J Implant Refractive Surg 1993;5(4):260-2.
  360. Edwards ND, Alford AM, Dobson PM, et al Myocardial ischaemia during tracheal intubation and extubation. Br J Anaesth. 1994;73(4):537–9. [PubMed: 7999498]
  361. Ehl S, Gering B, Bartmann P, et al C-reactive protein is a useful marker for guiding duration of antibiotic therapy in suspected neonatal bacterial infection. Pediatrics. 1997;99(2):216–21. [PMC free article: PMC317313] [PubMed: 9024449]
  362. el-Gatit A, al-Khaja N, Belboul A, et al Influence of alprostadil on pulmonary dysfunction after a cardiac operation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;53(6):1018–22. [PubMed: 1596121]
  363. el-Khatib MF, Baumeister B, Smith PG, et al Inspiratory pressure/maximal inspiratory pressure: Does it predict successful extubation in critically ill infants and children? Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(3):264–8. [PubMed: 8727443]
  364. el-Khatib MF, Chatburn RL, Potts DL, et al Mechanical ventilators optimized for pediatric use decrease work of breathing and oxygen consumption during pressure-support ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(12):1942–8. [PubMed: 7988130]
  365. Elleau C, Galperine RI, Guenard H, et al Helium-oxygen mixture in respiratory distress syndrome: A double-blind study [published erratum appears in J Pediatr 1993 Aug;123(2):336] J Pediatr. 1993;122(1):132–6. [PubMed: 8419600]
  366. Ellis SF, Pollak AC, Hanson DG, et al Videolaryngoscopic evaluation of laryngeal intubation injury: Incidence and predictive factors. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996;114(6):729–31. [PubMed: 8643294]
  367. Elpern EH Prolonged ventilator dependence: economic and ethical considerations. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1991;3(4):601–8. [PubMed: 1777196]
  368. Ely EW, Baker AM, Dunagan DP, et al Effect on the duration of mechanical ventilation of identifying patients capable of breathing spontaneously. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(25):1864–9. [PubMed: 8948561]
  369. Ely EW, Baker AM, Evans GW, et al The prognostic significance of passing a daily screen of weaning parameters. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25(6):581–7. [PubMed: 10416909]
  370. Ely EW, Bennett PA, Bowton DL, et al Large scale implementation of a respiratory therapist-driven protocol for ventilator weaning. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(2):439–46. [PubMed: 9927355]
  371. Engelke SC, Roloff DW, Kuhns LR Postextubation nasal continuous positive airway pressure. A prospective controlled study Am J Dis Child 1982136(4)359–61.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 7041623]
  372. Engelman RM, Rousou JA, Flack JE, et al Fast-track recovery of the coronary bypass patient. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994;58(6):1742–6. [PubMed: 7979747]
  373. Engoren M Efficacy of capnometry in ventilatory management of cardiac patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7(5):538–40. [PubMed: 8268433]
  374. Engoren M, Buderer NF, Zacharias A, et al Variables predicting reintubation after cardiac surgical procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999;67(3):661–5. [PubMed: 10215207]
  375. Engoren MC, Kraras C, Garzia F Propofol-based versus fentanyl-isoflurane-based anesthesia for cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;12(2):177–81. [PubMed: 9583550]
  376. Epstein SK Etiology of extubation failure and the predictive value of the rapid shallow breathing index. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152(2):545–9. [PubMed: 7633705]
  377. Epstein SK, Ciubotaru RL Independent effects of etiology of failure and time to reintubation on outcome for patients failing extubation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158(2):489–93. [PubMed: 9700126]
  378. Epstein SK, Ciubotaru RL Influence of gender and endotracheal tube size on preextubation breathing pattern [published erratum appears in Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997 Jun;155(6):2115] Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(6 Pt 1):1647–52. [PubMed: 8970349]
  379. Epstein SK, Ciubotaru RL, Wong JB Effect of failed extubation on the outcome of mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1997;112(1):186–92. [PubMed: 9228375]
  380. Epstein SK, Picken HA Application of decision analysis principles to predicting weaning and extubation outcome: Implications for interpreting the literature and use in the intensive care unit. Clin Pulm Med. 1997;4(5):283–91.
  381. Erincler T The effect of tramadol on minimal alveolar enflurane concentrations in children. Cocuk Sagligi Hast Derg. 1996;39(2):307–13.
  382. Esen F, Denkel T, Telci L, et al Comparison of pressure support ventilation (PSV) and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) during weaning in patients with acute respiratory failure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1992;317:371–6. [PubMed: 1288147]
  383. Esteban A, Alia I, Gordo F Weaning: What the recent studies have shown us. Clin Pulmon Med. 1996;3(2):91–100.
  384. Esteban A, Alia I, Gordo F, et al Extubation outcome after spontaneous breathing trials with T-tube or pressure support ventilation. The Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group [published erratum appears in Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997 Dec; 156(6): 2028] Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(2 Pt 1):459–65. [PubMed: 9279224]
  385. Esteban A, Alia I, Ibanez J, et al Modes of mechanical ventilation and weaning. A national survey of Spanish hospitals. The Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. Chest. 1994;106(4):1188–93. [PubMed: 7924494]
  386. Esteban A, Alia I, Tobin MJ, et al Effect of spontaneous breathing trial duration on outcome of attempts to discontinue mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(2):512–8. [PubMed: 9927366]
  387. Esteban A, Frutos F, Tobin MJ, et al A comparison of four methods of weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Spanish Lung Failure Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(6):345–50. [PubMed: 7823995]
  388. Esteller-More E, Ibanez-Nolla J, Garcia-Hernandez F, et al [Post-mortem study of laryngotracheal lesions produced by prolonged intubation and/or tracheotomy]. [Italian] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp. 1997;48(7):545–50. [PubMed: 9489156]
  389. Esteller-More E, Ibanez Nolla J, Orus Dotu C, et al [Airway management in ICU patients with mechanical ventilation]. [Spanish] An Med Interna. 1998;15(2):75–9. [PubMed: 9580361]
  390. Ewer MS, Ali MK, Atta MS, et al Outcome of lung cancer patients requiring mechanical ventilation for pulmonary failure. JAMA. 1986;256(24):3364–6. [PubMed: 3783887]
  391. Eyal FG, Sagi EF, Alpan G, et al Aminophylline versus doxapram in weaning premature infants from mechanical ventilation: Preliminary report. Crit Care Med. 1985;13(2):124–5. [PubMed: 3881220]
  392. Faber-Langendoen K, Caplan AL, McGlave PB Survival of adult bone marrow transplant patients receiving mechanical ventilation: A case for restricted use. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1993;12(5):501–7. [PubMed: 8298561]
  393. Fabry B, Guttmann J, Eberhard L, et al An analysis of desynchronization between the spontaneously breathing patient and ventilator during inspiratory pressure support. Chest. 1995;107(5):1387–94. [PubMed: 7750336]
  394. Fabry B, Haberthur C, Zappe D, et al Breathing pattern and additional work of breathing in spontaneously breathing patients with different ventilatory demands during inspiratory pressure support and automatic tube compensation. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(5):545–52. [PubMed: 9201527]
  395. Fagon JY, Chastre J, Vuagnat A, et al Nosocomial pneumonia and mortality among patients in intensive care units. JAMA. 1996;275(11):866–9. [PubMed: 8596225]
  396. Fahey P, Vanderwarf C, David A Comparison of oxygen cost of breathing during weaning with continouous positve airway pressure vs pressure support ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985;131:–.
  397. Famewo CE Effect of fazadinium (Fazadon) on muscle fasciculations induced by succinylcholine. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1981;28(5):459–62. [PubMed: 6116533]
  398. Fan LL, Flynn JW, Pathak DR Risk factors predicting laryngeal injury in intubated neonates. Crit Care Med. 1983;11(6):431–3. [PubMed: 6851600]
  399. Farias JA, Alia I, Esteban A, et al Weaning from mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care patients. Intensive Care Med. 1998;24(10):1070–5. [PubMed: 9840242]
  400. Fassoulaki A, Pamouktsoglou P Prolonged nasotracheal intubation and its association with inflammation of paranasal sinuses. Anesth Analg. 1989;69(1):50–2. [PubMed: 2742168]
  401. Feeley TW, Saumarez R, Klick JM, et al Positive end-expiratory pressure in weaning patients from controlled ventilation. A prospective randomised trial. Lancet. 1975;2(7938):725–9. [PubMed: 52767]
  402. Felding M, Jakobsen CJ, Cold GE, et al The effect of metoprolol upon blood pressure, cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in patients subjected to craniotomy for cerebral tumours. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1994;38(3):271–5. [PubMed: 8023668]
  403. Fellander G, Eleborg L, Bolinder J, et al Microdialysis of adipose tissue during surgery: Effect of local alpha - and beta -adrenoceptor blockade on blood flow and lipolysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996;81(8):2919–24. [PubMed: 8768852]
  404. Fernandez R, Cabrera J, Calaf N, et al P 0.1/PIMax: An index for assessing respiratory capacity in acute respiratory failure. Intensive Care Med. 1990;16(3):175–9. [PubMed: 2191019]
  405. Ferrara TB, Georgieff MK, Ebert J, et al Routine use of dexamethasone for the prevention of postextubation respiratory distress. J Perinatol. 1989;9(3):287–90. [PubMed: 2809781]
  406. Fiastro JF, Habib MP, Shon BY, et al Comparison of standard weaning parameters and the mechanical work of breathing in mechanically ventilated patients. Chest. 1988;94(2):232–8. [PubMed: 3396396]
  407. Findlay RD, Taeusch HW, Walther FJ Surfactant replacement therapy for meconium aspiration syndrome. Pediatrics. 1996;97(1):48–52. [PMC free article: PMC449715] [PubMed: 8545223]
  408. Fisher MM, Raper RF The 'cuff-leak' test for extubation. Anaesthesia. 1992;47(1):10–2. [PubMed: 1536393]
  409. Fitch M Being unable to speak on a ventilator. Respir Ther. 1987;23(3):21–3.
  410. Fitch M The patient's reaction to ventilation. Can Crit Care Nurse. 1989;10(13):–. [PubMed: 2752327]
  411. Fleiss L The statistical basis of meta-analysis. Stat Methods Med Res. 1993:2(2):121–45. [PubMed: 8261254]
  412. Flenady VJ, Gray PH Chest physiotherapy for babies being extubated from mechanical ventilation. In: Neonatal Module of The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Sinclair JC et al). The Cochrane Library, 1998; Issue 4 (9 p) CD-ROM.
  413. Flenady VJ, Gray PH Chest physiotherapy for babies being extubated from mechanical ventilation. The Cochrane Library, 1998; Issue 2 (9 p) (3 ref 22 bib), Oxford: Update Software, disk or CD-ROM, updated quarterly.
  414. Flenady VJ, Gray PH Chest physiotherapy for prevention of morbidity in babies being extubated from mechanical ventilation. The Cochrane Library, 1999; Issue 2 (9 p) (3 ref 22 bib). Oxford: Update Software, online or CD-ROM, updated quarterly.
  415. Fletcher J, Shann F, Duncan A The dangers of premature extubation after severe birth asphyxia. Aust Paediatr J. 1987;23(1):27–9. [PubMed: 3619771]
  416. Fok TF, Kew J, Loftus WK, et al Clinical prediction of post-extubation radiological changes of the chest in newborn infants. Acta Paediatr. 1998;87(1):88–92. [PubMed: 9510454]
  417. Fontes M, Afifi M, Setaro J, et al The safety and efficacy of automated-weaning from mechanical ventilation following cardiac surgery. 1998.
  418. Fontes ML, Afifi MS, Sofair M, et al Is computer-driven weaning from mechanical ventilation superior to clinician-directed weaning following cardiac surgery? 1997.
  419. Fontes ML, Setaro J, Matthew JP, et al Early extubation following cardiac surgery: Is the clock running out on the elderly? 1997.
  420. Foster GH, Conway WA, Pamulkov N, et al Early extubation after coronary artery bypass: Brief report. Crit Care Med. 1984;12(11):994–6. [PubMed: 6333969]
  421. Fox WW, Schwartz JG, Shaffer TH Successful extubation of neonates: Clinical and physiological factors. Crit Care Med. 1981;9(12):823–6. [PubMed: 7318452]
  422. Frace R Mechanical ventilation: the patient's viewpoint. Todays OR Nurse. 1982;4(6):16–21. [PubMed: 6924460]
  423. Franck LS, Vaughan B, Wallace J Extubation and reintubation in the NICU: Identifying opportunities to improve care. Pediatr Nurs. 1992;18(3):267–70. [PubMed: 1625957]
  424. Frank BS, Lewis RJ Experience with intubated patients does not affect the accidental extubation rate in pediatric intensive care units and intensive care nurseries. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1997;23(6):424–8. [PubMed: 9220524]
  425. Frankel H, Jeng J, Tilly E, et al The impact of implementation of neuromuscular blockade monitoring standards in a surgical intensive care unit. Am Surg. 1996;62(6):503–6. [PubMed: 8651538]
  426. Frates RC, Splaingard ML, Smith EO, et al Outcome of home mechanical ventilation in children. J Pediatr. 1985;106(5):850–6. [PubMed: 3858494]
  427. Freeman JA, Fredricks BJ, Best CJ Evaluation of a new method for determining tracheal tube length in children. Anaesthesia. 1995;50(12):1050–2. [PubMed: 8546285]
  428. Freezer N, Butt W, Phelan P Steroids in croup: Do they increase the incidence of successful extubation? Anaesth Intensive Care. 1990;18(2):224–8. [PubMed: 2195914]
  429. Freye E, Knufermann V [No inhibition of intestinal motility after ketamin/midazolam anaesthesia. A study comparing the effects after enflurane and fentanyl/midazolam.][German] Anaesthesist. 1994;43(2):87–91. [PubMed: 8141442]
  430. Fricker HS, Palla C, Mettler M [Intermittent mandatory ventilation in the treatment of the idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome of newborns]. [German] Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1980;110(7):251–5. [PubMed: 6988959]
  431. Friman L, Hedenstierna G, Schildt B Stenosis following tracheostomy. A quantitative study of long term results. Anaesthesia. 1976;31(4):479–93. [PubMed: 779512]
  432. Froehlich P, Kearns DB, Seid AB, et al One-stage tracheal reconstruction of congenital tracheal stenosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1996;34(3):245–52. [PubMed: 8839075]
  433. Frutos F, Alia I, Esteban A, et al Clinical changes during a T-tube weaning trial. Med Intensiva. 1995;19(7):343–8.
  434. Fry EN Muscle spasticity. Anaesthesia. 1990;45(1):67–8. [PubMed: 2316853]
  435. Fuhrman TM, Ewell CL, Pippin WD, et al Comparison of the efficacy of esmolol and alfentanil to attenuate the hemodynamic responses to emergence and extubation. J Clin Anesth. 1992;4(6):444–7. [PubMed: 1360803]
  436. Fujii Y, Saitoh Y, Tanaka H, et al Cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation or LMA removal in children. Can J Anaesth. 1998;45(2):178–81. [PubMed: 9512856]
  437. Fujii Y, Toyooka H, Tanaka H Cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation or LMA removal in normotensive and hypertensive patients. Can J Anaesth. 1997;44(10):1082–6. [PubMed: 9350368]
  438. Fulton B, Sorkin EM Propofol. An overview of its pharmacology and a review of its clinical efficacy in intensive care sedation. Drugs. 1995;50(4):636–57. [PubMed: 8536552]
  439. Furuya Y, Tachibana C, Kobayashi N, et al [Comparison of sevoflurane and halothane in pediatric anesthesia.][Japanese] Jpn J Anesth. 1993;42(1):45–51.
  440. Gall SA, Olsen CO, Reves JG, et al Beneficial effects of endotracheal extubation on ventricular performance. Implications for early extubation after cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1988;95(5):819–27. [PubMed: 3258946]
  441. Gan TJ, Glass PS, Windsor A, et al Bispectral index monitoring allows faster emergence and improved recovery from propofol, alfentanil and nitrous oxide anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 1997;87(4):808–15. [PubMed: 9357882]
  442. Gandia F, Blanco J Evaluation of indexes predicting the outcome of ventilator weaning and value of adding supplemental inspiratory load. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18(6):327–33. [PubMed: 1469159]
  443. Gardner BP, Watt JW, Krishnan KR The artificial ventilation of acute spinal cord damaged patients: A retrospective study of forty-four patients. Paraplegia. 1986;24(4):208–20. [PubMed: 3531981]
  444. Garner W, Downs JB, Stock MC, et al Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV). A human trial. Chest. 1988;94(4):779–81. [PubMed: 3139372]
  445. Gaudinski MA Psychological consideration with patients on respirators. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1977;48:71–3. [PubMed: 831719]
  446. Gauger PG, Pranikoff T, Schreiner RJ, et al Initial experience with partial liquid ventilation in pediatric patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(1):16–22. [PubMed: 8565522]
  447. Gaumann DM, Tassonyi E, Fathi F, et al Effects of topical laryngeal lidocaine on sympathetic response to rigid panendoscopy under general anesthesia. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1992;54(1):49–53. [PubMed: 1584592]
  448. Gaussorgues P, Boyer F, Piperno D, et al [Laryngeal edema after extubation. Do corticosteroids play a role in its prevention?] [French] Presse Med. 1987;16(31):1531–2. [PubMed: 2958819]
  449. Gay PC, Rodarte JR, Hubmayr RD The effects of positive expiratory pressure on isovolume flow and dynamic hyperinflation in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;139(3):621–6. [PubMed: 2647006]
  450. Gayan-Ramirez G, Van de Casteele M, Rollier H, et al Biliary cirrhosis induces type IIx/b fiber atrophy in rat diaphragm and skeletal muscle, and decreases IGF-I mRNA in the liver but not in muscle. J Hepatol. 1998;29(2):241–9. [PubMed: 9722205]
  451. Gemma M, Bricchi M, Giannini A, et al Acupuncture accelerates recovery from general anaesthesia [7] Can J Anaesth. 1993;40(12):1224–5. [PubMed: 8281607]
  452. Georgiadis D, Wenzel A, Lehmann D, et al Influence of oxygen ventilation on doppler microemboli signals in patients with artificial heart valves. Stroke. 1997;28(11):2189–94. [PubMed: 9368563]
  453. Ghattas MA Pulmonary dysfunction after coronary artery bypass surgery. Cleveland Clin Q. 1981;48(1):218–20. [PubMed: 6973421]
  454. Giacoia GP, Pineda R Diuretics, hypochloremia, and outcome in bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients. Dev Pharmacol Therapeut. 1991;16(4):212–20. [PubMed: 1782839]
  455. Giacomini M, Kolobow T, Reali Forster C, et al Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure in a sheep model of severe acute respiratory failure. Chest. 1997;112(4):1060–7. [PubMed: 9377918]
  456. Giamarellou H, Mandragos K, Bechrakis P, et al Pefloxacin versus imipenem in the therapy of nosocomial lung infections of intensive care unit patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990;26(Suppl B):117–27. [PubMed: 2258339]
  457. Giep T, Raibble P, Zuerlein T, et al Trial of beclomethasone dipropionate by metered-dose inhaler in ventilator-dependent neonates less than 1500 grams. Am J Perinatol. 1996;13(1):5–9. [PubMed: 8645387]
  458. Gift A, Plaut S, Jacox A Psychologic and physiologic factors related to dyspnea in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Heart Lung. 1986;15:595–601. [PubMed: 3639857]
  459. Gimenez AM, Fernandez-Reyes I, Marin B, et al Methodology for the validation of the diagnostic content of dysfuncional [sic] Ventilatory Weaning Response (DVWR) [Spanish] Enfermeria Clin. 1997;7(6):255–62.
  460. Gimenez A, Fernandez-Reyes I, Marin B, et al [Validation in Spain of the dysfunctional ventilatory response to weaning]. [Spanish] Enfermeria Intensiva. 1997;8(3):121–8. [PubMed: 9481275]
  461. Giostra E, Magistris MR, Pizzolato G, et al Neuromuscular disorder in intensive care unit patients treated with pancuronium bromide: Occurrence in a cluster group of seven patients and two sporadic cases, with electrophysiologic and histologic examination. Chest. 1994;106(1):210–20. [PubMed: 8020274]
  462. Gipson WT, Sivak ED, Gulledge AD Psychological aspects of ventilator dependency. Psychiatr Med. 1987;5(3):245–55. [PubMed: 3447238]
  463. Girault C, Daudenthun I, Chevron V, et al Noninvasive ventilation as a systematic extubation and weaning technique in acute-on-chronic respiratory failure: A prospective, randomized controlled study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(1):86–92. [PubMed: 10390384]
  464. Girault C, Defouilloy C, Richard JC, et al Weaning criteria from mechanical ventilation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1994;49(2):118–24. [PubMed: 8049695]
  465. Giuliani R, Mascia L, Recchia F, et al Patient-ventilator interaction during synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation. Effects of flow triggering. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151(1):1–9. [PubMed: 7812537]
  466. Glanemann M, Langrehr JM, Muller AR, et al Incidence and risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation and causes of reintubation after liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1998;30(5):1874–5. [PubMed: 9723317]
  467. Gluck EH Predicting eventual success or failure to wean in patients receiving long-term mechanical ventilation [published erratum appears in Chest 1997 Mar;111(3):836] Chest. 1996;110(4):1018–24. [PubMed: 8874263]
  468. Gluck EH, Barkoviak MJ, Balk RA, et al Medical effectiveness of esophageal balloon pressure manometry in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1995;23(3):504–9. [PubMed: 7874902]
  469. Goddard JE, Phillips O, Marcy J Betamethasone for prophylaxis of postintubation inflammation: A double-blind study. Anesth Analg. 1967;46(3):348–53. [PubMed: 5337516]
  470. Godet G, Gossens S, Prayssac P, et al Infusion of propofol, sufentanil, or midazolam for sedation after aortic surgery: Comparison of oxygen consumption and hemodynamic stability. Anesth Analg. 1998;87(2):272–6. [PubMed: 9706915]
  471. Gologorskii VA, Gelfand BR, Stamov VI, et al [Cessation of prolonged artificial ventilation of the lungs and transition to spontaneous respiration of surgical patients]. [Russian] Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1997;(1):4–10. [PubMed: 9173817]
  472. Gologorskii VA, Stamov VI, Lapshina II [Criteria in discontinuing artificial ventilation of the lungs after planned and emergency surgical interventions]. [Russian] Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1997;(2):4–10. [PubMed: 9221686]
  473. Goodenberger DM, Couser JIJ, May JJ Successful discontinuation of ventilation via tracheostomy by substitution of nasal positive pressure ventilation. Chest. 1992;102(4):1277–9. [PubMed: 1395783]
  474. Goodnough-Hanneman SK Predictors of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Heart Lung. 1992;21(3):–.
  475. Goodnough-Hanneman SK Multidimensional predictors of success or failure with early weaning from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. Nurs Res. 1994;43(1):4–10. [PubMed: 8295839]
  476. Hanneman SK, Bines AS, Sajtar WS The indirect patient care effect of a unit-based clinical nurse specialist on preventable pulmonary complications. Am J Crit Care. 1993;2(4):331–8. [PubMed: 8358480]
  477. Gorback MS, Kantor K Extubation without a trial of spontaneous ventilation in the general surgical population. Respir Care. 1987;32(3):178–82.
  478. Govan JJ, Ohlsson A, Ryan ML, et al Aminophylline and doppler time-averaged mean velocity in the middle cerebral artery in preterm neonates. J Paediatr Child Health. 1995;31(5):461–4. [PubMed: 8554870]
  479. Goyagi T, Sato S [Influence of epidural anesthesia on the halothane MAC-intubation in emergence in infants and children.][Japanese] Jpn J Anesthesiol. 1995;44(3):338–41. [PubMed: 7745785]
  480. Gozal D, Shoseyov D, Keens TG Inspiratory pressures with CO2stimulation and weaning from mechanical ventilation in children. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;147(2):256–61. [PubMed: 8430947]
  481. Gracey DR, Divertie MB, Howard-FM J Mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in myasthenia gravis. Two-year experience with 22 patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 1983;58(9):597–602. [PubMed: 6887975]
  482. Gracey DR, Hardy DC, Naessens JM, et al The Mayo Ventilator-Dependent Rehabilitation Unit: A 5-year experience. Mayo Clin Proc. 1997;72(1):13–9. [PubMed: 9005279]
  483. Gracey DR, Naessens JM, Viggiano RW, et al Outcome of patients cared for in a ventilator-dependent unit in a general hospital. Chest. 1995;107(2):494–9. [PubMed: 7842783]
  484. Gracey DR, Viggiano RW, Naessens JM, et al Outcomes of patients admitted to a chronic ventilator-dependent unit in an acute-care hospital. Mayo Clin Proc. 1992;67(2):131–6. [PubMed: 1545576]
  485. Gravelyn R, Weg JG Respiratory rate as an indicator of acute respiratory dysfunction. JAMA. 1980;244(10):1123–5. [PubMed: 7411767]
  486. Green G, Jonsson L Nausea: The most important factor determining length of stay after ambulatory anaesthesia. A comparative study of isoflurane and/or propofol techniques. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1993;37(8):742–6. [PubMed: 8279247]
  487. Greenough A, Chan V The SLE 2000. Crit Care Med. 1994;10(4):150–2.
  488. Greenough A, Elias-Jones A, Pool J, et al The therapeutic actions of theophylline in preterm ventilated infants. Early Hum Dev. 1985;12(1):15–22. [PubMed: 3905342]
  489. Greenough A, Milner A Patient-triggered ventilation using flow or pressure sensors. Semin Neonatol. 1997;2(2):99–104.
  490. Greenough A, Milner AD, Dimitriou G Synchronized mechanical ventilation in neonates. (Cochrane Review) In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 (12 p) (10 ref) 1998. Oxford: Update Software, disk or CD-ROM, updated quarterly.
  491. Greenough A, Pool J, Gamsu H Randomised controlled trial of two methods of weaning from high frequency positive pressure ventilation. Arch Dis Child. 1989;64(6):834–8. [PMC free article: PMC1792547] [PubMed: 2505689]
  492. Greenspun JF, Hannallah RS, Welborn LG, et al Comparison of sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia in children undergoing outpatient ear, nose, and throat surgery. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7(5):398–402. [PubMed: 7576676]
  493. Greenspan JS, Abbasi S, Bhutani VK Sequential changes in pulmonary mechanics in the very low birth weight (less than or equal to 1,000 grams) infant. J Pediatr. 1988;113(4):732–7. [PubMed: 3171798]
  494. Gries M, Fernsler J Patient perceptions of the mechanical ventilation experience. Focus Crit Care. 1988;15(2):52–9. [PubMed: 3360192]
  495. Groneck P, Soditt V, Blaker F Clinical effects of dexamethasone in preterm infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1994;142(4):279–84.
  496. Gross SB Early extubation: Preliminary experience in the cardiothoracic patient population. Am J Crit Care. 1995;4(4):262–6. [PubMed: 7663588]
  497. Grundfast KM, Camilon FSJ, Pransky S, et al Prospective study of subglottic stenosis in intubated neonates. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1990;99(5 Pt 1):390–5. [PubMed: 2337318]
  498. Guarracino F, De Stefani R, Zussa C, et al Anesthetic management is a major determinant of early extubation after elective cardiac surgery [6] Chest. 1998;114(1):–. [PubMed: 9674501]
  499. Guilleminault C, Stoohs R, Shiomi T, et al Upper airway resistance syndrome, nocturnal blood pressure monitoring, and borderline hypertension. Chest. 1996;109(4):901–8. [PubMed: 8635368]
  500. Gumprecht H, Hupka R, Lumenta CB [Percutaneous puncture tracheostomy in neurosurgical intensive care patients]. [German] Zentralbl Neurochir. 1996;57(1):44–6. [PubMed: 8900899]
  501. Gunn TR, Metrakos K, Riley P, et al Sequelae of caffeine treatment in preterm infants with apnea. J Pediatr. 1979;94(1):106–9. [PubMed: 363996]
  502. Gupta A, Kullander M, Ekberg K, et al Anaesthesia for day-care arthroscopy. A comparison between desflurane and isoflurane. Anaesthesia. 1996;51(1):56–62. [PubMed: 8669568]
  503. Gurevitch MJ, Gelmont D Importance of trigger sensitivity to ventilator response delay in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 1989;17(4):354–9. [PubMed: 2639663]
  504. Gurmarnik S, Poreda M, Reid GM, et al A combination of low dose spinal and general anaesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy [3] Can J Anaesth. 1996;43(1):–. [PubMed: 8665647]
  505. Gust R, Gottschalk A, Schmidt H, et al Effects of continuous (CPAP) and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) on extravascular lung water after extubation of the trachea in patients following coronary artery bypass grafting. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(12):1345–50. [PubMed: 8986484]
  506. Haberthur C, Lehmann F, Ritz R Assessment of depth of midazolam sedation using objective parameters. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(12):1385–90. [PubMed: 8986490]
  507. Habib RH, Zacharias A, Engoren M Determinants of prolonged mechanical ventilation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62(4):1164–71. [PubMed: 8823107]
  508. Hachenberg T, Mollhoff T, Holst D, et al Cardiopulmonary effects of enoximone or dobutamine and nitroglycerin on mitral valve regurgitation and pulmonary venous hypertension. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1997;11(4):453–7. [PubMed: 9187994]
  509. Kil HK, Alberts MK, Liggitt HD, et al Dexamethasone treatment does not ameliorate subglottic ischemic injury in rabbits. Chest. 1997;111(5):1356–60. [PubMed: 9149594]
  510. Hahnel J, Friesdorf W, Schwilk B, et al Can a clinician predict the technical equipment a patient will need during intensive care unit treatment? An approach to standardize and redesign the intensive care unit workstation. J Clin Monit. 1992;8(1):1–6. [PubMed: 1538245]
  511. Halliday HL, Patterson CC Randomised trial of methods of extubation in acute and chronic respiratory distress [2] Arch Dis Child. 1994;70(2 Suppl):–. [PMC free article: PMC1061021] [PubMed: 8154910]
  512. Hammer J, Numa A, Newth CJ Albuterol responsiveness in infants with respiratory failure caused by respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Pediatr. 1995;127(3):485–90. [PubMed: 7658285]
  513. Hammerman C, Aramburo MJ Decreased lipid intake reduces morbidity in sick premature neonates. J Pediatr. 1988;113(6):1083–8. [PubMed: 3142984]
  514. Handerhan B, Allegrezza N Getting your patient off a ventilator. RN. 1989;52(12):60–5. [PubMed: 2602820]
  515. Goodnough Hanneman SK Multidimensional predictors of success or failure with early weaning from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. Nurs Res. 1994;43(1):4–10. [PubMed: 8295839]
  516. Hanneman SK, Ingersoll GL, Knebel AR, et al Weaning from short-term mechanical ventilation: A review. Am J Crit Care. 1994;3(6):421–41. [PubMed: 7834002]
  517. Harel Y, Vardi A, Quigley R, et al Extubation failure due to post-extubation stridor is better correlated with neurologic impairment than with upper airway lesions in critically ill pediatric patients. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1997;39(2):147–58. [PubMed: 9104623]
  518. Harkavy KL, Scanlon JW, Chowdhry PK, et al Dexamethasone therapy for chronic lung disease in ventilator- and oxygen-dependent infants: A controlled trial. J Pediatr. 1989;115(6):979–83. [PubMed: 2685220]
  519. Harper MA, Lorentz WB Immature lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios and neonatal respiratory course. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168(2):495–8. [PubMed: 8438917]
  520. Harpin RP, Baker JP, Downer JP, et al Correlation of the oxygen cost of breathing and length of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1987;15(9):807–12. [PubMed: 3621952]
  521. Hastings PR, Bushnell LS, Skillman JJ, et al Cardiorespiratory dynamics during weaning with IMV versus spontaneous ventilation in good-risk cardiac-surgery patients. Anesthesiology. 1980;53(5):429–31. [PubMed: 6968523]
  522. Hausler E, Bertschat FL, Koppel C, et al Intensive care after bone marrow transplantation. Intensiv Notfallbehandl. 1995;20(2):55–8.
  523. Hawkins DB, Crockett DM, Shum TK Corticosteroids in airway management. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1983;91:593–6. [PubMed: 6198612]
  524. Hawkins DB, Williams EH Tracheostomy in infants and young children. Laryngoscope. 1976;86(3):331–40. [PubMed: 1256210]
  525. Hazelzet JA, Petru R, Ouden CD, et al New modes of mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(9 Suppl):S366–S367. [PubMed: 8365231]
  526. Heard GG, Lamberti JJ, Park SM, et al Early extubation after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. Crit Care Med. 1985;13(10):830–2. [PubMed: 4028752]
  527. Heath JV What the patients say: Recollections of patients on intensive care units. Intensive Care Nurs. 1989;5(3):101–8. [PubMed: 2685104]
  528. Heffner JE The technique of weaning from tracheostomy. Criteria for weaning: Practical measures to prevent failure. J Crit Illn. 1995;10(10):729–33. [PubMed: 10155745]
  529. Heffner JE, Brown LK, Barbieri CA, et al Prospective validation of an acute respiratory distress syndrome predictive score. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152(5 I):1518–26. [PubMed: 7582287]
  530. Heffner JE, Zamora CA Clinical predictors of prolonged translaryngeal intubation in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest. 1990;97(2):447–52. [PubMed: 2404704]
  531. Heinle JS, Diaz LK, Fox LS Early extubation after cardiac operations in neonates and young infants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;114(3):413–8. [PubMed: 9305193]
  532. Heinze J, Rohrbach M [Cataract surgery: General anaesthesia vs. retrobulbar block. A randomised trial of high-risk patients.][German] Anaesthesist. 1992;41(8):481–8. [PubMed: 1524160]
  533. Helsmers JH, Van LeeuwenL, Zuurmond W [Sufentanil: Dose finding study in general surgery.][German] Anaesthesist. 1989;38(8):397–400. [PubMed: 2528926]
  534. Hemmer M, Viquerat CE, Suter PM, et al Urinary antidiuretic hormone excretion during mechanical ventilation and weaning in man. Anesthesiology. 1980;52(5):395–400. [PubMed: 7377572]
  535. Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG Prophylactic methylxanthine for extubation in preterm infants. The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 (7 p) (5 ref 4 bib) 1998. Oxford: Update Software, disk or CD-ROM, updated quarterly.
  536. Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG Prophylactic methylxanthine for extubation in preterm infants. In: Neonatal Module of The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Sinclair JC et al). The Cochrane Library, Issue 4 (7 p) 1997. Oxford: Update Software CD-ROM.
  537. Henneman EA Effect of nursing contact on the stress response of patients being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Heart Lung. 1989;18(5):483–9. [PubMed: 2777567]
  538. Henning RJ, Shubin H, Weil MH The measurement of the work of breathing for the clinical assessment of ventilator dependence. Crit Care Med. 1977;5(6):264–8. [PubMed: 590015]
  539. Heres EK, Marquez J, Malkowski MJ, et al Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass: Anesthetic, monitoring, and pain control considerations. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;12(4):385–9. [PubMed: 9713723]
  540. Hermabessiere C, Monier B, Gaultier C, et al [Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Outcome and treatment of severe forms]. [French] Arch Pediatr. 1995;2(7):628–35. [PubMed: 7663650]
  541. Hermansen MC, Hasan S An evaluation of a computer program to predict the outcome of hyaline membrane disease. Am J Perinatol. 1987;4(3):249–52. [PubMed: 3606759]
  542. Hermansen MC, Perlstein PH, Atherton HD, et al A computer-generated blood gas display in a newborn intensive care unit. J Pediatr. 1983;103(5):825–8. [PubMed: 6688825]
  543. Hernandez-Sande C, Moret-Bonillo V, Alonso-Betanzos A ESTER: An expert system for management of respiratory weaning therapy. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1989;36(5):559–64. [PubMed: 2722207]
  544. Herrera M, Blasco J, Venegas J, et al Mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) in acute respiratory failure. Intensive Care Med. 1985;11(3):134–9. [PubMed: 3998273]
  545. Herschman Z, Sonnenklar N, Blumberg G, et al A comparison of the Puritan-Bennett 7200a ventilator's flow-by mode to the T-piece mode prior to extubation in postsurgical patients. Respir Care. 1994;36(10):1119–22. [PubMed: 10145568]
  546. Herve P, Simonneau G, Girard P, et al Hypercapnic acidosis induced by nutrition in mechanically ventilated patients: glucose versus fat. Crit Care Med. 1985;13(7):537–40. [PubMed: 3924480]
  547. Hess D, Schlottag A, Levin B, et al An evaluation of the usefulness of end-tidal PCO2to aid weaning from mechanical ventilation following cardiac surgery. Respir Care. 1991;36(8):837–43.
  548. Heuer B, Deller A [Early and long-term results of percutaneous dilational tracheostomy (PDT(Ciaglia)) in 195 intensive care patients.][German] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1998;33(5):306–12. [PubMed: 9645290]
  549. Heyman E, Ohlsson A, Heyman Z, et al The effect of aminophylline on the excursions of the diaphragm in preterm neonates. A randomized double-blind controlled study. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1991;80(3):308–15. [PubMed: 2035326]
  550. Hickey RF, Cason BA Timing of tracheal extubation in adult cardiac surgery patients. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;10(4):340–8. [PubMed: 7549192]
  551. Higgins RD, Richter SE, Davis JM Nasal continuous positive airway pressure facilitates extubation of very low birth weight neonates. Pediatrics. 1991;88(5):999–1003. [PubMed: 1945642]
  552. Higgins TL Early endotracheal extubation is preferable to late extubation in patients following coronary artiery surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1992;6(4):488–93. [PubMed: 1498307]
  553. Higgins TL Safety issues regarding early extubation after coronary artery bypass surgery. [Review] [52 refs] J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9(5 Suppl 1):24–9. [PubMed: 8562899]
  554. Higgins TL, Yared JP, Estafanous FG, et al Propofol versus midazolam for intensive care unit sedation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(9):1415–23. [PubMed: 8062564]
  555. Higuchi H, Ura T, Taoda M, et al Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for tracheal extubation in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997;41(7):911–3. [PubMed: 9265936]
  556. Hilberman M, Kamm B, Lamy M, et al An analysis of potential physiological predictrs of respiratory adequacy following cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1976;71(5):711–20. [PubMed: 772324]
  557. Hilbert G, Gruson D, Portel L, et al Airway occlusion pressure at 0.1 s (P0.1) after extubation: An early indicator of postextubation hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency. Intensive Care Med. 1998a;24(12):1277–82. [PubMed: 9885880]
  558. Hilbert G, Gruson D, Portel L, et al Noninvasive pressure support ventilation in COPD patients with postextubation hyperapnic respiratory insufficiency. Eur Respir J. 1998b;11(6):1349–53. [PubMed: 9657578]
  559. Hill AT, Hopkinson RB, Stableforth DE Ventilation in a Birmingham intensive care unit 1993-1995: Outcome for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med. 1998;92(2):156–61. [PubMed: 9616505]
  560. Hill MG Commentary on continuous pulse oximetry during emergency endotracheal intubation [original article by Mateer JR et al appears in Ann Emerg Med 1993;22(4):675-9] AACN Nurs Scan Crit Care. 1993;3(5):–. [PubMed: 8457094]
  561. Hillman DR, Breakey JN, Lam YM, et al Minimizing work of breathing with continuous positive airway pressure and intermittent mandatory ventilation: an improved continuous low-flow system. Crit Care Med. 1987;15(7):665–70. [PubMed: 3297491]
  562. Hirahara K, Taki K, Tomita S, et al Acetazolamide-induced inhibition of carbonic anhydrase influences energy metabolism and respiratory work in healthy subjects. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1995;90(1):125–31. [PubMed: 8581337]
  563. Hird MF, Greenough A Randomised trial of patient triggered ventilation versus high frequency positive pressure ventilation in acute respiratory distress. J Perinat Med. 1991;19(5):379–84. [PubMed: 1804948]
  564. Ho LI, Harn HJ, Lien TC, et al Postextubation laryngeal edema in adults. Risk factor evaluation and prevention by hydrocortisone. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(9):933–6. [PubMed: 8905428]
  565. Ho ML, Chen JY Colonization of bacteria in the airways of ventilated preterm infants: The bacterial flora and clinical applications. Clin Neonatol. 1998;5(1):19–25.
  566. Hoeve LJ, Eskici O, Verwoerd CD Therapeutic reintubation for post-intubation laryngotracheal injury in preterm infants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1995;31(1):7–13. [PubMed: 7729996]
  567. Hoffman RA, Krieger BP, Kramer MR, et al End-tidal carbon dioxide in critically ill patients during changes in mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989;140(5):1265–8. [PubMed: 2510564]
  568. Holbrook PJ, Guiles SP Response time of four pressure support ventilators: Effect of triggering method and bias flow... a version of this paper was presented by Mr Holbrook during the RESPIRATORY CARE OPEN FORUM, during the American Association for Respiratory Care's 41st Annual Convention and Exhibition, December 2-5, 1995 in Orlando, FL. Respir Care. 1997;42(10):952–9.
  569. Holdgaard HO, Pedersen J, Schurizek BA, et al [Complications and late sequelae after nasotracheal intubation]. [Danish] Ugeskr Laeger. 1994;156(49):7353–7. [PubMed: 7801396]
  570. Holdgaard HO, Pedersen J, Schurizek BA, et al Complications and late sequelae following nasotracheal intubation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1993;37(5):475–80. [PubMed: 8356860]
  571. Holliday J, Ruppel G Breathing pattern changes in COPD pathients using respiratory inductive plethysmograph and EMG feedback. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985:–.
  572. Holliday JE, Hyers TM The reduction of weaning time from mechanical ventilation using tidal volume and relaxation biofeedback. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;141(5 Pt 1):1214–20. [PubMed: 2187384]
  573. Holliday JE, Veremakis C Reduction in ventilator response to CO2with relaxation feedback during CO2rebreathing in normal adults. Chest. 1999;115(5):1285–92. [PubMed: 10334141]
  574. Holtmann S, Kleinsasser N, Mantel K, et al [Surgical treatment of pediatric laryngeal stenosis in the area of the ring cartilage]. [German] Laryngorhinootologie. 1994;73(1):41–5. [PubMed: 8141953]
  575. Holzapfel L, Chevret S, Madinier G, et al Influence of long-term oro- or nasotracheal intubation on nosocomial maxillary sinusitis and pneumonia: Results of a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(8):1132–8. [PubMed: 8339576]
  576. Honeybourne D, Costello JC, Barham C Tracheal damage after endotracheal intubation: Comparison of two types of endotracheal tubes. Thorax. 1982;37(7):500–2. [PMC free article: PMC459354] [PubMed: 7135289]
  577. Hormann C, Baum M, Luz G, et al Tidal volume, breathing frequency, and oxygen consumption at different pressure support levels in the early stage of weaning in patients without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18(4):226–30. [PubMed: 1430587]
  578. Horn EP, Werner C, Sessler DI, et al Late intraoperative clonidine administration prevents postanesthetic shivering after total intravenous or volatile anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(3):613–7. [PubMed: 9052312]
  579. Horn W, Miksch S, Egghart G, et al Effective data validation of high-frequency data: Time-point-, time-interval-, and trend-based methods. Comput Biol Med. 1997;27(5):389–409. [PubMed: 9397341]
  580. Horst HM, Mouro D, Hall Janssens RA, et al Decrease in ventilation time with a standardized weaning process. Arch Surg. 1998;133(5):483–9. [PubMed: 9605909]
  581. Houweling PL, van-der GP Current ventilation techniques in the intensive care. Ned Tijdschr Med Microbiol. 1998;6(2):31–6.
  582. Howard RS, Wiles CM, Hirsch NP, et al Respiratory involvement in primary muscle disorders: Assessment and management. Q J Med. 1993;86(3):175–89. [PubMed: 8483991]
  583. Howie MB, Black HA, Romanelli VA, et al A comparison of isoflurane versus fentanyl as primary anesthetics for mitral valve surgery. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(5):941–8. [PubMed: 8895267]
  584. Hsieh AH, Bishop MJ, Kubilis PS, et al Pneumonia following closed head injury. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146(2):290–4. [PubMed: 1489114]
  585. Hubmayr RD, Loosbrock LM, Gillespie DJ, et al Oxygen uptake during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1988;94(6):1148–55. [PubMed: 3142721]
  586. Hughes RA, Swan AV, Cornblath DR, et al Randomised trial of plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin, and combined treatments in Guillain-Barre syndrome. Lancet. 1997;349(9047):225–30. [PubMed: 9014908]
  587. Huon C, Moriette G, Mussat P, et al Use of preestablished criteria for deciding on extubation in the very low birthweight newborn. Preliminary analysis of a randomized study. Biol Neonate. 1993;63(2):75–9. [PubMed: 8448257]
  588. Hurford WE, Favorito F Association of myocardial ischemia with failure to wean from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1995;23(9):1475–80. [PubMed: 7664548]
  589. Huval WV, Lelcuk S, Shepro D, et al Role of serotonin in patients with acute respiratory failure. Ann Surg. 1984;200(2):166–72. [PMC free article: PMC1250439] [PubMed: 6547816]
  590. Inagaki Y, Shindo H, Mashimo T, et al The effects of epidural fentanyl on hemodynamic responses during emergence from isoflurane anesthesia and tracheal extubation: A comparison with intravenous fentanyl. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(2):328–35. [PubMed: 9249109]
  591. Inagaki Y, Tashiro C, Miwa Y, et al Effects of four volatile anesthesics on postanesthetic ventilation: A comparison of halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane. J Anesth. 1996;10(2):99–104.
  592. Indihar FJ A 10-year report of patients in a prolonged respiratory care unit. Minn Med. 1991;74(4):23–7. [PubMed: 1908547]
  593. Ingersoll GL, Goodnough-Hanneman SK, Knebel AR, et al Measurement issues in mechanical ventilation weaning research. Online Journal of Knowledge Synthesis for Nursing Nov. 29, 1995; 2(doc 12, Online #24): 1-11.
  594. Ingersoll GL, Grippi MA Preoperative pulmonary status and postoperative extubation outcome of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Heart Lung. 1991;20(2):137–43. [PubMed: 2004924]
  595. [Anonymous] Inhaled nitric oxide and hypoxic respiratory failure in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The Neonatal Inhaled Nitric Oxide Study Group (NINOS) Pediatrics. 1997;99(6):838–45. [PMC free article: PMC317313] [PubMed: 9190553]
  596. Ip Yam PC, Appadurai IR, Kox WJ Effect of weaning on oxygen consumption and cardiovascular function. A comparison of continuous flow and demand valve systems. Anaesthesia. 1994;49(5):391–3. [PubMed: 8209977]
  597. Irwig L, Tosteson A, Gatsonis C, et al Guidelines for meta-analyses evaluating diagnostic tests. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120(8):667–76. [PubMed: 8135452]
  598. Ishaaya AM, Nathan SD, Belman MJ Work of breathing after extubation. Chest. 1995;107(1):204–9. [PubMed: 7813279]
  599. Ishii K, Kurosawa H, Koyanagi H, et al Effects of bilateral transvenous diaphragm pacing on hemodynamic function in patients after cardiac operations. Experimental and clinical study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1990;100(1):108–14. [PubMed: 2366549]
  600. Ishikawa S, Ohtaki A, Takahashi T, et al Noninvasive nasal mask BiPAP management for prolonged respiratory failure following cardiovascular surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;12(3):176–9. [PubMed: 9395946]
  601. Jablonski RS The experience of being mechanically ventilated. Qual Health Res. 1994;4(2):186–207.
  602. Jabour ER, Rabil DM, Truwit JD, et al Evaluation of a new weaning index based on ventilatory endurance and the efficiency of gas exchange. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144(3 Pt 1):531–7. [PubMed: 1892291]
  603. Jackson M, Kinnear W, King M, et al The effects of five years of nocturnal cuirass-assisted ventilation in chest wall disease. Eur Respir J. 1993;6(5):630–5. [PubMed: 8519371]
  604. Jacob B, Chatila W, Manthous CA The unassisted respiratory rate/tidal volume ratio accurately predicts weaning outcome in postoperative patients. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(2):253–7. [PubMed: 9034260]
  605. Jaeschke R, Guyatt GH, Sackett DL for the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Users' guide to the medical literature.III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. A. Are the results of the study valid? JAMA. 1994;271(5):389–91. [PubMed: 8283589]
  606. Jaeschke R, Guyatt GH, Sackett DL. for the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group Users' guides to the medical literature.III. How to use an article about a diagnostic test. B. What are the results and will they help me in caring for my patients? JAMA. 1994;271(9):703–7. [PubMed: 8309035]
  607. Jaeschke RZ, Meade MO, Guyatt GH, et al How to use diagnostic test articles in the intensive care unit: Diagnosing weanability using f/Vt. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(9):1514–21. [PubMed: 9295825]
  608. Jagger K, Tweeddale M, Holland T Flow-triggering does not decrease the work of breathing and pressure-time product in COPD patients. Respir Care. 1994;39(9):892–6.
  609. Jain U, Rao TL, Kumar P, et al Radiographic pulmonary abnormalities after different types of cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1991;5(6):592–5. [PubMed: 1768823]
  610. Jakobsson J, Rane K, Ryberg G Anaesthesia during laparoscopic gynaecological surgery: A comparison between desflurane and isoflurane. Eur J Anaesth. 1997;14(2):148–52. [PubMed: 9088812]
  611. James J Dexamethasone in croup: A controlled study Am J Dis Child 1969117(5)511–6.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 4889356]
  612. Janke EL, Pilkington SN, Smith DC Evaluation of two warming systems after cardiopulmonary bypass. Br J Anaesth. 1996;77(2):268–70. [PubMed: 8881639]
  613. Jarreau PH, Moriette G, Mussat P, et al Patient-triggered ventilation decreases the work of breathing in neonates. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153(3):1176–81. [PubMed: 8630564]
  614. Jaskulka R, Weinstabl C, Schedl R [The course of intracranial pressure during respirator weaning after severe craniocerebral trauma]. [German] Unfallchirurg. 1993;96(3):138–41. [PubMed: 8475401]
  615. Javier BF, Javier FF, Badenes R, et al [Weaning from artificial ventilation: Clinic results with S-MMV (author's transl)]. [Spanish] Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1982;29(1):23–33. [PubMed: 6952530]
  616. Jayr C, Matthay MA, Goldstone J, et al Preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation. A study in patients following major abdominal vascular surgery. Chest. 1993;103(4):1231–6. [PubMed: 8131471]
  617. Jellish WS, Leonetti JP, Murdoch JR, et al Propofol-based anesthesia as compared with standard anesthetic techniques for middle ear surgery. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7(4):292–6. [PubMed: 7546755]
  618. Jenkins IR, Curtis AP The combination of mannitol and albumin in the priming solution reduces positive intraoperative fluid balance during cardiopulmonary bypass. Perfusion. 1995;10(5):301–5. [PubMed: 8601041]
  619. Jenkins S, Akinkugbe Y, Corry G, et al Physiotherapy management following coronary artery surgery. Physiother Theory Pract. 1994;10(1):3–8.
  620. Jenny J, Logan J Analyzing expert nursing practice to develop a new nursing diagnosis dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response. In: Carroll-Johnson RM, ed. Classification of nursing diagnoses: Proceedings of the 9th conference. 1990, Orlando, FL. Lippincott; 1991. 133-40.
  621. Jenny J, Logan J Caring and comfort metaphors used by patients in critical care. Image J Nurs Sch. 1996;28(4):349–52. [PubMed: 8987283]
  622. Jenny J, Logan J Promoting ventilator independence: A grounded theory perspective. Dimensions Crit Care Nurs. 1994;13(1):29–37. [PubMed: 7882863]
  623. Jensen AG, Kalman SH, Eintrei C, et al Atelectasis and oxygenation in major surgery with either propofol with or without nitrous oxide or isoflurane anaesthesia. Anaesthesia. 1993;48(12):1094–6. [PubMed: 8285335]
  624. Jeong EC, Chae ML, Koh Y, et al Comparison of imposed work of breathing between pressure-triggered and flow-triggered ventilation during mechanical ventilation. Tuberc Respir Dis. 1997;44(3):592–600.
  625. Jesurum JT, Alexander WA, Anderson JJ, et al Fast track recovery after aortocoronary bypass surgery: Early extubation and intensive care unit transfer. Semin Perioper Nurs. 1996;5(1):12–22. [PubMed: 8696284]
  626. Jiang JS, Kao SJ, Wang SN Effect of early application of biphasic positive airway pressure on the outcome of extubation in ventilator weaning. Respirology. 1999;4(2):161–5. [PubMed: 10382235]
  627. Jindani A, Aps C, Neville E, et al Postoperative cardiac surgical care: An alternative approach [published erratum appears in Br Heart J 1994 Feb;71(2):207] Br Heart J. 1993;69(1):59–63. [PMC free article: PMC1024919] [PubMed: 8457397]
  628. Joachimsson PO, Nystrom SO, Tyden H Early extubation after coronary artery surgery in efficiently rewarmed patients: A postoperative comparison of opioid anesthesia versus inhalational anesthesia and thoracic epidural analgesia. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1989;3(4):444–54. [PubMed: 2520917]
  629. Johannigman JA, Davis KJ, Campbell RS, et al Use of the rapid/shallow breathing index as an indicator of patient work of breathing during pressure support ventilation. Surgery. 1997;122(4):737–40. [PubMed: 9347850]
  630. Johnson D, Gallagher C, Cavanaugh M, et al The lack of effect of routine magnesium administration on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated patients. Chest. 1993;104(2):536–41. [PubMed: 8339645]
  631. Johnson D, Kelm C, To T, et al Postoperative physical therapy after coronary artery bypass surgery. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152(3):953–8. [PubMed: 7663809]
  632. Johnson D, Thomson D, Mycyk T, et al Respiratory outcomes with early extubation after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1997;11(4):474–80. [PubMed: 9187998]
  633. Johnson MM, Sexton DL Distress during mechanical ventilation: patients' perceptions. Crit Care Nurse. 1990;10(7):48–57. [PubMed: 2403412]
  634. Jolliet P, Pichard C Growth hormone therapy in intensive care patients: From biochemistry to muscle function. Nutrition. 1997;13(9):815–7. [PubMed: 9290097]
  635. Jones DP, Byrne P, Morgan C, et al Positive end-expiratory pressure vs T-piece. Extubation after mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1991;100(6):1655–9. [PubMed: 1959410]
  636. Jones J, Hoggart B, Withey J, et al What the patients say: A study of reactions to an intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 1979;5(2):89–92. [PubMed: 458040]
  637. Jongen JL, Van Doorn PA, van der Meche FG High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for myasthenia gravis. J Neurol. 1998;245(1):26–31. [PubMed: 9457625]
  638. Jordan WS, Graves CL, Elwin RA New therapy for postintubation laryngeal edema and tracheitis in children. JAMA. 1970;212(4):585–8. [PubMed: 4909104]
  639. Joshi GP, Inagaki Y, White PF, et al Use of the laryngeal mask airway as an alternative to the tracheal tube during ambulatory anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(3):573–7. [PubMed: 9296411]
  640. Jounieaux V, Duran A, Levi-Valensi P Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation with and without pressure support ventilation in weaning patients with COPD from mechanical ventilation [published erratum appears in Chest 1994 Sep;106(3):984] Chest. 1994;105(4):1204–10. [PubMed: 8162750]
  641. Journois D, Pouard P, Greeley WJ, et al Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatric cardiac surgery: Effects on hemostasis, cytokines, and complement components. Anesthesiology. 1994;81(5):1181–9. [PubMed: 7978476]
  642. Jousela I Endotracheal tube versus face mask with and without continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1993;37(4):381–5. [PubMed: 8322567]
  643. Jousela I, Rasanen J, Verkkala K, et al Continuous positive airway pressure by mask in patients after coronary surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1994;38(4):311–6. [PubMed: 8067215]
  644. Jubran A, Khandelwal S, Fink JB Weaning patients with COPD from mechanical ventilation. Rt J Respir Care Pract. 1970;7(6):67–8.
  645. Jubran A, Tobin MJ Pathophysiologic basis of acute respiratory distress in patients who fail a trial of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;155(3):906–15. [PubMed: 9117025]
  646. Kaapa P, Lanning P, Koivisto M Early closure of patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacin in preterm infants with idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1983;72(2):179–84. [PubMed: 6340412]
  647. Kacmarek RM Home mechanical ventilatory assistance for infants. Respir Care. 1994;39(5):550–61. [PubMed: 10146012]
  648. Kacmarek RM, Cycyk-Chapman MC, Young-Palazzo PJ, et al Determination of maximal inspiratory pressure: A clinical study and literature review. Respir Care. 1989;34(10):868–78.
  649. Kaelin RM, Assimacopoulos A, Chevrolet JC Failure to predict six-month survival of patients with COPD requiring mechanical ventilation by analysis of simple indices. A prospective study. Chest. 1987;92(6):971–8. [PubMed: 3677842]
  650. Kaneko H, Ishii N, Ikeda T, et al Effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on stress hormone: Comparison between laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation. J Tokyo Med Coll. 1995;53(6):808–14.
  651. Kanter RK, Bove EL, Tobin JR, et al Prolonged mechanical ventilation of infants after open heart surgery. Crit Care Med. 1986;14(3):211–4. [PubMed: 3943337]
  652. Kaplow R, Bookbinder M A comparison of four endotracheal tube holders. Heart Lung. 1994;23(1):59–66. [PubMed: 8150646]
  653. Kapp MB The legal status of clinical practice parameters: An annotated bibliography. Am J Med Qual. 1993;8(1):24–7. [PubMed: 8334377]
  654. Karliczek GF, Renz D, Jepsen M, et al Total intravenous anaesthesia for coronary artery surgery with three different hypnotic agents. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1992;6(1 Suppl):–.
  655. Karski JM Practical aspects of early extubation in cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9(5 suppl 1):30–3. [PubMed: 8562900]
  656. Katz L, Ebmeyer U, Safar P, et al Outcome model of asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995;15(6):1032–9. [PubMed: 7593335]
  657. Kazzi NJ, Brans YW, Poland RL Dexamethasone effects on the hospital course of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia who are dependent on artificial ventilation. Pediatrics. 1990;86(5):722–7. [PubMed: 2235226]
  658. Keenan HT, Martin LD Volume support ventilation in infants and children: Analysis of a case series. Respir Care. 1997;42(3):281–7.
  659. Keenan SP, Burt H, Ryan CF, et al Long-term survival of patients with obstructive sleep apnea treated by uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or nasal CPAP. Chest. 1994;105(1):155–9. [PubMed: 8275724]
  660. Keenan SP, Kernerman PD, Cook DJ, et al Effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on mortality in patients admitted with acute respiratory failure: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(10):1685–92. [PubMed: 9377883]
  661. Keller CA, Naunheim KS Perioperative management of lung volume reduction patients. Clin Chest Med. 1997;18(2):285–300. [PubMed: 9187822]
  662. Kelly BJ, Matthay MA Prevalence and severity of neurologic dysfunction in critically ill patients: Influence on need for continued mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1993;104(6):1818–24. [PubMed: 8252971]
  663. Kemper KJ, Benson MS, Bishop MJ Interobserver variability in assessing pediatric postextubation stridor. Clin Pediatr. 1992;31(7):405–8. [PubMed: 1617865]
  664. Kemper KJ, Benson MS, Bishop MJ Predictors of postextubation stridor in pediatric trauma patients. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(3):352–5. [PubMed: 1999096]
  665. Kemper KJ, Ritz RH, Benson MS, et al Helium-oxygen mixture in the treatment of postextubation stridor in pediatric trauma patients. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(3):356–9. [PubMed: 1999097]
  666. Kemper M, Weissman C, Askanazi J, et al Metabolic and respiratory changes during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1987;92(6):979–83. [PubMed: 3119297]
  667. Kennedy SK, Weintraub RM, Skillman JJ Cardiorespiratory and sympathoadrenal responses during weaning from controlled ventilation. Surgery. 1977;82(2):233–40. [PMC free article: PMC101389] [PubMed: 877867]
  668. Keszler M, Modanlou HD, Brudno DS, et al Multicenter controlled clinical trial of high-frequency jet ventilation in preterm infants with uncomplicated respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics. 1997;100(4):593–9. [PMC free article: PMC449715] [PubMed: 9310511]
  669. Khan F, Reddy NC Enlarging intratracheal tube cuff diameter: a quantitative roentgenographic study of its value in the early prediction of serious tracheal damage. Ann Thorac Surg. 1977;24(1):49–53. [PubMed: 879882]
  670. Khan FA, Mukherji R, Chitkara R et al Positive airway pressure in patients receiving intermittent mandatory ventilation at zero rate: The role in weaning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest. 1983;84(4):436–8. [PubMed: 6352196]
  671. Khan N, Brown A, Venkataraman ST Predictors of extubation success and failure in mechanically ventilated infants and children. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(9):1568–79. [PubMed: 8797633]
  672. Khan N, Venkataraman S, Brown A Can bedside measures of respiratory function predict extubation success and failure in infants and children? Crit Care Med. 1994;22:–.
  673. Kiely JL, McNicholas WT Bed partners' assessment of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 1997;111(5):1261–5. [PubMed: 9149580]
  674. Kilger E, Briegel J, Haller M, et al [Noninvasive ventilation after lung transplantation]. [German] Med Klin. 1995;90(1 Suppl 1):26–8. [PubMed: 7616913]
  675. Kim EH Successful extubation of newborn infants without preextubation trial of continuous positive airway pressure. J Perinatol. 1989;9(1):72–6. [PubMed: 2651597]
  676. Kim EH, Boutwell WC Successful direct extubation of very low birth weight infants from low intermittent mandatory ventilation rate [published erratum appears in Pediatrics 1987 Dec;80(6):948] Pediatrics. 1987;80(3):409–14. [PMC free article: PMC138812] [PubMed: 3114710]
  677. Kirby TJ, Weidemann H Intravascular oxygenation: Adjunct in acute respiratory failure. Appl Cardiopulm Pathophysiol. 1991;4(4):287–91. [PubMed: 10147653]
  678. Kirton OC, DeHaven CB, Hudson-Civetta J, et al Re-engineering ventilatory support to decrease days and improve resource utilization. Ann Surg. 1996;224(3):396–402. [PMC free article: PMC1235390] [PubMed: 8813268]
  679. Kirton OC, DeHaven CB, Morgan JP, et al Elevated imposed work of breathing masquerading as ventilator weaning intolerance. Chest. 1995;108(4):1021–5. [PubMed: 7555113]
  680. Kleiber C, Hummel PA Factors related to spontaneous endotracheal extubation in the neonate. Pediatr Nurs. 1989;15(4):347–51. [PubMed: 2587089]
  681. Klein D Commentary on cost-effectiveness and predictors of early extubation [original article by Arom K, et al. appears in Ann Thoracic Surg 1995; 60(1): 127-32] AACN Nurs Scan Crit Care. 1996;6(3):18–9.
  682. Kline JL, Zimnicki GL, Antonenko DR, et al The use of calculated relative inspiratory effort as a predictor of outcome in mechanical ventilation weaning trials. Respir Care. 1987;32(10):870–6.
  683. Klineberg PL, Geer RT, Hirsh RA, et al Early extubation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Crit Care Med. 1977;5:272–4. [PubMed: 303977]
  684. Knapik P, Richardson JB, McLellan I Early postperfusion assessment of gas exchange and postoperative extubation outcome following coronary artery surgery. Med Sci Monit. 1998;4(4):684–7.
  685. Knapik P, Spyt TJ, Richardson JB, et al Bilateral and unilateral use of internal thoracic artery for myocardial revascularization: Comparison of extubation outcome and duration of hospital stay. Chest. 1996;109(5):1231–3. [PubMed: 8625672]
  686. Knebel A Dyspnea intensity during weaning with pressure support ventilation (PSV). Do etiologies of acute respiratory failure (ARF) matter? Heart Lung. 1992;21(3):–.
  687. Knebel AR Dyspnea intensity, psychological distress, anxiety intensity, inspiratory effort: effects on ventilator weaning. [dissertation] San Francisco (CA): University of California, San Francisco; 1990. 181 p.
  688. Knebel AR, Janson-Bjerklie SL, Malley JD, et al Comparison of breathing comfort during weaning with two ventilatory modes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;149(1):14–8. [PubMed: 8111572]
  689. Knebel AR, Shekleton ME, Burns S, et al Weaning from mechanical ventilation: Concept development. Am J Crit Care. 1994;3(6):416–20. [PubMed: 7834001]
  690. Knitisch W, Schulz B, Schulz A, et al [Postoperative ventilation in non-intubated patients with iron lung versus conventional ventilation]. [Italian] Minerva Anestesiol. 1990;56(11):1385–9. [PubMed: 2084585]
  691. Knox JB, Wilmore DW, Demling RH, et al Use of growth hormone for postoperative respiratory failure. Am J Surg. 1996;171(6):576–80. [PubMed: 8678203]
  692. Knudsen KE, Brofeldt S, Mikkelsen S, et al Peritonsillar infiltration with low-dose tenoxicam after tonsillectomy. Br J Anaesth. 1995;75(3):286–8. [PubMed: 7547044]
  693. Koga K, Asai RS, Vaughan RS, et al Respiratory complications associated with tracheal extubation. Anaesthesia. 1998;53(6):540–4. [PubMed: 9709138]
  694. Koga K, Asai T, McBeth C, et al Respiratory complications associated with tracheal intubation and extubation. Br J Anaesth. 1997;79(5):–.
  695. Koh AT, de Guia TS, Ang ET Carbon dioxide recruitment threshold as a predictor of successful weaning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a pilot study. Respirology. 1997;2(2):157–62. [PubMed: 9441130]
  696. Koh SO, Bang SO, Hong YW, et al Incidence and predictors of postextubation laryngeal edema in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Yonsei Med J. 1995;36(1):53–7. [PubMed: 7740836]
  697. Kolla S, Awad SS, Rich PB, et al Extracorporeal life support for 100 adult patients with severe respiratory failure. Ann Surg. 1997;226(4):544–64. [PMC free article: PMC1191077] [PubMed: 9351722]
  698. Kollef MH Do age and gender influence outcome from mechanical ventilation? Heart Lung. 1993;22(5):442–9. [PubMed: 8226009]
  699. Kollef MH Private attending physician status and the withdrawal of life-sustaining interventions in a medical intensive care unit population. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(6):968–75. [PubMed: 8681600]
  700. Kollef MH, Horst HM, Prang L, et al Reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation: Three examples of change in the intensive care unit. New Horiz. 1998;6(1):52–60. [PubMed: 9508258]
  701. Kollef MH, O'Brien JD, Silver P The impact of gender on outcome from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1997;111(2):434–41. [PubMed: 9041993]
  702. Kollef MH, Shapiro SD, Silver P, et al A randomized, controlled trial of protocol-directed versus physician-directed weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(4):567–74. [PubMed: 9142019]
  703. Kollef MH, Ward S The influence of mini-BAL cultures on patient outcomes: Implications for the antibiotic management of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest. 1998;113(2):412–20. [PubMed: 9498961]
  704. Kollef MH, Wragge T, Pasque C Determinants of mortality and multiorgan dysfunction in cardiac surgery patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1995;107(5):1395–401. [PubMed: 7750337]
  705. Koller W, Spiss C, Fina U, et al [Weaning postoperative artificial respiration in cardiac surgery patients, CPAP versus ZEEP]. [German] Anaesthesist. 1983;32(10):483–7. [PubMed: 6359947]
  706. Kong KL, Willatts SM, Prys-Roberts C Isoflurane compared with midazolam for sedation in the intensive care unit. Br Med J. 1989;298(6683):1277–80. [PMC free article: PMC1836531] [PubMed: 2500195]
  707. Konishi A, Kikuchi K [Postoperative management following open heart surgery by thoracic epidural anesthesia.][Japanese] Jpn J Anesth. 1995;44(8):1113–7. [PubMed: 7474310]
  708. Konishi A, Kikuchi K, Sanui M Systematic oxygen demand and supply balance during warm heart surgery without blood transfusion. Jpn J Anesth. 1997;46(4):492–7. [PubMed: 9128020]
  709. Kopman AF, Ng J, Zank LM, et al Residual postoperative paralysis: Pancuronium versus mivacurium, does it matter? Anesthesiology. 1996;85(6):1253–9. [PubMed: 8968171]
  710. Korinek AM, Laisne MJ, Nicolas MH, et al Selective decontamination of the digestive tract in neurosurgical intensive care unit patients: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(10):1466–73. [PubMed: 8403954]
  711. Kornfeld DS Psychiatric view of the intensive care unit. Br Med J. 1969;1(636):108–10. [PMC free article: PMC1981948] [PubMed: 5761812]
  712. Krieger BP, Chediak A, Gazeroglu HB, et al Variability of the breathing pattern before and after extubation. Chest. 1988;93(4):767–71. [PubMed: 3349831]
  713. Krieger BP, Ershowsky P Noninvasive detection of respiratory failure in the intensive care unit. Chest. 1988;94(2):254–61. [PubMed: 3396400]
  714. Krieger BP, Ershowsky PF, Becker DA, et al Evaluation of conventional criteria for predicting successful weaning from mechanical ventilatory support in elderly patients. Crit Care Med. 1989;17(9):858–61. [PubMed: 2766756]
  715. Krieger BP, Ershowsky P, Spivack D, et al Initial experience with a central respiratory monitoring unit as a cost-saving alternative to the intensive care unit for Medicare patients who require long-term ventilator support. Chest. 1988;93(2):395–7. [PubMed: 3338309]
  716. Krieger BP, Isber J, Breitenbucher A, et al Serial measurements of the rapid-shallow-breathing index as a predictor of weaning outcome in elderly medical patients. Chest. 1997;112(4):1029–34. [PubMed: 9377913]
  717. Krieger NR, Shochat SJ, McGowan V, et al Early hernia repair in the premature infant: Long-term follow-up. J Pediatr Surg. 1994;29(8):978–82. [PubMed: 7965533]
  718. Krucylak PE, Naunheim KS, Keller CA, et al Anesthetic management of patients undergoing unilateral video-assisted lung reduction for treatment of end-stage emphysema. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1996;10(7):850–3. [PubMed: 8969389]
  719. Krummel TM, Greenfield LJ, Kirkpatrick BV, et al Clinical use of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator in neonatal pulmonary failure. J Pediatr Surg. 1982;17(5):525–31. [PubMed: 7175640]
  720. Kuhlen R, Hausmann S, Pappert D, et al A new method for P0.1 measurement using standard respiratory equipment. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(7):554–60. [PubMed: 7593896]
  721. Kuhlen R, Mohnhaupt R, Slama K, et al Validation and clinical application of a continuous P0.1 measurement using standard respiratory equipment. Technol Health Care. 1996;4(4):415–24. [PubMed: 9042692]
  722. Kumazawa T, Yamaguchi T, Nakano S, et al [Epidural anesthesia with high dose fentanyl for abdominal surgery.][Japanese] Jpn J Anesthesiol. 1990;39(5):544–53. [PubMed: 2384947]
  723. Kunisch-Hoppe M, Bachmann G, Hoppe M, et al [CT quantification of pleuropulmonary lesions in severe thoracic trauma]. [German] Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr. 1997;167(5):453–7. [PubMed: 9440889]
  724. Kuo CY, Wang JW, Hsieh WS, et al First alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AADO2) in mechanical ventilation as a predictor for duration of intubation in respiratory distress syndrome. J Formos Med Assoc. 1993;92(5):402–6. [PubMed: 8104592]
  725. Kuschel C, Evans N, Lam A Prediction of individual response to postnatal dexamethasone in ventilator dependent preterm infants. Arch Dis Child. 1998;78(3):F199–F203. [PMC free article: PMC1720796] [PubMed: 9713032]
  726. Laaban JP, Kouchakji B, Dore MF, et al Nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure. Chest. 1993;103(5):1362–8. [PubMed: 8486011]
  727. Laaksonen VO, Arola MK, Inberg MV, et al Effect of different respirator adjustments on central haemodynamics in open-heart surgery patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1977;21(3):200–10. [PubMed: 327744]
  728. Laccourreye O, Naudo P, Brasnu D, et al Tracheal resection with end-to-end anastomosis for isolated postintubation cervical trachea stenosis: Long-term results. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996;105(12):944–8. [PubMed: 8973280]
  729. Laggner AN, Lenz K, Gottfried I, et al [Weaning using continuous-flow CPAP: Hemodynamics and gas exchange]. [German] Schweizer Med Wochenschr. 1990;120(6):184–9. [PubMed: 2406899]
  730. Laier GG, Criee CP Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Eur Respir Monogr. 1998;3(8):299–327.
  731. Laier-Groeneveld G, Criee CP [Epidemiology and diagnosis of intermittent self-ventilation]. [German] Med Klin. 1997;92 (Suppl 1):2–8. [PubMed: 9235470]
  732. Laier-Groeneveld G, Huttemann U, Criee CP [Non-invasive intermittent self-ventilation as therapy of chronic respiratory failure. [German] Med Klin. 1991;86(5):229–33. [PubMed: 1908545]
  733. Landsberg KF, Vaughan LM, Heffner JE The effect of theophylline on respiratory muscle contractility and fatigue. Pharmacotherapy. 1990;10(4):271–9. [PubMed: 2201960]
  734. Lanza DC, Parnes SM, Koltai PJ, et al Early complications of airway management in head-injured patients. Laryngoscope. 1990;100(9):958–61. [PubMed: 2395405]
  735. Larca L, Greenbaum DM Effectiveness of intensive nutritional regimes in patients who fail to wean from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1982;10(5):297–300. [PubMed: 6804170]
  736. LaRiccia PJ, Katz RH, Peters JW, et al Biofeedback and hypnosis in wearning from mechanical ventilators. Chest. 1985;87(2):267–9. [PubMed: 3967537]
  737. Lathrop JC, Bommarito A, Letson JA, et al The effects of a high fat enteral feeding formula on patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Pharmacy Practice News. 1986;Sep:–.
  738. Latriano B, McCauley P, Astiz ME, et al Non-ICU care of hemodynamically stable mechanically ventilated patients. Chest. 1996;109(6):1591–6. [PubMed: 8769516]
  739. Laussen PC, Reid RW, Stene RA, et al Tracheal extubation of children in the operating room after atrial septal defect repair as part of a clinical practice guideline. Anesth Analg. 1996;82(5):988–93. [PubMed: 8610911]
  740. Lawrence CJ, De Lange S Effects of a single pre-operative dexmedetomidine dose on isoflurane requirements and peri-operative haemodynamic stability. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(8):736–44. [PubMed: 9291757]
  741. Lawson JJ, Campbell RS, Sinamban RP, et al Laboratory evaluation of three 'Dual Control' (DC) modes of mechanical ventilation (MV) Respir Care 1998.
  742. Le Bourdelles G, Mier L, Fiquet B, et al Comparison of the effects of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers on ventilation and gas exchange during weaning trials from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1996;110(5):1294–8. [PubMed: 8915237]
  743. Le Guennec JC, Rufai M, Papageorgiou A Spectrum of oxygen dependency in surviving infants weighing 600 to 1,000 grams: Decreased incidence of severe chronic lung disease. Am J Perinatol. 1993;10(4):292–6. [PubMed: 8397565]
  744. Leach CL, Greenspan JS, Rubenstein SD, et al Partial liquid ventilation with perflubron in premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(11):761–7. [PubMed: 8778584]
  745. Lebel MH, Gauthier M, Lacroix J, et al Respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation in severe bronchiolitis. Arch Dis Child. 1989;64(10):1431–7. [PMC free article: PMC1792760] [PubMed: 2684031]
  746. Ledgerwood AM, Harrigan C, Saxe JM, et al The influence of an anesthetic regimen on patient care, outcome, and hospital charges. Am Surg. 1992;58(9):527–34. [PubMed: 1524319]
  747. Lee CK, Chien TJ, Hsu JC, et al The effect of acupuncture on the incidence of postextubation laryngospasm in children. Anaesthesia. 1998;53(9):917–20. [PubMed: 9849290]
  748. Lee JH, Graber R, Poppie CG, et al Safety and efficacy of early extubation of elderly coronary artery bypass surgery patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;12(4):381–4. [PubMed: 9713722]
  749. Lee JH, Kim KH, vanHeeckeren DW, et al Cost analysis of early extubation after coronary bypass surgery. Surgery. 1996;120(4):611–7. [PubMed: 8862368]
  750. Lee KH, Hui KP, Chan TB, et al Rapid shallow breathing (frequency-tidal volume ratio) did not predict extubation outcome. Chest. 1994;105(2):540–3. [PubMed: 8306759]
  751. Lee KS, Dunn MS, Fenwick M, et al A comparison of underwater bubble continuous positive airway pressure with ventilator-derived continuous positive airway pressure in premature neonates ready for extubation. Biol Neonate. 1998;73(2):69–75. [PubMed: 9483299]
  752. Lee T, Lee SK Upper airway obstruction in infants and children: Evaluation by tracheobronchography with a non-ionic contrast agent. Pediatr Radiol. 1997;27(3):276–80. [PubMed: 9126593]
  753. Lee SS, Lim CM, Kim BN, et al Use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in acute hypercapnic versus hypoxic respiratory failure. Tuberc Respi Dis. 1996;43(6):987–96.
  754. Lehner JH, Jauch KW, Berger G, et al A multicentre study of the dose response effect of human recombinant growth hormone on cumulative nitrogen balance in patients after major abdominal surgery. Ann Surg. 1992;208:6–16.
  755. Lehot JJ, Carre R, Cottet-Emard JM, et al [Does Swan-ganz catheter help in weaning from controlled ventilation after mitral valve replacement?]. [French] Presse Med. 1988;17(40):2121–4. [PubMed: 2974141]
  756. Leicht P, Wisborg T, Chraemmer-Jorgensen B Does intravenous lidocaine prevent laryngospasm after extubation in children? Anesth Analg Cleveland. 1985;64(12):1193–6. [PubMed: 4061902]
  757. Leijten FS, De Weerd AW, Poortvliet DC, et al Critical illness polyneuropathy in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and weaning from the ventilator. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(9):856–61. [PubMed: 8905417]
  758. Leijten FS, Poortvliet DJ, De Weerd AW The neurological examination in the assessment of polyneuropathy in mechanically ventilated patients. Eur J Neurol. 1997;4(2):124–9. [PubMed: 24283904]
  759. Leipzig B, Oski FA, Cummings CW, et al A prospective randomized study to determine the efficacy of steroids in treatment of croup. J Pediatr. 1979;94(2):194–6. [PubMed: 368299]
  760. Leitch EA, Moran JL, Grealy B Weaning and extubation in the intensive care unit. Clinical or index-driven approach? Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(8):752–9. [PubMed: 8880243]
  761. Lemaire F, Teboul JL, Cinotti L, et al Acute left ventricular dysfunction during unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Anesthesiology. 1988;69(2):171–9. [PubMed: 3044189]
  762. Lenclen R, Paupe A, Chassevent J, et al Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Value of corticosteroid therapy. Ann Pediatr. 1994;41(2):77–83.
  763. Lentschener C, Benhamou D Effect of intra-operative mechanical ventilation using 50% inspired oxygen an pulmonary oxygenation. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1997;14(4):385–8. [PubMed: 9253566]
  764. Lerut JP, Molle G, Donataccio M, et al Cavocaval liver transplantation without venovenous bypass and without temporary portocaval shunting: The ideal technique for adult liver grafting? Transplant Int. 1997;10(3):171–9. [PubMed: 9163855]
  765. Lesnik I, Rappaport W, Fulginiti J, et al The role of early tracheostomy in blunt, multiple organ trauma. Am Surg. 1992;58(6):346–9. [PubMed: 1596033]
  766. Lessard MR, Brochard LJ Weaning from ventilatory support. Clin Chest Med. 1996;17(3):475–89. [PubMed: 8875008]
  767. Leventhal SR, Orkin FK, Hirsh RA Predicting postoperative ventilatory need in myasthenia. Anesthesiology. 1979;51(3 Suppl.):–.
  768. LeVine AM, Lotze A, Stanley S, et al Surfactant content in children with inflammatory lung disease. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(6):1062–7. [PubMed: 8681574]
  769. Levy MM, Miyasaki A, Langston D Work of breathing as a weaning parameter in mechanically ventilated patients. Chest. 1995;108(4):1018–20. [PubMed: 7555112]
  770. Lewis ML Decision-making task complexity: model development and initial testing. J Nurs Educ. 1997;36(3):114–20. [PubMed: 9067869]
  771. Lewis WD, Chwals W, Benotti PN, et al Bedside assessment of the work of breathing. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(2):117–22. [PubMed: 3277772]
  772. Lichtenthal PR, Wade LD, Niemyski PR, et al Respiratory management after cardiac surgery with inhalation anesthesia. Crit Care Med. 1983;11(8):603–5. [PubMed: 6872548]
  773. Licker M, de Perrot M, Schweizer A, et al [Surgical treatment for severe lung emphysema: Transplantation or volume reduction?][French] Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1998;128(11):409–15. [PubMed: 9561587]
  774. Lien TC, Wang JH [Incidence of pulmonary aspiration with different kinds of artificial airways]. [Chinese] Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih. 1992;49(5):348–53. [PubMed: 1320995]
  775. Lim CM, Kim PN, Koh Y, et al Comparison of the usefulness of non-invasive ventilation between acute ventilatory failure and oxygenation failure. Clin Intensive Care. 1997;8(6):277–81.
  776. Lim NL, Nordin MM, Cheah IG Surfactant therapy in respiratory distress syndrome-the first local experience. Med J Malaysia. 1994;49(1):4–11. [PubMed: 8057989]
  777. Lin CC, Luo SK, Hsu MT, et al [Effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome]. [Chinese] J Formos Med Assoc. 1991;90(3):296–9. [PubMed: 1677406]
  778. Lindahl H, Rintala R, Malinen L, et al Bronchoscopy during the first month of life. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(5):548–50. [PubMed: 1625116]
  779. Lindgren L, Koivusalo AM, Kellokumpu I Gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1997;14(1):–.
  780. Linton DM, Potgieter PD, Davis S, et al Automatic weaning from mechanical ventilation using an adaptive lung ventilation controller. Chest. 1994;106(6):1843–50. [PubMed: 7988211]
  781. Listello D, Sessler CN Unplanned extubation. Clinical predictors for reintubation. Chest. 1994;105(5):1496–503. [PubMed: 8181343]
  782. Littenberg B, Moses L Estimating diagnostic accuracy from multiple conflicting reports: A new meta-analytic method. Med Decis Making. 1993;13(4):313–21. [PubMed: 8246704]
  783. Little LA, Koenig JC, Newth CJ Factors affecting accidental extubations in neonatal and pediatric intensive care patients. Crit Care Med. 1990;18(2):163–5. [PubMed: 2298007]
  784. Lo Coco A, Vitale G, Marchese S, et al Treatment of acute respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary edema with bi-level positive airway pressure by nasal mask. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1997;52(5):444–6. [PubMed: 9510663]
  785. LoCicero J, McCann B, Massad M, et al Prolonged ventilatory support after open-heart surgery. Crit Care Med. 1992;20(7):990–2. [PubMed: 1617993]
  786. Locke RG, Greenspan J Effects of different intermittent mandatory ventilation rates on oxygen consumption in premature infants recovering from respiratory distress syndrome. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1995;95(6):366–9. [PubMed: 7615407]
  787. Lofaso F, Brochard L, Hang T, et al Home versus intensive care pressure support devices. Experimental and clinical comparison. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;153(5):1591–9. [PubMed: 8630607]
  788. Lofaso F, Brochard L, Touchard D, et al Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during pressure support ventilation with airway management system (BiPAP) devices. Chest. 1995;108(3):772–8. [PubMed: 7656632]
  789. Logan J, Jenny J Deriving a new nursing diagnosis through qualitative research: Dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response. Nurs Diagn. 1990;1(1):37–43. [PubMed: 2350526]
  790. Logan J, Jenny J Interventions for the nursing diagnosis dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response: a qualitative study. IN: Carroll-Johnson RM, ed. Classification of nursing diagnoses: Proceedings of the 9th conference. 1990, Orlando, FL. Lippincott; 1991. 141-7.
  791. Logan J, Jenny J Qualitative analysis of patients' work during mechanical ventilation and weaning. Heart Lung. 1997;26(2):140–7. [PubMed: 9090519]
  792. London MJ, Shroyer AL, Coll JR, et al Early extubation following cardiac surgery in a veterans population. Anesthesiology. 1998;88(6):1447–58. [PubMed: 9637636]
  793. London MJ, Shroyer AL, Jernigan V, et al Fast-track cardiac surgery in a Department of Veterans Affairs patient population. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64(1):134–41. [PubMed: 9236349]
  794. Long W, Corbet A, Cotton R, et al A controlled trial of synthetic surfactant in infants weighing 1,250 g or more with respiratory distress syndrome. The American Exosurf Neonatal Study Group I, and the Canadian Exosurf Neonatal Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(24):1696–703. [PubMed: 1944470]
  795. Lonnqvist PA, Jonsson B, Winberg P, et al Inhaled nitric oxide in infants with developing or established chronic lung disease. Acta Paediatr. 1995;84(10):1188–92. [PubMed: 8563234]
  796. Losek JD, Bonadio WA, Walsh-Kelly C, et al Prehospital pediatric endotracheal intubation performance review. Pediatr Emerg Care. 1989;5(1):1–4. [PubMed: 2710661]
  797. Loudermilk EP, Hartmannsgruber M, Stoltzfus DP, et al A prospective study of the safety of tracheal extubation using a pediatric airway exchange catheter for patients with a known difficult airway. Chest. 1997;111(6):1660–5. [PubMed: 9187190]
  798. Lowry LW, Anderson B Neuman's framework and ventilator dependency: A pilot study. Nurs Sci Q. 1993;6(4):195–200. [PubMed: 8265053]
  799. Luhr O, Nathorst-Westfelt U, Lundin S, et al A retrospective analysis of nitric oxide inhalation in patients with severe acute lung injury in Sweden and Norway 1991-1994. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1997;41(10):1238–46. [PubMed: 9422287]
  800. Lund T, Goodwin CW, McManus WF, et al Upper airway sequelae in burn patients requiring endotracheal intubation or tracheostomy. Ann Surg. 1985;201(3):374–82. [PMC free article: PMC1250683] [PubMed: 3883921]
  801. Lush MT, Janson-Bjerklie S, Carrieri VK, et al Dyspnea in the ventilator-assisted patient. Heart Lung. 1988;17(5):528–35. [PubMed: 3417463]
  802. Luyken C, Hildebrandt G, Brinker G, et al Corticotropin-releasing hormone enables weaning from ventilator in a neurosurgical patient under long-term controlled mechanical respiratory support. Zentralbl Neurochir. 1994;55(3):162–5. [PubMed: 7810254]
  803. Macha M, Griffith BP, Keenan R, et al ECMO support for adult patients with acute respiratory failure. ASAIO J. 1996;42(5):M841–M844. [PubMed: 8945002]
  804. MacIntyre NR, Cheng KC, McConnell R Applied PEEP during pressure support reduces the inspiratory threshold load of intrinsic PEEP. Chest. 1997;111(1):188–93. [PubMed: 8996015]
  805. MacIntyre P, Peacock C, Gordon I, et al Use of tracheobronchography as a diagnostic tool in ventilator-dependent infants. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(4):755–9. [PubMed: 9559615]
  806. Maddaus MA, Toth JL, Gullane PJ, et al Subglottic tracheal resection and synchronous laryngeal reconstruction. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992;104(5):1443–50. [PubMed: 1434728]
  807. Mador MJ Weaning parameters: Are they clinically useful? Chest. 1992;102:1642–3. [PubMed: 1446463]
  808. Maguire GP, DeLorenzo LJ, Moggio RA Unplanned extubation in the intensive care unit: A quality-of-care concern. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1994;17(3):40–7. [PubMed: 8000936]
  809. Maher J, Rutledge F, Remtulla H, et al Neuromuscular disorders associated with failure to wean from the ventilator. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(9):737–43. [PubMed: 8847429]
  810. Mahoney CB Platelet-rich plasmapheresis: A meta-analysis of clinical outcomes and costs. J Extra Corpor Technol. 1998;30(1):10–9. [PubMed: 10181006]
  811. Make B, Gilmartin M, Brody JS, et al Rehabilitation of ventilator-dependent subjects with lung diseases. The concept and initial experience. Chest. 1984;86(3):358–65. [PubMed: 6467996]
  812. Malagon I Comparison of sevoflurane with halothane: Statistically valid? [3] Br J Anaesth. 1995;74(6):–. [PubMed: 7640137]
  813. Malata CM, Foo IT, Simpson KH, et al An audit of Bjork flap tracheostomies in head and neck plastic surgery. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;34(1):42–6. [PubMed: 8645682]
  814. Mammel MC, Green TP, Johnson DE, et al Controlled trial of dexamethasone therapy in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Lancet. 1983;1(8338):1356–8. [PubMed: 6134136]
  815. Mancebo J Weaning from mechanical ventilation. Eur Respir J. 1996;9(9):1923–31. [PubMed: 8880113]
  816. Mancebo J, Amaro P, Mollo JL, et al Comparison of the effects of pressure support ventilation delivered by three different ventilators during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(11):913–9. [PubMed: 8636523]
  817. Mandell MS, Lockrem J, Kelley SD Immediate tracheal extubation after liver transplantation: Experience of two transplant centers. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(2):249–53. [PubMed: 9024010]
  818. Mang WL, Mader S [Therapy of tracheal stenoses]. [German] HNO. 1987;35(7):286–90. [PubMed: 3624018]
  819. Manthous CA, Schmidt G, Hall J Liberation from mechnical ventilation: A decade of progress. Chest. 1998;114(3):886–901. [PubMed: 9743181]
  820. Marelli D, Paul A, Manolidis S, et al Endoscopic guided percutaneous tracheostomy: Early results of a consecutive trial. J Trauma. 1990;30(4):433–5. [PubMed: 2325175]
  821. Marik PE The cuff-leak test as a predictor of postextubation stridor: A prospective study. Respir Care. 1996;41(6):509–11.
  822. Marini JJ Dyspnea during weaning [corrected] [published erratum appears in Respir Care 1995 May;40(5):574] Respir Care. 1995;40(3):271–6.
  823. Marini JJ Weaning from mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(21):1496–8. [PubMed: 2023609]
  824. Marino RV Facilitation of extubation with physician-assisted cyberphysiologic ventilatory stabilization: Common sense, compassion, and sensitivity really enhance outcomes! Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148(5):545–6. [PubMed: 8180654]
  825. Marquez J, Magovern J, Kaplan P, et al Cardiac surgery "fast-tracking" in an academic hospital. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9(5 Suppl 1):34–6. [PubMed: 8562901]
  826. Marsch SC, Schaefer HG External ophthalmoplegia after total intravenous anaesthesia. Anaesthesia. 1994;49(6):525–7. [PubMed: 8017599]
  827. Martin J, Brimacombe JR Oxygen enrichment during emergence with the laryngeal mask-the 'T-bag' versus the T-piece. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(12):1195–8. [PubMed: 9485974]
  828. Marvel SL, Elliott CG, Tocino I, et al Positive end-expiratory pressure following coronary artery bypass grafting. Chest. 1986;90(4):537–41. [PubMed: 3530647]
  829. Marx WH, DeMaintenon NL, Mooney KF, et al Cost reduction and outcome improvement in the intensive care unit. J Trauma. 1999;46(4):625–30. [PubMed: 10217225]
  830. Marzullo P, Parodi O, Sambuceti G, et al Does the myocardium become 'stunned' after episodes of angina at rest, angina on effort, and coronary angioplasty? Am J Cardiol. 1993;71(12):1045–51. [PubMed: 8475867]
  831. Mas MR, Escamilla SM, Cardona PJ, et al Continuous positive pressure as a method of discontinuing mechanical ventilation in newborns weighing less than 1,500 g. Rev Esp Pediatr. 1996;52(311):415–8.
  832. Mattar JA, Velasco IT, Esgaib AS, et al Parenteral nutrition (PN) as a useful method for weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Acta Chir Scand. 1979;145(Suppl 494):231–2.
  833. Maxam-Moore VA, Goedecke RS The development of an early extubation algorithm for patients after cardiac surgery. Heart Lung. 1996;25(1):61–8. [PubMed: 8775872]
  834. Mayer E, Kramm T, Dahm M, et al [Early results of pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.][German] Z Kardiol. 1997;86(11):920–7. [PubMed: 9480586]
  835. Mazur DJ, Hickam DH The influence of physician explanations on patient preferences about future health-care states. Med Decis Making. 1997;17(1):56–60. [PubMed: 8994151]
  836. McCann EM, Lewis K, Deming DD, et al Controlled trial of furosemide therapy in infants with chronic lung disease. J Pediatr St Louis. 1985;106(6):957–62. [PubMed: 3889258]
  837. McDonald NJ, Lavelle P, Gallacher WN, et al Use of the oxygen cost of breathing as an index of weaning ability from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1988;14(1):50–4. [PubMed: 3343430]
  838. McEniery J, Gillis J, Kilham H, et al Review of intubation in severe laryngotracheobronchitis. Pediatrics. 1991;87(6):847–53. [PubMed: 2034489]
  839. McGuirt WF, Little JP, Healy GB Anterior cricoid split. Use of hyoid as autologous grafting material. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997;123(12):1277–80. [PubMed: 9413353]
  840. McMurray TJ, Collier PS, Carson IW, et al Propofol sedation after open heart surgery. A clinical and pharmacokinetic study. Anaesthesia. 1990;45(4):322–6. [PubMed: 2186650]
  841. Meade MO, Cook DJ The etiology, consequences, and prevention of barotrauma: A critical review of the literature. Clin Intensive Care. 1995;6(4):166–73. [PubMed: 10157891]
  842. Meade MO, Cook DJ, Kernerman P, et al How to use articles about harm: The relationship between high tidal volumes, ventilating pressures, and ventilator-induced lung injury. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(11):1915–22. [PubMed: 9366779]
  843. Meduri GU, Abou-Shala N, Fox RC, et al Noninvasive face mask mechanical ventilation in patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Chest. 1991;100(2):445–54. [PubMed: 1864119]
  844. Meduri GU, Turner RE, Abou-Shala N, et al Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation via face mask: First-line intervention in patients with acute hypercapnic and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Chest. 1996;109(1):179–93. [PubMed: 8549183]
  845. Meek P, Tyler M Respiratory rate and discontinuance of mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985;131:–.
  846. Meert KL, Sarnaik AP, Gelmini MJ, et al Aerosolized ribavirin in mechanically ventilated children with respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract disease: A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(4):566–72. [PubMed: 8143465]
  847. Melman E, Berrocal M Safety and efficacy of desflurane in the pediatric patient. Rev Mex Anestesiol. 1998;21(2):75–81.
  848. Mendel JG, Khan FA Psychological aspects of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Psychosomatics. 1980;21(6):465–71. [PubMed: 7394156]
  849. Mendel P, Fredman B, White PF Alfentanil suppresses coughing and agitation during emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7(2):114–8. [PubMed: 7598918]
  850. Menzel L Need for communication-related research in mechanically ventilated patients. Am J Crit Care. 1994;3(3):165–7. [PubMed: 8038843]
  851. Menzel LK Ventilated patients' self-esteem during intubation and after extubation. Clin Nurs Res. 1999;8(1):51–68. [PubMed: 10358491]
  852. Menzel LK A comparison of patients' communication-related responses during intubation and after extubation. Heart Lung. 1997;26(5):363–71. [PubMed: 9315465]
  853. Menzies R, Gibbons W, Goldberg P Determinants of weaning and survival among patients with COPD who require mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Chest. 1989;95(2):398–405. [PubMed: 2914493]
  854. Mergoni M, Costa A, Primavera S, et al [Assessment of various new predictive parameters of the outcome of mechanical ventilation weaning]. [Italian] Minerva Anestesiol. 1996;62(5):153–64. [PubMed: 9045094]
  855. Meshulach NI, Baharav A, Sivan Y Prevention of accidental extubation in ventilated infants and children. Clin Intensive Care. 1998;9(2):58–61.
  856. Meyer TJ, Hill NS Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120(9):760–70. [PubMed: 8147550]
  857. Michalopoulos A, Anthi A, Rellos K, et al Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in cardiac surgery patients. Respir Med. 1998;92(6):858–62. [PubMed: 9850370]
  858. Michalopoulos A, Nikolaides A, Antzaka C, et al Change in anaesthesia practice and postoperative sedation shortens ICU and hospital length of stay following coronary artery bypass surgery. Respir Med. 1998;92(8):1066–70. [PubMed: 9893777]
  859. Michalopoulos A, Nikolaides A, Papadimitriou K, et al Early vs routine endotracheal extubation following open heart surgery. Clin Intensive Care. 1995;6(suppl):–.
  860. Michel L, McMichan JC, Marsh HM, et al Measurement of ventilatory reserve as an indicator for early extubation after cardiac operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1979;78(5):761–4. [PubMed: 491731]
  861. Midell AI, Skinner DB, DeBoer A, et al A review of pulmonary problems following valve replacement in 100 consecutive patients: The case against routine use of assisted ventilation. Ann Thorac Surg. 1974;18(3):219–27. [PubMed: 4528394]
  862. Mikawa K, Nishina K, Maekawa N, et al Attenuation of cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation: Verapamil versus diltiazem. Anesth Analg. 1996;82(6):1205–10. [PubMed: 8638792]
  863. Mikawa K, Nishina K, Takao Y, et al Attenuation of cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation: Comparison of verapamil, lidocaine, and verapamil-lidocaine combination. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(5):1005–10. [PubMed: 9356091]
  864. Miksch S, Horn W, Popow C, et al Utilizing temporal data abstraction for data validation and therapy planning for artificially ventilated newborn infants. Artif Intell Med. 1996;8(6):543–76. [PubMed: 8985540]
  865. Millbern SM, Downs JB, Jumper LC, et al Evaluation of criteria for discontinuing mechanical ventilatory support. Arch Surg. 1978;113(12):1441–3. [PubMed: 367313]
  866. Miller RL, Cole RP Association between reduced cuff leak volume and postextubation stridor. Chest. 1996;110(4):1035–40. [PubMed: 8874265]
  867. Millet V, Lacroze V, Bartoli JM, et al [Early continuous positive pressure in the labor room.][French] Arch Pediatr. 1997;4(1):15–20. [PubMed: 9084703]
  868. Minami K, Posival H, el Bynayosy A, et al Mechanical ventricular support using pulsatile Abiomed BVS 5000 and centrifugal Biomedicus-pump in postcardiotomy shock. Int J Artif Organs. 1994;17(9):492–8. [PubMed: 7890438]
  869. Mitchell CK, Smoger SH, Pfeifer MP, et al Multivariate analysis of factors associated with postoperative pulmonary complications following general elective surgery. Arch Surg. 1998;133(2):194–8. [PubMed: 9484734]
  870. Mitchell DP, Thomas RL Secondary airway support in the management of croup. J Otolaryngol. 1980;9(5):419–22. [PubMed: 7452770]
  871. Mitsudomi T, Mizoue T, Yoshimatsu T, et al Postoperative complications after pneumonectomy for treatment of lung cancer: Multivariate analysis. J Surg Oncol. 1996;61(3):218–22. [PubMed: 8637211]
  872. Mizuno K, Takeuchi T, Itabashi K, et al Efficacy of synchronized IMV on weaning neonates from the ventilator. Acta Paediatr Jpn Overs Ed. 1994;36(2):162–6. [PubMed: 8203260]
  873. Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, et al Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses? Lancet. 1998;352(9128):609–13. [PubMed: 9746022]
  874. Mohsenifar Z, Hay A, Hay J, et al Gastric intramural pH as a predictor of success or failure in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. Ann Intern Med. 1993;119(8):794–8. [PubMed: 8166793]
  875. Moler FW, Palmisano J, Custer JR Extracorporeal life support for pediatric respiratory failure: Predictors of survival from 220 patients. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(10):1604–11. [PubMed: 8403974]
  876. Montgomery AB, Holle RH, Neagley SR, et al Prediction of successful ventilator weaning using airway occlusion pressure and hypercapnic challenge. Chest. 1987;91(4):496–9. [PubMed: 3829740]
  877. Moody LE, Lowry L, Yarandi H, et al Psychophysiologic predictors of weaning from mechanical ventilation in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Clin Nurs Res. 1997;6(4):311–30. [PubMed: 9384053]
  878. Moore BP Operative stabilization of nonpenetrating chest injuries. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1975;70(4):619–30. [PubMed: 1100923]
  879. Moors AH, Pickett JA, Woolman PS, et al Convective warming after hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Br J Anaesth. 1994;73(6):782–5. [PubMed: 7880665]
  880. Morganroth ML, Morganroth JL, Nett LM, et al Criteria for weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144(5):1012–6. [PubMed: 6712394]
  881. Morley TF, Giaimo J, Maroszan E, et al Use of capnography for assessment of the adequacy of alveolar ventilation during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148(2):339–44. [PubMed: 8342896]
  882. Mort TC Unplanned tracheal extubation outside the operating room: A quality improvement audit of hemodynamic and tracheal airway complications associated with emergency tracheal reintubation. Anesth Analg. 1998;86(6):1171–6. [PubMed: 9620498]
  883. Moser KM, LeMoine JR, Nachtwey FJ, et al Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Frequency in a respiratory intensive care unit. JAMA. 1981;246(13):1422–4. [PubMed: 7265445]
  884. Moses L, Shapiro D, Littenberg B Combining independent studies of a diagnostic test into a summary ROC curve: Data-analytic approaches and some additional considerations. Stat Med. 1993;12(14):1293–316. [PubMed: 8210827]
  885. Motsch J, Epple J, Fresenius M, et al [Desflurane versus isoflurane in geriatric patients. A comparison of psychomotor recovery and postoperative well-being.] [German] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1998;33(5):313–20. [PubMed: 9645291]
  886. Moylan FM, Walker AM, Kramer SS, et al The relationship of bronchopulmonary dysplasia to the occurrence of alveolar rupture during positive pressure ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1978;6(3):140–2. [PubMed: 350487]
  887. Muhl E, Franke C, Hansen M [Costs and time savings by dilatation tracheotomy with bronchoscopic control]. [German] Langenbecks Arch Chir Suppl Kongressbd. 1996;113:353–5. [PubMed: 9101874]
  888. Muhling J, Thiel A, Zahn P, et al [Influences of different forms of respiration and positioning on blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery.] [German] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1996;31(8):474–80. [PubMed: 9019176]
  889. Muir JF, Aubry P, Levi VP Acute respiratory failure (A.R.F.) secondary to severe chronic obstructive insufficiency. Incidence of intermittent mandatory ventilation weaning. Anesthanalgreanim. 1981;38(9-10):523–8. [PubMed: 6800287]
  890. Muir JF, Benhamou D, Girault C, et al [Ventilator weaning after the return home]. [French] Rev Mal Respir. 1993;10(2):115–23. [PubMed: 8502793]
  891. Murai DT, Grant JW Continuous oscillation therapy improves the pulmonary outcome of intubated newborns: Results of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(7):1147–54. [PubMed: 8026205]
  892. Murciano D, Boczkowski J, Lecocguic Y, et al Tracheal occlusion pressure: A simple index to monitor respiratory muscle fatigue during acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108(6):800–5. [PubMed: 3369770]
  893. Muro M, Perez-Rodriguez J, Garcia MJ, et al Efficacy of caffeine for weaning premature infants from mechanical ventilation. Effects on pulmonary function. J Perinatal Med. 1992;20(1):–.
  894. Murray MJ, Coursin DB, Scuderi PE, et al Double-blind, randomized, multicenter study of doxacurium vs. pancuronium in intensive care unit patients who require neuromuscular-blocking agents. Crit Care Med. 1995;23(3):450–8. [PubMed: 7874894]
  895. Mustola ST, Baer GA, Metsa-Ketela T, et al Haemodynamic and plasma catecholamine responses during total intravenous anaesthesia for laryngomicroscopy: Thiopentone compared with propofol. Anaesthesia. 1995;50(2):108–13. [PubMed: 7710018]
  896. Mutch WA, Ringaert KR, Ewert FJ, et al Continuous opioid infusions for neurosurgical procedures: A double-blind comparison of alfentanil and fentanyl. Can J Anaesth. 1991;38(6):710–6. [PubMed: 1914054]
  897. Muza SR, Silverman MT, Gilmore GC, et al Comparison of scales to quantitate the sense of effort to breath in patients with COPD. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;141(4 Pt 1):909–13. [PubMed: 2327655]
  898. Myint Y, Singh AK, Peacock JE, et al Changes in intra-ocular pressure during general anaesthesia: A comparison of spontaneous breathing through a laryngeal mask with positive pressure ventilation through a tracheal tube. Anaesthesia. 1995;50(2):126–9. [PubMed: 7710022]
  899. Myles PS, Buckland MR, Cannon GB, et al Comparison of patient-controlled analgesia and nurse-controlled infusion analgesia after cardiac surgery. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1994;22(6):672–8. [PubMed: 7892970]
  900. Myles PS, Buckland MR, Morgan DJ, et al Serum lipid and glucose concentrations with a propofol infusion for cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9(4):373–8. [PubMed: 7579105]
  901. Myles PS, Buckland MR, Weeks AM, et al Hemodynamic effects, myocardial ischemia, and timing of tracheal extubation with propofol-based anesthesia for cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(1):12–9. [PubMed: 8988992]
  902. Myles PS, Weeks AM, Buckland MR, et al Anesthesia for bilateral sequential lung transplantation: Experience of 64 cases. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1997;11(2):177–83. [PubMed: 9105989]
  903. Nadstawek J, Hausmann D, Bartsch A, et al [Recovery of motor and mental functions after enflurane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia of 1.3 MAC at different ages.] [German] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1989;24(5):293–7.
  904. Nair I, Bailey PM Use of the laryngeal mask for airway maintenance following tracheal extubation. Anaesthesia. 1995;50(2):174–5. [PubMed: 7710032]
  905. Nakagawa TA, Morris A, Gomez RJ, et al Dose response to inhaled nitric oxide in pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension and acute respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr. 1997;131(1 I):63–9. [PubMed: 9255193]
  906. Nakos G, Lachana A, Prekates A, et al Respiratory effects of tracheal gas insufflation in spontaneously breathing COPD patients. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(11):904–12. [PubMed: 8636522]
  907. Narayan SM Heuristic reasoning about uncertainty in a clinical nursing task (Volumes I and II).[dissertation] Minneapolis (MN): University of Minnesota 1990. 506 p.
  908. Narcy P, Contencin P, Bobin S, et al Treatment of infantile subglottic hemangioma. A report of 49 cases. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1985;9(2):157–64. [PubMed: 4030237]
  909. Nars PW, von Tonges V, Rohner F Idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS): Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) versus continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPPV), a comparative study. Padiatr Padol. 1977;12(2):118–26. [PubMed: 323781]
  910. Nathan SD, Ishaaya AM, Koerner SK, et al Prediction of minimal pressure support during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1993;103(4):1215–9. [PubMed: 8131468]
  911. Nava S Noninvasive techniques of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1998;53(3):355–7. [PubMed: 9785826]
  912. Nava S, Ambrosino N, Clini E, et al Noninvasive mechanical ventilation in the weaning of patients with respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(9):721–8. [PubMed: 9556465]
  913. Nava S, Bruschi C, Rubini F, et al Respiratory response and inspiratory effort during pressure support ventilation in COPD patients. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(11):871–9. [PubMed: 8636518]
  914. Nava S, Fracchia C, Ambrosino N, et al [Results of a long-term program of weaning from mechanical ventilation in a respiratory rehabilitation unit]. [Italian] Minerva Anestesiol. 1991;57(10):–. [PubMed: 1961522]
  915. Nava S, Rubini F, Zanotti E, et al Survival and prediction of successful ventilator weaning in COPD patients requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 21 days. Eur Respir J. 1994;7(9):1645–52. [PubMed: 7995395]
  916. Nava S, Zanotti E, Rubini F Weaning and outcome from mechanical ventilation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1994;49(6):530–2. [PubMed: 7711709]
  917. Navarro RM, Baughman VL Lidocaine in the endotracheal tube cuff reduces postoperative sore throat. J Clin Anesth. 1997;9(5):394–7. [PubMed: 9257206]
  918. Nedev N [The functional effects of weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients operated on under ECC]. [Bulgarian] Khirurgiia. 1988;41(5):11–7. [PubMed: 3216577]
  919. Nedev N, Aleksandrov V [The ventilation procedure in critical patients operated on under extracorporeal circulation]. [Bulgarian] Khirurgiia. 1990;43(3):33–40. [PubMed: 2283771]
  920. Nelson LD, Choi SC Kinetic therapy in critically ill trauma patients. Clin Intensive Care. 1992;3(6):248–52. [PubMed: 10148407]
  921. Nemoto T, Hatzakis GE, Thorpe CW, et al Automatic control of pressure support mechanical ventilation using fuzzy logic. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160:550–6. [PubMed: 10430727]
  922. Nett LM, Morganroth M, Petty TL Weaning from mechanical ventilation: A perspective and review of techniques. IN: Critical care: A comprehensive approach. RC Bone, ed. Park Ridge, IL: American College of Chest Physicians; 1984. p. 171-88.
  923. Neverin VK, Marchenkov IV [Occlusion pressure in the first 100 ms of inspiration (P0.1) as an index of the possibility of decreasing respiratory support in acute respiratory failure]. [Russian] Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1997;(4):40–5. [PubMed: 9382227]
  924. Nguyen HN, Fitzgerald D, Davis MG Response of very premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia to inhaled salbutamol. McGill J Med. 1997;3(1):19–23.
  925. Nicklaus PJ, Crysdale WS, Conley S, et al Evaluation of neonatal subglottic stenosis: A 3-year prospective study. Laryngoscope. 1990;100(11):1185–90. [PubMed: 2233081]
  926. Niehoff J, DelGuercio C, LaMorte W, et al Efficacy of pulse oximetry and capnometry in postoperative ventilatory weaning. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(7):701–5. [PubMed: 3131068]
  927. Nink M, Beyer J, Krause U, et al Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone on the postoperative course of elderly patients under long-term artificial respiration. Acta Endocrinol. 1992;127(3):200–4. [PubMed: 1414143]
  928. Nishina K, Mikawa K, Maekawa N, et al Attenuation of cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation with diltiazem. Anesth Analg. 1995;80(6):1217–22. [PubMed: 7762855]
  929. Nishina K, Mikawa K, Maekawa N, et al Fentanyl attenuates cardiovascular responses to tracheal extubation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1995;39(1):85–9. [PubMed: 7725888]
  930. Nishina K, Mikawa K, Maekawa N, et al The efficacy of guanfacine in reducing perioperative hemodynamic changes and volatile anesthetic requirement. J Clin Anesth. 1995;7(3):211–8. [PubMed: 7669311]
  931. Nishina K, Mikawa K, Shiga M, et al Prostaglandin E1 attenuates the hypertensive response to tracheal extubation. Can J Anaesth. 1996;43(7):678–83. [PubMed: 8807172]
  932. Nishina K, Mikawa K, Takao Y, et al Prostaglandin E-1, lidocaine, and prostaglandin E-1-lidocaine combination for attenuating cardiovascular responses to extubation. Can J Anaesth. 1997;44(11):1211–4. [PubMed: 9398965]
  933. Nocite JR, Cagnolati CA, Nunes AM, et al [Non comparative study on sevoflurane in adult outpatients.] [Portugese] Rev Bras Anestesiol. 1995;45(3):147–54.
  934. Nocite JR, Serzedo PM, Nunes AM, et al [Continuous intravenous infusion of sufentanil for abdominal surgery.] [Portugese] Rev Bras Anestesiol. 1995;45(4):235–43.
  935. Noll ML, Byers JF Comparison of SVO2, SpO2, and clinical parameters with arterial blood gases during ventilatory weaning after cardiac surgery. Am J Crit Care. 1994;3(5):353–5. [PubMed: 8000458]
  936. Noll ML, Byers JF Usefulness of measures of Svo2, Spo2, vital signs, and derived dual oximetry parameters as indicators of arterial blood gas variables during weaning of cardiac surgery patients from mechanical ventilation. Heart Lung Critical. 1995;24(3):220–7. [PubMed: 7622396]
  937. Norton LC, Neureuter A Weaning the long-term ventilator-dependent patient: Common problems and management. Crit Care Nurse. 1989;9(1):42–4. [PubMed: 2684537]
  938. Norweed S, Silva J, Civetta JM, et al Room air blood gases: Predictor of successful extubation. Crit Care Med. 1986;14:–.
  939. Norwood SH, Civetta JM Ventilatory support in patients with ARDS. Surg Clin North Am. 1985;65(4):895–916. [PubMed: 3901348]
  940. Noseda A, Kempenaers C, Kerkhofs M, et al Sleep apnea after 1 year domiciliary nasal-continuous positive airway pressure and attempted weight reduction: Potential for weaning from continuous positive airway pressure. Chest. 1996;109(1):138–43. [PubMed: 8549176]
  941. Nutman J, Brooks LJ, Deakins KM, et al Racemic versus l-epinephrine aerosol in the treatment of postextubation laryngeal edema: Results from a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(10):1591–4. [PubMed: 7924370]
  942. O'Brien K, Robinson DN, Morton NS Induction and emergence in infants less than 60 weeks post-conceptual age: Comparison of thiopental, halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(4):456–9. [PubMed: 9640149]
  943. O'Connor JV, Reddy K, Ergin MA, et al Cricothyroidotomy for prolonged ventilatory support after cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1985;39(4):353–4. [PubMed: 3985709]
  944. O'Connor TA, Basak J, Parker S The effect of three different ranitidine dosage regimens on reducing gastric acidity and volume in ambulatory surgical patients. Pharmacotherapy. 1995;15(2):170–5. [PubMed: 7624264]
  945. O'Dwyer JP, Yorukoglu D, Harris MN The use of esmolol to attenuate the haemodynamic response when extubating patients following cardiac surgery - A double-blind controlled study. Eur Heart J. 1993;14(5):701–4. [PubMed: 8099549]
  946. O'Neil EA, Chwals WJ, O'Shea MD, et al Dexamethasone treatment during ventilator dependency: Possible life threatening gastrointestinal complications. Arch Dis Child. 1992;67 (1 Spec No):10–1. [PMC free article: PMC1590327] [PubMed: 1536578]
  947. Oberascher G [Endoscopic concept and fiberoptic technic in monitoring long-term intubation]. [German] HNO. 1988;36(2):60–7. [PubMed: 3129381]
  948. Ochi JW, Bailey CM, Evans JN Pediatric airway reconstruction at Great Ormond Street: A ten-year review. III. Decannulation and suprastomal collapse. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1992;101(8):656–8. [PubMed: 1497270]
  949. Ochiai R, Shimada M, Takeda J, et al Contribution of rib cage and abdominal movement to ventilation for successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1993;37(2):131–6. [PubMed: 8447203]
  950. Oh TE, Bhatt S, Lin ES, et al Plasma catecholamines and oxygen consumption during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1991;17(4):199–203. [PubMed: 1744303]
  951. Ohlsson A, Calvert SA, Hosking M, et al Randomized controlled trial of dexamethasone treatment in very-low-birth-weight infants with ventilator-dependent chronic lung disease. Acta Paediatr. 1992;81(10):751–6. [PubMed: 1421877]
  952. Ohosone Y, Okano Y, Kameda H, et al [Toxicity of low-dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis - Clinical characteristics in patients with MTX-induced pancytopenia and interstitial pneumonitis.] [Japanese] Ryumachi. 1997;37(1):16–23. [PubMed: 9128419]
  953. Ohri SK, Bowles CW, Mathie RT, et al Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass perfusion protocols on gut tissue oxygenation and blood flow. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64(1):163–70. [PubMed: 9236354]
  954. Olkkola KT, Ahonen J, Salmenpera M, et al Effect of diltiazem on midazolam and alfentanil disposition in CABG patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1997;14(1):76–7.
  955. Ong KC, Court GD, Eng P, et al Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in a medical intensive care unit in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1996;25(6):791–6. [PubMed: 9055004]
  956. Ormezzano X, Ganansia MF, Arnould JF, et al [Prevention of aspiration pneumonitis in obstetrical anaesthesia with an effervescent association of cimetidine and sodium citrate.] [French] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1990;9(3):285–8. [PubMed: 2372156]
  957. Osaragi M CO2elimination as an effective index to determine the weaning of children from mechanical ventilation in heart diseases. Nippon Geka Hokan. 1983;52(3):299–315. [PubMed: 6416202]
  958. Osterlund B, Gedeon A, Krill P, et al A new method of using gas exchange measurements for the noninvasive determination of cardiac output: Clinical experiences in adults following cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1995;39(6):727–32. [PubMed: 7484024]
  959. Ott R, Gutfinger D, Miller M, et al Rapid recovery after coronary artery bypass grafting: Is the elderly patient eligible? Ann Thorac Surg 199763(3)634–9.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 9066376]
  960. Ourahma S, Marchetti F, Clergue F, et al [Postoperative plasma concentrations and respiratory changes after intraoperative infusions of fentanyl or sufentanil.] [French] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1993;12(4):357–64. [PubMed: 8273922]
  961. Owall A, Stahl L, Settergren G Incidence of sore throat and patient complaints after intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography during cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1992;6(1):15–6. [PubMed: 1543845]
  962. Owen H Postextubation laryngospasm abolished by doxapram. Anaesthesia. 1982;37(11):1112–4. [PubMed: 7137559]
  963. Palasti S, Respler DS, Fieldman RJ, et al Anterior cricoid split for subglottic stenosis: Experience at the Children's Hospital of New Jersey. Laryngoscope. 1992;102(9):997–1000. [PubMed: 1518365]
  964. Palomar M, Alvarez LF, Jorda R, et al Prevention of nosocomial infection in mechanically ventilated patients: Selective digestive decontamination versus sucralfate. Clin Intensive Care. 1997;8(5):228–35.
  965. Papazian L, Bregeon F, Thirion X, et al Effect of ventilator-associated pneumonia on mortality and morbidity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996;154(1):91–7. [PubMed: 8680705]
  966. Papile LA, Tyson JE, Stoll BJ, et al A multicenter trial of two dexamethasone regimens in ventilator-dependent premature infants. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(16):1112–8. [PubMed: 9545359]
  967. Pappagallo M, Abbasi S, Bhutani VK Respiratory and systemic effects of inhaled dexamethasone on ventilator dependant preterm infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Indian J Pediatr. 1998;65(2):273–82. [PubMed: 10771973]
  968. Pardee NE, Winterbauer RH, Allen JD Bedside evaluation of respiratory distress. Chest. 1984;85(2):203–6. [PubMed: 6692699]
  969. Parker H Communication breakdown: Personal experience of being on a ventilator. Nurs Mirror. 1984;158(13):37–9. [PubMed: 6561649]
  970. Parker MM Predicting success of extubation in children. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(9):1429–30. [PubMed: 8797611]
  971. Partridge JC, Wall SN Analgesia for dying infants whose life support is withdrawn or withheld. Pediatrics. 1997;99(1):76–9. [PMC free article: PMC317313] [PubMed: 8989342]
  972. Pascoe EA, Hudson RJ, Anderson BA, et al High-dose thiopentone for open-chamber cardiac surgery: A retrospective review. Can J Anaesth. 1996;43(6):575–9. [PubMed: 8773863]
  973. Patel RG, Petrini MF Respiratory muscle performance, pulmonary mechanics, and gas exchange between the BiPAP S/T-D system and the Servo Ventilator 900C with bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation following gradual pressure support weaning. Chest. 1998;114(5):1390–6. [PubMed: 9824020]
  974. Patel RG, Petrini MF, Dwyer TM Work of breathing during weaning from ventilation: Does extending weaning with continuous positive airway pressure confer any advantage? Respir Care. 1999;44(4):421–7.
  975. Patel RG, Petrini MF, Norman JR Strategies for maximizing your chances for weaning success. J Crit Illn. 1941;10(6):411–3. [PubMed: 10150502]
  976. Patel RG, Petrini MF, Norman JR Work of breathing and pressure-time product on pressure support ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, and T-piece. Respir Care. 1996;41(11):1013–9.
  977. Patel RI, Hannallah RS, Norden J, et al Emergence airway complications in children: A comparison of tracheal extubation in awake and deeply anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg. 1991;73(3):266–70. [PubMed: 1867418]
  978. Pather M, Hariparsad D, Wesley AG Nasotracheal intubation versus tracheostomy for intermittent positive pressure ventilation in neonatal tetanus. Intensive Care Med. 1985;11(1):30–2. [PubMed: 3881495]
  979. Paul WL, Downs JB Postoperative atelectasis. Intermittent positive pressure breathing, incentive spirometry, and face-mask positive end-expiratory pressure. Arch Surg Chicago. 1981;116(7):861–3. [PubMed: 7020643]
  980. Paulissian R, Salem MR, Joseph NJ, et al Hemodynamic responses to endotracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass grafting. Anesth Analg. 1991;73(1):10–5. [PubMed: 1858985]
  981. Paulus S, Lehot JJ, Bastien O, et al Enoximone and acute left ventricular failure during weaning from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(1):74–80. [PubMed: 8124979]
  982. Pearson G, Shann F, Barry P, et al Should paediatric intensive care be centralised? Trent versus Victoria. Lancet. 1997;349(9060):1213–7. [PubMed: 9130943]
  983. Pedersen C, Dilling DJ, Nielsen T, et al The outcome of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in Danish patients with AIDS. Scand J Infect Dis. 1989;21(4):375–80. [PubMed: 2587939]
  984. Pelton JJ, Fish DJ, Keller SM Epidural narcotic analgesia after thoracotomy. South Med J. 1993;86(10):1106–9. [PubMed: 8211325]
  985. Peniston C, Cheng D, Karski J, et al A prospective randomized trial of early extubation after coronary artery bypass. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 1995:–.
  986. Pepperman ML Double-blind study of the reversal of midazolam-induced sedation in the intensive care unit with flumazenil (Ro 15-1788): Effect on weaning from ventilation. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1990;18(1):38–44. [PubMed: 2110788]
  987. Peral AI, Gomez AJ, Garcia-del VS, et al Metabolic alkalosis following orthotopic liver transplantation. Clin Intensive Care. 1995;6(6):273–7.
  988. Perkins JA, Sie KC, Milczuk H, et al Airway management in children with craniofacial anomalies. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1997;34(2):135–40. [PubMed: 9138508]
  989. Permutt S Circulatory effects of weaning from mechanical ventilation. The importance of transdiaphragmatic pressure. Anesthesiology. 1988:69157–60. [PubMed: 3044188]
  990. Perrigault PF, Pouzeratte YH, Jaber S, et al Changes in occlusion pressure (P0.1) and breathing pattern during pressure support ventilation. Thorax. 1999;54(2):119–23. [PMC free article: PMC1745416] [PubMed: 10325915]
  991. Perry AG, Ketchum K Patients' perceptions during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Mo Nurse 19;67(2):10-Apr.
  992. Perry SG Validation of a weaning score instrument [dissertation] Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville 1991. (71 p)
  993. Perttila J, Salo M, Vuori A, et al Effects of various ventilation modes on immunocompetence in surgical patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1989;33(5):348–52. [PubMed: 2678875]
  994. Pesiri AJ, Stewart K, Kobe E, et al Protocol for prevention of unintentional extubation. Crit Care Nurs Q. 1990;12(4):87–90. [PubMed: 2306657]
  995. Peters RM, Brimm JE, Utley JR Predicting the need for prolonged ventilatory support in adult cardiac patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1979;77(2):175–82. [PubMed: 310915]
  996. Peterson W, Charlifue W, Gerhart A, et al Two methods of weaning persons with quadriplegia from mechanical ventilators. Paraplegia. 1994;32(2):98–103. [PubMed: 8015852]
  997. Petrini MF, Evans JN, Wall MA, et al A Gaussian method to improve work-of-breathing calculations. Biomed Instrum Technol. 1995;29(1):55–62. [PubMed: 7704082]
  998. Petrini MF, Evans JN, Wall MA, et al Variability, reproducibility, and data-collection time of pulmonary bedside monitoring. Biomed Instrum Technol. 1998;32(3):273–81. [PubMed: 9619255]
  999. Petrof BJ, Legare M, Goldberg P, et al Continuous positive airway pressure reduces work of breathing and dyspnea during weaning from mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;141(2):281–9. [PubMed: 2405757]
  1000. Petros AJ, Fernando SD, Shenoy VS, et al The Hayek oscillator. Nomograms for tidal volume and minute ventilation using external high frequency oscillation. Anaesthesia. 1995;50(7):601–6. [PubMed: 7653758]
  1001. Pettrey LJ Commentary on use of capnography for assessment of the adequacy of alveolar ventilation during weaning from mechanical ventilation [original article by Morley T, et al. appears in Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148(2): 339-44] AACN Nurs Scan Crit Care. 1994;4(1):9–10. [PubMed: 8342896]
  1002. Pfenninger J, Aebi C Respiratory response to salbutamol (albuterol) in ventilator-dependent infants with chronic lung disease: Pressurized aerosol delivery versus intravenous injection. Intensive Care Med. 1993;19(5):251–5. [PubMed: 8408933]
  1003. Pichard C, Kyle U, Chevrolet JC, et al Lack of effects of recombinant growth hormone on muscle function in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: A prospective, randomized, controlled study. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(3):403–13. [PubMed: 8625627]
  1004. Pilon CS, Leathley M, London R, et al Practice guideline for arterial blood gas measurement in the intensive care unit decreases numbers and increases appropriateness of tests. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(8):1308–13. [PubMed: 9267942]
  1005. Pinilla JC, Oleniuk FH, Tan L, et al Use of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure mask in the treatment of postoperative atelectasis in aortocoronary bypass surgery. Crit Care Med. 1990;18(8):836–40. [PubMed: 2199148]
  1006. Pinsky MR, Summer WR, Wise RA, et al Augmentation of cardiac function by elevation of intrathoracic pressure. J Appl Physiol. 1983;54(4):950–5. [PubMed: 6853301]
  1007. Piotrowski A, Sobala W, Kawczynski P Patient-initiated, pressure-regulated, volume-controlled ventilation compared with intermittent mandatory ventilation in neonates: A prospective, randomised study. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(9):975–81. [PubMed: 9347370]
  1008. Platz A, Kleinstuck F, Kohler A, et al [Percutaneous tracheostomy: A minimally invasive procedure on the intensive care unit]. [German] Swiss Surg. 1996;(2):42–5. [PubMed: 8681106]
  1009. Plotz FB, Mook PH, Jansen NG, et al Reduction in adverse effects of mechanical ventilation in rabbits with acute respiratory failure by treatment with extracorporeal CO-2 removal and a large fluid volume of diluted surfactant. ASAIO J. 1997;43(6):916–21. [PubMed: 9386843]
  1010. Ploysongsang Y, Rashkin MC, Ranganathan VH Serial physiologic studies of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient in acute respiratory failure: Clues for weaning? Respiration. 1990;57(2):122–6. [PubMed: 2236932]
  1011. Plumer H, Markewitz A, Marohl K, et al Early extubation after cardiac surgery: A prospective clinical trial including patients at risk. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;46(5):275–80. [PubMed: 9885118]
  1012. Pochard F, Lanore JJ, Bellivier F, et al Subjective psychological status of severely ill patients discharged from mechanical ventilation. Clin Intensive Care. 1995;(2):57–61. [PubMed: 10150800]
  1013. Poggi R, Polese G, Brandelese R, et al Comparison between continouous positive airway and inspiratory pressure support in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during weaning. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143:–.
  1014. Pohlandt F, Saule H, Schroder H, et al Decreased incidence of extra-alveolar air leakage or death prior to air leakage in high versus low rate positive pressure ventilation: Results of a randomised seven-centre trial in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr. 1992;151(12):904–9. [PubMed: 1473544]
  1015. Pohlman AS, Simpson KP, Hall JB Continuous intravenous infusions of lorazepam versus midazolam for sedation during mechanical ventilatory support: A prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(8):1241–7. [PubMed: 8045143]
  1016. Polese G, Massara A, Poggi R, et al Flow-triggering reduces inspiratory effort during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(8):682–6. [PubMed: 8522675]
  1017. Pollitzer MJ, Reynolds EO, Shaw DG, et al Pancuronium during mechanical ventilation speeds recovery of lungs of infants with hyaline membrane disease. Lancet. 1981;1(8216):346–8. [PubMed: 6109989]
  1018. Pond SM, Olson KR, Osterloh JD, et al Randomized study of the treatment of phenobarbital overdose with repeated doses of activated charcoal. J Am Med Assoc. 1984;251(23):3104–8. [PubMed: 6726981]
  1019. Potgieter P, Hammond J "Cuff" test for safe extubation following laryngeal edema. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(8):–. [PubMed: 3396380]
  1020. Poulain P, Leandri EP, Montange F, et al Electroacupuncture analgesia in major abdominal and pelvic surgery: A randomised study. Acupunct Med. 1997;15(1):10–3.
  1021. Pounder DR, Blackstock D, Steward DJ Tracheal extubation in children: Halothane versus isoflurane, anesthetized versus awake. Anesthesiology. 1991;74(4):653–5. [PubMed: 2008945]
  1022. Pourriat JL, Baud M, Lamberto C, et al Effects of doxapram on hypercapnic response during weaning from mechanical ventilation in COPD patients. Chest. 1992;101(6):1639–43. [PubMed: 1600786]
  1023. Pourriat JL, Lamberto C, Baud M, et al [Hyperoxia test during attempts to withdraw artificial ventilation]. [French] Agressologie. 1989;30(4):217–21. [PubMed: 2782551]
  1024. Pourriat JL, Lamberto C, Fosse JP, et al Steady-state breathing pattern responses to small inspiratory resistive loads in COPD patients. Application to weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1989;95(2):364–9. [PubMed: 2492464]
  1025. Pourriat JL, Lamberto C, Hoang PH, et al Diaphragmatic fatigue and breathing pattern during weaning from mechanical ventilation in COPD patients. Chest. 1986;90(5):703–7. [PubMed: 3769572]
  1026. Prakash O, Jonson B, Meij S, et al Criteria for early extubation after intracardiac surgery in adults. Anesth Analg. 1977;56(5):703–8. [PubMed: 562097]
  1027. Prakash O, Meij S Cardiopulmonary response to inspiratory pressure support during spontaneous ventilation vs conventional ventilation. Chest. 1985;88(3):403–8. [PubMed: 3875454]
  1028. Prakash O, Meij S, Bos E, et al Lung mechanics in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. The value of monitoring of compliance and resistance. Crit Care Med. 1978;6(6):370–2. [PubMed: 720098]
  1029. Prakash O, Meij S, Van-Der Borden B Spontaneous ventilation test vs intermittent mandatory ventilation. An approach to weaning after coronary bypass surgery. Chest. 1982;81(4):403–6. [PubMed: 6978235]
  1030. [Anonymous] Predictors of successful weaning in ventilated patients. Lancet. 1987;1:1245–6. [PubMed: 2884376]
  1031. Prielipp RC, Coursin DB, Scuderi PE, et al Comparison of the infusion requirements and recovery profiles of vecuronium and cisatracurium 51W89 in intensive care unit patients. Anesth Analg. 1995;81(1):3–12. [PubMed: 7598277]
  1032. Puhakka HJ, Kero P, Valli P, et al Tracheostomy in pediatric patients. Acta Paediatr. 1992;81(3):231–4. [PubMed: 1511196]
  1033. Purcell-Jones G, Dormon F, Sumner E The use of opioids in neonates. A retrospective study of 933 cases. Anaesthesia. 1987;42(12):1316–20. [PubMed: 3324818]
  1034. Putensen C, Hormann C, Baum M, et al Comparison of mask and nasal continuous positive airway pressure after extubation and mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(3):357–62. [PubMed: 8440104]
  1035. Quan SF, Falltrick RT, Schlobohm RM Extubation from ambient or expiratory positive airway pressure in adults. Anesthesiology. 1981;55(1):53–6. [PubMed: 7018325]
  1036. Quasha AL, Loeber N, Feeley TW, et al Postoperative respiratory care: A controlled trial of early and late extubation following coronary-artery bypass grafting. Anesthesiology. 1980;52(2):135–41. [PubMed: 6986104]
  1037. Quigley RL, Reitknecht FL A coronary artery bypass "fast-track" protocol is practical and realistic in a rural environment. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997;64(3):706–9. [PubMed: 9307461]
  1038. Rady MY, Ryan T Perioperative predictors of extubation failure and the effect on clinical outcome after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(2):340–7. [PubMed: 10075059]
  1039. Raine J, Samuels MP, Mok Q, et al Negative extrathoracic pressure ventilation for phrenic nerve palsy after paediatric cardiac surgery. Br Heart J. 1992;67(4):308–11. [PMC free article: PMC1024838] [PubMed: 1389705]
  1040. Ramanathan RK, Triulzi DJ, Logan TF Transfusion-related acute lung injury following random donor platelet transfusion: A report of two cases. Vox Sang. 1997;73(1):43–5. [PubMed: 9269069]
  1041. Ramsay JG, Higgs BD, Wynands JE, et al Early extubation after high-dose fentanyl anaesthesia for aortocoronary bypass surgery: Reversal of respiratory depression with low-dose nalbuphine. Can Anaesth Soc J. 1985;32(6):597–606. [PubMed: 3935298]
  1042. Ramsden CA, Pillow JJ High frequency ventilation. J Paediatr Child Health. 1997;33(2):85–7. [PubMed: 9145345]
  1043. Randolph AG, Clemmer TP, East TD, et al Evaluation of compliance with a computerized protocol: Weaning from mechanical ventilator support using pressure support. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1998;57(3):201–15. [PubMed: 9822857]
  1044. Ranieri VM, Giuliani R, Mascia L, et al Patient-ventilator interaction during acute hypercapnia: Pressure-support vs. proportional-assist ventilation. J Appl Physiol. 1996;81(1):426–36. [PubMed: 8828695]
  1045. Ranieri VM, Mascia L, Petruzzelli V, et al Inspiratory effort and measurement of dynamic intrinsic PEEP in COPD patients: Effects of ventilator triggering systems. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(11):896–903. [PubMed: 8636521]
  1046. Ranucci M, Soro G, Frigiola A, et al Normothermic perfusion and lung function after cardiopulmonary bypass: Effects in pulmonary risk patients. Perfusion. 1997;12(5):309–15. [PubMed: 9300476]
  1047. Rappaport SH, Shpiner R, Yoshihara G, et al Randomized, prospective trial of pressure-limited versus volume-controlled ventilation in severe respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(1):22–32. [PubMed: 8124968]
  1048. Rasanen J, Nikki P, Heikkila J Acute myocardial infarction complicated by respiratory failure. The effects of mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1984;85(1):21–8. [PubMed: 6360572]
  1049. Rasanen J, Puhakka K, Leijala M Spontaneous breathing and total body oxygen consumption in children recovering from open-heart surgery. Chest. 1992;101(3):662–7. [PubMed: 1541129]
  1050. Rastogi A, Akintorin SM, Bez ML, et al A controlled trial of dexamethasone to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in surfactant-treated infants. Pediatrics. 1996;98(2 Pt 1):204–10. [PubMed: 8692619]
  1051. Rathgeber J, Henze D, Zuchner K [Air-conditioning using a high-performance heat and moisture exchanger (HME): An effective and economical alternative to active humidifiers in mechanically ventilated patients. A prospective, randomised clinical study.] [German] Anaesthesist. 1996;45(6):518–25. [PubMed: 8767565]
  1052. Rathgeber J, Schorn B, Falk V, et al The influence of controlled mandatory ventilation (CMV), intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV), and biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure (BIPAP) on duration of intubation and consumption of analgesics and sedatives. A prospective analysis in 596 patients following adult cardiac surgery. Eur J Anaesth. 1997;14(6):576–82. [PubMed: 9466092]
  1053. Raurich JM, Ibanez J, Marse P [CO2 production and thermogenesis induced by enteral and parenteral nutrition]. [Spanish] Nutr Hosp. 1996;11(2):108–13. [PubMed: 8695706]
  1054. Reed MD, Yamashita TS, Marx CM, et al A pharmacokinetically based propofol dosing strategy for sedation of the critically ill, mechanically ventilated pediatric patient. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(9):1473–81. [PubMed: 8797618]
  1055. Reese J, Prentice G, Yu VY Dose conversion from aminophylline to theophylline in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child. 1994;71(1 Suppl):F51–F52. [PMC free article: PMC1061070] [PubMed: 8092873]
  1056. Reinstrup P, Saveland H, Romner B, et al Perioperative airway management in patients undergoing surgery for rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine. J Orthop Rheumatol. 1996;9(2):96–9.
  1057. Reiterer F, Abbasi S, Stefano J, et al Evaluation of methylzanthines for weaning VLBW infants with RDS from mechanical ventilation after surfactant therapy. Pediatr Res. 1992;31(A):–.
  1058. Restrick LJ, Scott AD, Ward EM, et al Nasal intermittent positive-pressure ventilation in weaning intubated patients with chronic respiratory disease from assisted intermittent, positive-pressure ventilation. Respir Med. 1993;87(3):199–204. [PubMed: 8497699]
  1059. Retamal O, Coriat P, Pamela F, et al [Preventing hypertensive episodes after carotid surgery: Use of nifedipine and diltiazem.] [French] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1986;5(3):278–86. [PubMed: 3777553]
  1060. Reyes A, Vega G, Blancas R, et al Early vs conventional extubation after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Chest. 1997;112(1):193–201. [PubMed: 9228376]
  1061. Richard C, Teboul JL, Archambaud F, et al Left ventricular function during weaning of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intensive Care Med. 1994;20(3):181–6. [PubMed: 8014283]
  1062. Richard I, Giraud M, Perrouin-Verbe B, et al Laryngotracheal stenosis after intubation or tracheostomy in patients with neurological disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(5):493–6. [PubMed: 8629927]
  1063. Richardson MA, Inglis AF A comparison of anterior cricoid split with and without costal cartilage graft for acquired subglottic stenosis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1991;22(2):187–93. [PubMed: 1743879]
  1064. Rieves RD, Bass D, Carter RR, et al Severe COPD and acute respiratory failure. Correlates for survival at the time of tracheal intubation. Chest. 1993;104(3):854–60. [PubMed: 8365300]
  1065. Riggio RE, Singer RD, Hartman K, et al Psychological issues in the care of critically-ill respirator patients differential perceptions of patients, relatives and staff. Psych Rep. 1982;51(2):363–9. [PubMed: 7178338]
  1066. Riggs JH Use of low flow rates on neonatal pressure limited ventilators. Neonatal Intensive Care. 1998;11(1):16–21.
  1067. Riker RR, Fraser GL, Cox PM Continuous infusion of haloperidol controls agitation in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(3):433–40. [PubMed: 8124994]
  1068. Rios JA, Paz AS, Hernandez MV, et al Endovenous anesthesia with propofol-nalbuphine. Rev Mex Anestesiol. 1997;20(4):201–4.
  1069. Rithalia SV, Ng YY, Tinker J Measurement of transcutaneous PCO-2 in critically ill patients. Resuscitation. 1982;10(1):13–8. [PubMed: 6291114]
  1070. Rivera L, Weissman C Dynamic ventilatory characteristics during weaning in postoperative critically ill patients. Anesth Analg. 1997;84(6):1250–5. [PubMed: 9174302]
  1071. Rivera R, Tibballs J Complications of endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation in infants and children. Crit Care Med. 1992;20(2):193–9. [PubMed: 1737455]
  1072. Robertson NJ, Hamilton PA Randomised trial of elective continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with rescue CPAP after extubation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonat Ed. 1998;79(1):F58–F60. [PMC free article: PMC1720806] [PubMed: 9797627]
  1073. Rodriguez JL, Steinberg SM, Luchetti FA, et al Early tracheostomy for primary airway management in the surgical critical care setting. Surgery. 1990;108(4):655–9. [PubMed: 2218876]
  1074. Roekaerts PM, Huygen FM, de Lange S Infusion of propofol versus midazolam for sedation in the intensive care unit following coronary artery surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7(2):142–7. [PubMed: 8477016]
  1075. Rogers S, Ryan M, Slepoy L Successful ventilator weaning: A collaborative effort. Rehabil Nurs. 1998;23(5):265–8. [PubMed: 10067643]
  1076. Romero GJ, La-Banda BF, Garcia LM, et al Mechanical ventilation in acute cervical spinal cord injuries. Medi Intensiva. 1994;18(9):465–71.
  1077. Ronan KP, Gallagher TJ, George B, et al Comparison of propofol and midazolam for sedation in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med. 1995;23(2):286–93. [PubMed: 7867354]
  1078. Ronday M, Damen J, van der Tweel I Disconnection of the ventilatory system does not prevent pleural lesions during sternotomy. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7(5):535–7. [PubMed: 8268432]
  1079. Roquefeuil B, Duboin MP, Blanchet P, et al [Problems of reanimation in tetraplegic patients during the acute phase. A study concerning 47 patients.] [French] Agressologie. 1982;23(E):145–9. [PubMed: 7137481]
  1080. Rosegger H, Goriup U, Muller WD [Combined oral-parenteral nutrition in premature infants needing prolonged artificial ventilation.] [German] Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1982;130(7):546–51. [PubMed: 6810104]
  1081. Rotello LC, Warren J, Jastremski MS, et al A nurse-directed protocol using pulse oximetry to wean mechanically ventilated patients from toxic oxygen concentrations. Chest. 1992;102(6):1833–5. [PubMed: 1446498]
  1082. Rothschild MA, Cotcamp D, Cotton RT Postoperative medical management in single-stage laryngotracheoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;121(10):1175–9. [PubMed: 7546587]
  1083. Rotschild A, Solimano A, Puterman M, et al Increased compliance in response to salbutamol in premature infants with developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 1989;115(6):984–91. [PubMed: 2685221]
  1084. Roustan JP, Kienlen J, Aubas P, et al Comparison of hydrophobic heat and moisture exchangers with heated humidifier during prolonged mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18(2):97–100. [PubMed: 1613206]
  1085. Rout CC, Rocke DA, Gouws E Intravenous ranitidine reduces the risk of acid aspiration of gastric contents at emergency cesarean section. Anesth Analg. 1993;76(1):156–61. [PubMed: 8418717]
  1086. Rowbotham DJ, Peacock JE, Jones RM, et al Comparison of remifentanil in combination with isoflurane or propofol for short-stay surgical procedures. Br J Anaesth. 1998;80(6):752–5. [PubMed: 9771302]
  1087. Royston D Patient selection and anesthetic management for early extubation and hospital discharge: CABG. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;12(6 Suppl 2):11–9. [PubMed: 9919462]
  1088. Roze JC, Liet JM, Gournay V, et al Oxygen cost of breathing and weaning process in newborn infants. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(11):2583–5. [PubMed: 9426099]
  1089. Rubini F, Rampulla C, Nava S Acute effect of corticosteroids on respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients with chronic airflow obstruction and acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;149(2 Pt 1):306–10. [PubMed: 8306023]
  1090. Rubini F, Zanotti E, Brigada P, et al [Factors determining the successful weaning of patients with "difficult weaning"]. [Italian] Minerva Anestesiol. 1998;64(11):513–20. [PubMed: 9951270]
  1091. Rubini F, Zanotti E, Nava S Ventilatory techniques during weaning. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1994;49(6):527–9. [PubMed: 7711708]
  1092. Rudis MI, Sikora CA, Angus E, et al A prospective, randomized, controlled evaluation of peripheral nerve stimulation versus standard clinical dosing of neuromuscular blocking agents in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(4):575–83. [PubMed: 9142020]
  1093. Rumbak MJ, Graves AE, Scott MP, et al Tracheostomy tube occlusion protocol predicts significant tracheal obstruction to air flow in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(3):413–7. [PubMed: 9118655]
  1094. Russell GB, Graybeal JM, Strout JC Stability of arterial to end-tidal carbon dioxide gradients during postoperative cardiorespiratory support. Can J Anaesth. 1990;37(5):560–6. [PubMed: 2115404]
  1095. Russell GN, Yam PI, Tran J, et al Gastroesophageal reflux and tracheobronchial contamination after cardiac surgery: Should a nasogastric tube be routine? Anesth Analg. 1996;83(2):228–32. [PubMed: 8694297]
  1096. Russi E [Weaning from mechanical ventilation.] [German] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1992;117(14):–.
  1097. Ruttimann UE, Pollack MM Variability in duration of stay in pediatric intensive care units: A multiinstitutional study. J Pediatr. 1996;128(1):35–44. [PubMed: 8551419]
  1098. Saarnivaara L, Grahne B Clinical study on an endotracheal tube with a high-residual volume, low-pressure cuff. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1981;25(2):89–92. [PubMed: 7324830]
  1099. Saarnivaara L, Simola M Effects of four anticholinesterase-anticholinergic combinations and tracheal extubation on QTc interval of the ECG, heart rate and arterial pressure. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1998;42(4):460–3. [PubMed: 9563867]
  1100. Sabate A, Pena MJ, Vila C, et al [Analysis of cost minimization of epidural anesthesia compared with general anesthesia in oncologic coloproctologic surgery]. [Spanish] An Med Interna. 1997;14(6):291–6. [PubMed: 9410100]
  1101. Sahn SA, Lakshminarayan S Bedside criteria for discontinuation of mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1973;63(6):1002–5. [PubMed: 4514488]
  1102. Saito H, Taniwaka K, Muto T, et al Effects of growth hormone dose after major abdominal operation. Clin Nutr. 1992;11(Suppl):–.
  1103. Saito S, Tokioka H, Saeki S, et al [Is airway occlusion pressure useful to predict successful weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory failure?]. [Japanese] Kokyu To Junkan - Respir Circ. 1991;39(2):143–5. [PubMed: 2017594]
  1104. Sakarya M, Askar F, Derbent A, et al Propofol or midazolam infusion for sedation following myocardial revascularization. Turk Anesteziyoloji Reanim. 1999;27(4):171–6.
  1105. Saldias F, Castellon JM, Garayar B, et al [Predictor indices of early extubation in mechanical ventilation in patients treated with heart surgery]. [Spanish] Rev Med Chile. 1996;124(8):959–66. [PubMed: 9196996]
  1106. Salord F, Pelissou-Guyotat I, Peillon D, et al [Indication of planned sedation after intracranial surgery. Prospective study of decisional criteria.] [French] Neurochirurgie. 1994;40(5):307–12. [PubMed: 7596451]
  1107. Salzer HR, Aufricht C, Weninger M Anion gap in mechanically ventilated newborn infants within the first week of life. Am J Perinatol. 1994;11(3):213–6. [PubMed: 8048988]
  1108. Samuels MP, Southall DP Negative extrathoracic pressure in treatment of respiratory failure in infants and young children. BMJ. 1989;299(6710):1253–7. [PMC free article: PMC1838133] [PubMed: 2513900]
  1109. Santak B, Radermacher P, Sandmann W, et al Influence of SIMV plus inspiratory pressure support on VA/Q distributions during postoperative weaning. Intensive Care Med. 1991;17(3):136–40. [PubMed: 2071760]
  1110. Santoro G, Picardo S, Testa G, et al Balloon-expandable metallic stents in the management of tracheomalacia in neonates. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;110(4 Pt 1):1145–8. [PubMed: 7475147]
  1111. Santos PM, Afrassiabi A, Weymuller-EA Risk factors associated with prolonged intubation and laryngeal injury. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1994;111(4):453–9. [PubMed: 7936678]
  1112. Sapijaszko MJ, Brant R, Sandham D, et al Nonrespiratory predictor of mechanical ventilation dependency in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(4):601–7. [PubMed: 8612410]
  1113. Sassoon CS, Light RW, Lodia R, et al Pressure-time product during continuous positive airway pressure, pressure support ventilation, and T-piece during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143(3):469–75. [PubMed: 2001053]
  1114. Sassoon CS, Del Rosano N, Fei R, et al Influence of pressure- and flow-triggered synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation on inspiratory muscle work. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(12):1933–41. [PubMed: 7988129]
  1115. Sassoon CS, Giron AE, Ely EE, et al Inspiratory work of breathing on flow-by during continuous positive airway pressure. Crit Care Med. 1989;17(11):1108–14. [PubMed: 2676347]
  1116. Sassoon CS, Mahutte CK Airway occlusion pressure and breathing pattern as predictors of weaning outcome. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148(4 Pt 1):860–6. [PubMed: 8214939]
  1117. Sassoon CS, Te TT, Mahutte CK, et al Airway occlusion pressure. An important indicator for successful weaning in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;135(1):107–13. [PubMed: 3800139]
  1118. Satur CR, Walker DR, Dickinson DF Day case ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: A 10 year review. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66(4):477–80. [PMC free article: PMC1792999] [PubMed: 1812843]
  1119. Saura P, Blanch L, Lucangelo U, et al Use of capnography to detect hypercapnic episodes during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(5):374–81. [PubMed: 8796386]
  1120. Saura P, Blanch L, Mestre J, et al Clinical consequences of the implementation of a weaning protocol. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(10):1052–6. [PubMed: 8923069]
  1121. Sawin R, Glick P, Schaller R, et al Gastroschisis wringer clamp: A safe, simplified method for delayed primary closure. J Pediatr Surg. 1992;27(10):1346–8. [PubMed: 1403519]
  1122. Schachinger H, Frank HD, Schmid H [Clinical management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia]. [German] Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1984;132(9):685–8. [PubMed: 6493244]
  1123. Schachter EN, Tucker D, Beck GJ Does intermittent mandatory ventilation accelerate weaning? JAMA. 1981;246(11):1210–4. [PubMed: 7021889]
  1124. Scheinhorn DJ, Artinian BM, Catlin JL Weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. The experience at a regional weaning center. Chest. 1994;105(2):534–9. [PubMed: 8306758]
  1125. Scheinhorn DJ, Chao DC, Stearn-Hassenpflug M, et al Post-ICU mechanical ventilation: Treatment of 1,123 patients at a regional weaning center. Chest. 1997;111(6):1654–9. [PubMed: 9187189]
  1126. Scheinhorn DJ, Hassenpflug M, Artinian BM, et al Predictors of weaning after 6 weeks of mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1995;107(2):500–5. [PubMed: 7842784]
  1127. Schipper JA, van Straaten HL, Koppe JG, et al The influence of surfactant on functional residual capacity measured by nitrogen washout method in preterm newborns. Appl Cardiopulmon Pathophysiol. 1996;6(1):19–24.
  1128. Schirmer U, Calzia E, Lindner KH, et al Right ventricular function during weaning from respirator after coronary artery bypass grafting. Comparison of two different weaning techniques. Chest. 1994;105(5):1352–6. [PubMed: 8181318]
  1129. Schmidt H, Rohr D, Bauer H, et al Changes in intrathoracic fluid volumes during weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. J Crit Care. 1997;12(1):22–7. [PubMed: 9075061]
  1130. Schonhofer B [Effect on the duration of mechanical ventilation of identifying patients capable of breathing spontaneously]. [German] Pneumologie. 1997;51(6):599–600. [PubMed: 9333795]
  1131. Schonhofer B, Mang H, Kohler D [Ventilator weaning after long-term ventilation-the concept of a regional ventilator weaning center]. [German] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1995;30(7):403–11. [PubMed: 8562714]
  1132. Schonhofer B, Wenzel M, Geibel M, et al Blood transfusion and lung function in chronically anemic patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(11):1824–8. [PubMed: 9824074]
  1133. Schreiner MS, Downes JJ, Kettrick RG, et al Chronic respiratory failure in infants with prolonged ventilator dependency. JAMA. 1987;258(23):3398–404. [PubMed: 3682138]
  1134. Schrum SF, Hannallah RS, Verghese PM, et al Comparison of propofol and thiopental for rapid anesthesia induction in infants. Anesth Analg. 1994;78(3):482–5. [PubMed: 8109764]
  1135. Schuchat A, Lizano C, Broome CV, et al Outbreak of neonatal listeriosis associated with mineral oil. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991;10(3):183–9. [PubMed: 2041663]
  1136. Schuller DE, Birck HG The safety of intubation in croup and epiglottitis: An eight-year follow-up. Laryngoscope. 1975;85(1):33–46. [PubMed: 1113595]
  1137. Schuller JL, Bovill JG, Nijveld A, et al Early extubation of trachea after open heart surgery for congenital heart disease review of 3 years' experience. Br J Anaesth. 1984;56(10):1101–8. [PubMed: 6433948]
  1138. Schultz AM, Werba A, Ulbing S, et al Peri-operative thoracic epidural analgesia for thoracotomy. Eur J Anaesth. 1997;14(6):600–3. [PubMed: 9466095]
  1139. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, et al Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA. 1995;273(5):408–12. [PubMed: 7823387]
  1140. Schuttler J, Albrecht S, Breivik H, et al A comparison of remifentanil and alfentanil in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(4):307–17. [PubMed: 9135180]
  1141. Scott PH, Eigen H, Moye LA, et al Predictability and consequences of spontaneous extubation in a pediatric ICU. Crit Care Med. 1985;13(4):228–32. [PubMed: 3979069]
  1142. Scott SM, Backstrom C, Bessman S Effect of five days of dexamethasone therapy on ventilator dependence and adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated cortisol concentrations. J Perinatol. 1997;17(1):24–8. [PubMed: 9069060]
  1143. Searle NR, Cote S, Taillefer J, et al Propofol or midazolam for sedation and early extubation following cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth. 1997;44(6):629–35. [PubMed: 9187783]
  1144. Sellers BJ, Davis BL, Larkin PW, et al Early prediction of prolonged ventilator dependence in thermally injured patients. J Trauma. 1997;43(6):899–903. [PubMed: 9420102]
  1145. Seneff MG, Zimmerman JE, Knaus WA, et al Predicting the duration of mechanical ventilation. The importance of disease and patient characteristics. Chest. 1996;110(2):469–79. [PubMed: 8697853]
  1146. Sereika SM, Clochesy JM Left ventricular dysfunction and duration of mechanical ventilatory support in the chronically critically ill: A survival analysis. Heart Lung. 1996;25(1):45–51. [PubMed: 8775870]
  1147. Series F, Marc I Changes in snoring characteristics after 30 days of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in patients with non-apnoeic snoring: A controlled trial. Thorax. 1994;49(6):562–6. [PMC free article: PMC474945] [PubMed: 8016794]
  1148. Serna DL, Chen JC, Milliken JC Accelerated recovery after coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with poor left ventricular function: Preliminary report. Am Surg. 1998;64(10):942–6. [PubMed: 9764697]
  1149. Seyberth HW, Muller H, Ulmer HE, et al Urinary excretion rates of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in preterm infants recovering from respiratory distress with and without patent ductus arteriosus. Pediatr Res. 1984;18(6):520–4. [PubMed: 6588360]
  1150. Shackford SR, Virgilio RW, Peters RM Early extubation versus prophylactic ventilation in the high risk patient: A comparison of postoperative management in the prevention of respiratory complications. Anesth Analg. 1981;60(2):76–80. [PubMed: 7053123]
  1151. Shackford SR, Virgilio RW, Peters RM Selective use of ventilator therapy in flail chest injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1981;81(2):194–201. [PubMed: 7005549]
  1152. Shahar E, Shorer Z, Roifman CM, et al Immune globulins are effective in severe pediatric Guillain-Barre syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 1997;16(1):32–6. [PubMed: 9044398]
  1153. Shahsavar N, Ludwigs U, Blomqvist H, et al Evaluation of a knowledge-based decision-support system for ventilator therapy management. Artif Intell Med. 1995;7(1):37–52. [PubMed: 7795715]
  1154. Shapiro B, Lichtenthal PR Inhalation-based anesthetic techniques are the key to early extubation of the cardiac surgical patient. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1993;7(2):135–6. [PubMed: 8477014]
  1155. Shekleton M Clinical indicators of the ability to sustain spontaneous ventilation: A pilot study. Chart. 1989;86(1):–. [PubMed: 2914327]
  1156. Shemie S Steroids for anything that swells: Dexamethasone and postextubation airway obstruction. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(10):1613–4. [PubMed: 8874294]
  1157. Sherman JM, Lowitt S, Stephenson C, et al Factors influencing acquired subgottic stenosis in infants. J Pediatr. 1986;109(2):322–7. [PubMed: 3734970]
  1158. Sherry KM Post-extubation stridor in Down's syndrome. Br J Anaesth. 1983;55(1):53–5. [PubMed: 6217828]
  1159. Sherry KM, McNamara J, Brown JS, et al An economic evaluation of propofol/fentanyl compared with midazolam/fentanyl on recovery in the ICU following cardiac surgery. Anaesthesia. 1996;51(4):312–7. [PubMed: 8686815]
  1160. Shikora SA, Benotti PN, Johannigman JA The oxygen cost of breathing may predict weaning from mechanical ventilation better than the respiratory rate to tidal volume ratio. Arch Surg. 1994;129(3):269–74. [PubMed: 8129602]
  1161. Shikora SA, Bistrian BR, Borlase BC, et al Work of breathing: Reliable predictor of weaning and extubation. Crit Care Med. 1990;18(2):157–62. [PubMed: 2298006]
  1162. Shikora SA, MacDonald GF, Bistrian BR, et al Could the oxygen cost of breathing be used to optimize the application of pressure support ventilation? J Trauma. 1992;33(4):521–6. [PubMed: 1433397]
  1163. Shimada Y, Yoshiya I, Tanaka K, et al Crying vital capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure as clinical indicators of readiness for weaning of infants less than a year of age. Anesthesiology. 1979:51(5):456–9. [PubMed: 386858]
  1164. Shin J, Young MK, Yeontae C Weaning following a 30 minutes spontaneous breathing trial. Tuberc Respir Dis. 1997;44(6):1326–31.
  1165. Shindo K, Minami C, Yamazaki K, et al Factors affecting postoperative ventilatory support in patients with cardiac cachexia. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1989;3(4):455–60. [PubMed: 2520918]
  1166. Shinkwin CA, Gibbin KP Tracheostomy in children. J R Soc Med. 1996;89(4):188–92. [PMC free article: PMC1295732] [PubMed: 8676314]
  1167. Shinwell ES, Karplus M, Zmora E, et al Failure of early postnatal dexamethasone to prevent chronic lung disease in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1996;74(1):F33–F37. [PMC free article: PMC2528319] [PubMed: 8653433]
  1168. Shoults D, Clarke TA, Benumof JL, et al Maximum inspiratory force in predicting successful neonate tracheal extubation. Crit Care Med. 1979;7(11):485–6. [PubMed: 487844]
  1169. Shroff A, Rooke GA, Bishop MJ Effects of intrathecal opioid on extubation time, analgesia, and intensive care unit stay following coronary artery bypass grafting. J Clin Anesth. 1997;9(5):415–9. [PubMed: 9257210]
  1170. Shroyer AL, London MJ, Sethi GK, et al Relationships between patient-related risk factors, processes, structures and outcomes of cardiac surgical care: Conceputal models. Med Care. 1995;33(10 Suppl):OS 26–34. [PubMed: 7475409]
  1171. Shutack JG, Fox WW, Shaffer TH, et al Effect of low-rate intermittent mandatory ventilation on pulmonary function of low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr. 1982;100(5):799–802. [PubMed: 7069545]
  1172. Silas SL, Simpson SQ, Levy H Rapid shallow breathing index does not correlate with airway occlusion pressure or worth of breathing (abstract) Chest. 1993;104:–.
  1173. Silbert BS, Santamaria JD, O'Brien JL, et al Early extubation following coronary artery bypass surgery: A prospective randomized controlled trial. The Fast Track Cardiac Care Team. Chest. 1998;113(6):1481–8. [PubMed: 9631781]
  1174. Siliciano D Con: Early extubation is not preferable to late extubation in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1992;6(4):494–8. [PubMed: 1498308]
  1175. Silk DA, Bray MJ, Keele AM, et al Clinical evaluation of a newly designed nasogastric enteral feeding tube. Clin Nutr. 1996;15(6):285–90. [PubMed: 16844058]
  1176. Simberkoff MS, Santos MR Prevention of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1996;2(3):228–35. [PubMed: 9363144]
  1177. Simel DL, Samsa GP, Matchar DB Likelihood ratios with confidence: Sample size estimation for diagnostic test studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44(8):763–70. [PubMed: 1941027]
  1178. Simoes EA, Rosenberg AA, King SJ, et al Room air challenge: Prediction for successful weaning of oxygen-dependent infants. J Perinatol. 1997;17(2):125–9. [PubMed: 9134511]
  1179. Sims ME, Rangasamy R, Lee S, et al Comparative evaluation of caffeine and theophylline for weaning premature infants from the ventilator. Am J Perinatol. 1989;6(1):72–5. [PubMed: 2642707]
  1180. Sinha SK, Donn SM, Gavey J, et al Randomised trial of volume controlled versus time cycled, pressure limited ventilation in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1997;77(3):F202–F205. [PMC free article: PMC1720717] [PubMed: 9462190]
  1181. Sise MJ, Shackford SR, Cruickshank JC, et al Cricothyroidotomy for long-term tracheal access. A prospective analysis of morbidity and mortality in 76 patients. Ann Surg. 1984;200(1):13–7. [PMC free article: PMC1250385] [PubMed: 6732322]
  1182. Skillman JJ, Malhotra IV, Pallotta JA, et al Determinants of weaning from controlled ventilation Surg Forum 197122198–200.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 5121356]
  1183. Slama MA, Novara A, Van de Putte P, et al Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of transesophageal echocardiography in medical ICU patients with unexplained shock, hypoxemia, or suspected endocarditis. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(9):916–22. [PubMed: 8905426]
  1184. Sleasman JW, Hemenway C, Klein AS, et al Corticosteroids improve survival of children with AIDS and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Am J Dis Child 1993147(1)30–4.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 8093422]
  1185. Slogoff S, Keats A Randomized trial of primary anesthetic agents on outcome after coronary artery bypass operations. Anesthesiology. 1989;70(2):179–88. [PubMed: 2521549]
  1186. Slutsky AS, Tremblay LN Multiple system organ failure. Is mechanical ventilation a contributing factor? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157(6 Pt 1):1721–5. [PubMed: 9620897]
  1187. Slutsky AS Consensus conference on mechanical ventilation - January 28-30, 1993 at Northbrook, Illinois, USA - Part 2. Intensive Care Med. 1994;20(2):150–62. [PubMed: 8201097]
  1188. Smith AJ, Goodman NW The hypertensive response to intubation. Do researchers acknowledge previous work? Can J Anaesth. 1997;44(1):9–13. [PubMed: 8988817]
  1189. Smith IE, Shneerson JM A progressive care programme for prolonged ventilatory failure: analysis of outcome. Br J Anaesth. 1995;75(4):399–404. [PubMed: 7488476]
  1190. Smith I, Taylor E, White PF Comparison of tracheal extubation in patients deeply anesthetized with desflurane or isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 1994;79(4):642–5. [PubMed: 7943769]
  1191. Smith RA, Novak RA, Venus B End-tidal CO2 monitoring utility during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Respir Care. 1989;34(11):972–5.
  1192. Snellen FT, Vanacker B, Van Aken H Propofol-nitrous oxide versus thiopental sodium-isoflurane-nitrous oxide for strabismus surgery in children. J Clin Anesth. 1993;5(1):37–41. [PubMed: 8442965]
  1193. Snellen F, Lauwers P, Demeyere R, et al The use of midazolam versus propofol for short-term sedation following coronary artery bypass grafting. Intensive Care Med. 1990;16(5):312–6. [PubMed: 2212256]
  1194. Sneyd JR, Whaley A, Dimpel HL, et al An open, randomized comparison of alfentanil, remifentanil and alfentanil followed by remifentanil in anaesthesia for craniotomy. Br J Anaesth. 1998;81(3):361–4. [PubMed: 9861120]
  1195. Snider P, Miller M Action STAT! Self-extubation. Nursing. 1989;19(5):–. [PubMed: 2771221]
  1196. So BH, Tamura M, Kamoshita S Nasal continuous positive airway pressure following surfactant replacement for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Chung-Hua Min Kuo Hsiao Erh Ko I Hsueh Hui Tsa Chih. 1994;35(4):280–7. [PubMed: 8085448]
  1197. So BH, Tamura M, Mishina J, et al Application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure to early extubation in very low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1995;72(3):F191–F193. [PMC free article: PMC2528452] [PubMed: 7796237]
  1198. Soler M, Raszynski A, Kandrotas RJ, et al Fewer interventions in the immediate post-extubation management of pediatric intensive care unit patients: Safety and cost containment. J Crit Care. 1997;12(4):173–6. [PubMed: 9459112]
  1199. Solsona DJ, Marrugat-de lI, Vazquez SA, et al Quality assurance in critically ill patients: Recordings of complications related to mechanical ventilation. Med Intensiva. 1998;22(3):91–5.
  1200. Soma K, Otsuka H, Tomita T Mouth occlusion pressure as a useful indicator for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1988;156(Suppl):181–7. [PubMed: 3269050]
  1201. Soubasi V, Kremenopoulos G, Diamandi E, et al In which neonates does early recombinant human erythropoietin treatment prevent anemia of prematurity? Results of a randomized, controlled study. Pediatr Res. 1993;34(5):675–9. [PubMed: 8284109]
  1202. Speer CP, Harms K, Muller U, et al [Treatment of severe respiratory distress syndrome in the premature infant with natural surfactant]. [German] Monatsschr Kinderheilkde. 1988;136(2):65–70. [PubMed: 3130571]
  1203. Speicher A, Jessberger J, Braun R, et al [Pulmonary function after lung surgery. Comparison of intravenous propofol anaesthesia and balanced isoflurane anaesthesia.] [German] Anaesthesist. 1995;44(4):265–73. [PubMed: 7785755]
  1204. Spencer EM, Willatts SM Isoflurane for prolonged sedation in the intensive care unit: Efficacy and safety. Intensive Care Med. 1992;18(7):415–21. [PubMed: 1469180]
  1205. Spies CD, Dubisz N, Neumann T, et al Therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in intensive care unit patients following trauma: Results of a prospective, randomized trial. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(3):414–22. [PubMed: 8625628]
  1206. Spivack SD, Shinozaki T, Albertini JJ, et al Preoperative prediction of postoperative respiratory outcome. Coronary artery bypass grafting. Chest. 1996;109(5):1222–30. [PubMed: 8625671]
  1207. Stamm AM Ventilator-associated pneumonia and frequency of circuit changes. [Review] [16 refs] Am J Infect Control. 1998;26(1):71–3. [PubMed: 9503116]
  1208. Staudinger T, Kordova H, Roggla M, et al Comparison of oxygen cost of breathing with pressure-support ventilation and biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(9):1518–22. [PubMed: 9751587]
  1209. Stauffer JL, Fayter NA, Graves B, et al Survival following mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure in adult men. Chest. 1993;104(4):1222–9. [PubMed: 8404197]
  1210. Stauffer JL, Olson DE, Petty TL Complications and consequences of endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy. A prospective study of 150 critically ill adult patients. Am J Med. 1981;70(1):65–76. [PubMed: 7457492]
  1211. Stawitcke FA, Ream AK, Piziali RL Pressure control to accommodate patient breathing efforts during volume ventilation. J Clin Monit. 1987;3(2):101–15. [PubMed: 3295124]
  1212. Stenson BJ, Glover RM, Wilkie RA, et al Randomised controlled trial of respiratory system compliance measurements in mechanically ventilated neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1998;78(1):F15–F19. [PMC free article: PMC1720735] [PubMed: 9536834]
  1213. Stenson K, Berkowitz R, McDonald T, et al Experience with one-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1993;27(1):55–64. [PubMed: 8314668]
  1214. Stewart AR, Finer NN, Moriartey RR Neonatal nasotracheal intubation: an evaluation. Laryngoscope. 1980;90(5 Pt 1):826–31. [PubMed: 7374312]
  1215. Stewart KH, Kewman S, Adamczyk MA, et al Quality of care in weaning from mechanical ventilation. J Nurs Care Q. 1992;6(4):44–50. [PubMed: 1611104]
  1216. Stocker R, Fabry B, Stein S, et al [Added work of breathing, respiratory pattern and determination of ventilator weaning readiness in inspiratory pressure support and and automatic tube compensation]. [German] Unfallchirurg. 1996;99(10):764–70. [PubMed: 9005565]
  1217. Stokes MA, Soriano SG, Tarbell NJ, et al Anesthesia for stereotactic radiosurgery in children. J Neurosurg Anethesiol. 1995;7(2):100–8. [PubMed: 7772962]
  1218. Stoller J Establishing clinical unweanability. Respir Care. 1991:36186–98.
  1219. Stolovitzky JP, Todd NW Autoimmune hypothesis of acquired subglottic stenosis in premature infants. Laryngoscope. 1990;100(3):227–30. [PubMed: 2308445]
  1220. Stone AM, Bone RC Successful weaning from mechanical ventilation. Strategies to avoid failure. Postgrad Med. 1989;86(5):315–9. [PubMed: 2678073]
  1221. Stone WM, Larson JS, Young M, et al Early extubation after abdominal aortic reconstruction. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1998;12(2):174–6. [PubMed: 9583549]
  1222. Stovsky B, Rudy E, Dragonnette P Comparison of two types of communication methods used after cardiac surgery with patients with endotracheal tubes. Heart Lung. 1988;17(3):281–93. [PubMed: 2966780]
  1223. Stratigi P, Sicioti A, Coublis M, et al The use of lidocaine in hypertensive patients before extubation. Acta Anaesthesiol. 1981;15(1-2):92–6.
  1224. Straus C, Louis B, Isabey D, et al Contribution of the endotracheal tube and the upper airway to breathing workload. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157(1):23–30. [PubMed: 9445274]
  1225. Strickland JH Computer-directed weaning strategies. Respir Care. 1948;8(5):45–6.
  1226. Strickland JHJ, Hasson JH A computer-controlled ventilator weaning system. Chest. 1991;100(4):1096–9. [PubMed: 1914564]
  1227. Strickland-JH J, Hasson JH A computer-controlled ventilator weaning system: A clinical trial. Chest. 1993;103(4):1220–6. [PubMed: 8131469]
  1228. Stroetz RW, Hubmayr RD Tidal volume maintenance during weaning with pressure support. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152(3):1034–40. [PubMed: 7663780]
  1229. Sugahara M, Mukaida K, Kurata J, et al [General anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl for adult cardiac surgery]. [Japanese] Masui. 1999;48(2):162–7. [PubMed: 10087825]
  1230. Sugerman HJ, Wolfe L, Pasquale MD, et al Multicenter, randomized, prospective trial of early tracheostomy. J Trauma. 1997;43(5):741–7. [PubMed: 9390483]
  1231. Sugimachi K, Ueo H, Natsuda Y, et al Cough dynamics in oesophageal cancer: Prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications. Br J Surg. 1982;69(12):734–6. [PubMed: 7171977]
  1232. Sugiyama N, Suma K, Shiroma K, et al Analysis of atrial electrocardiogram recorded with atrial pacing wires after cardiac surgery. Jpn Heart J. 1994;35(Suppl 1):593–4.
  1233. Super D, Catelli N, Brooks L, et al A prospective randomized double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone in acute laryngotracheitis. J Pediatr. 1989;115(2):323–9. [PubMed: 2754562]
  1234. Suske G, Oestreich K, Varnholt V, et al Influence of early postnatal dexamethasone therapy on ventilator dependency in surfactant-substituted preterm infants. Acta Paediatr. 1996;85(6):713–8. [PubMed: 8816210]
  1235. Sussman S, Grossman M, Mogoffin R, et al Dexamethasone alpha-methyl, 9-alphafluoroprednisolone in obstructive respiratory tract infections in children: A controlled study. Pediatrics. 1964;34(6):851–5. [PMC free article: PMC324406] [PubMed: 14243474]
  1236. Suter PM, Weibel MA [The veriflo CV 2000: A polyvalent, pneumatically powered and controlled ventilator (author's transl)]. [German] Prakt Anaesth. 1977;12(6):526–32. [PubMed: 339221]
  1237. Swartz MA, Marino PL Diaphragmatic strength during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1985;88(5):736–9. [PubMed: 3931989]
  1238. Swinamer DL, Fedoruk LM, Jones RL, et al Energy expenditure associated with CPAP and T-piece spontaneous ventilatory trials. Changes following prolonged mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1989;96(4):867–72. [PubMed: 2676393]
  1239. Sydow M, Thies K, Engel J, et al [Variation of the initial flow rate during pressure support ventilation: Influence on respiratory pattern and mechanical respiration work.] [German] Anaesthesist. 1996;45(11):1051–8. [PubMed: 9012300]
  1240. Tahvanainen J, Nikki P The significance of hypoxemia with low inspired O2 fraction before extubation. Crit Care Med. 1983;11(9):708–11. [PubMed: 6884050]
  1241. Tahvanainen J, Salmenpera M, Nikki P Extubation criteria after weaning from intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure. Crit Care Med. 1983;11:702–7. [PubMed: 6411431]
  1242. Takala J, Ruokonen E, Webster N, et al Increased mortality associated with growth hormone treatment in critically ill adults. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(11):785–92. [PubMed: 10477776]
  1243. Takeda S, Nakahara K, Fujii Y, et al Concomitant cardiac and pulmonary operation. Pulmonary mechanics and outcome of phrenic nerve injury. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;38(5):517–21. [PubMed: 9358812]
  1244. Tamburro RF, Bunitz MC Tracheal airleak as a predictor of post-extubation stridor in the paediatric intensive care unit. Clin Intensive Care. 1993;4(2):52–5.
  1245. Tammisto T, Aromaa U The role of halothane and fentanyl in the production of balanced anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1982;26(3):225–30. [PubMed: 6810645]
  1246. Tan LL, Huang JF, Wang H [The effect of rehabilitation training on postoperative recovery of children with congenital heart disease]. [Chinese] Chung-Hua Hu Li Tsa Chih. 1996;31(6):314–5. [PubMed: 8945145]
  1247. Tanaka K, Kumon K, Yamamoto F, et al Respiratory care of pediatric patients requiring prolonged intubation after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 1986;14(7):617–9. [PubMed: 3720311]
  1248. Tapia JL, Bancalari A, Gonzalez A, et al Does continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during weaning from intermittent mandatory ventilation in very low birth weight infants have risks or benefits? A controlled trial. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1995;19(5):269–74. [PubMed: 7567201]
  1249. Tarazi EM, Philip BK A comparison of recovery after sevoflurane or desflurane in ambulatory anesthesia. J Clin Anesth. 1998;10(4):272–7. [PubMed: 9667341]
  1250. Tarnow MW Multicentre randomised controlled trial of high against low frequency positive pressure ventilation. Oxford Controlled Trial of Artificial Ventilation OCTAVE Study Group. Arch Dis Child. 1991;66(7 Spec No):770–5. [PMC free article: PMC1590232] [PubMed: 1863121]
  1251. Tatekawa S, Yukioka H, Fujimori M, et al Comparison of effects of intravenous versus intramuscular famotidine on pH and volume of gastric juice. Jpn J Anesthesiol. 1990;39(12):1619–25. [PubMed: 2098588]
  1252. Tellez DW, Galvis AG, Storgion SA, et al Dexamethasone in the prevention of postextubation stridor in children. J Pediatr. 1991;118(2):289–94. [PubMed: 1993963]
  1253. Tempe D, Cooper A, Mohan JC, et al Closed mitral valvotomy and elective ventilation in the postoperative period: Effect of mild hypercarbia on right ventricular function. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995;9(5):552–7. [PubMed: 8547558]
  1254. Terai T, Yukioka H, Fujimori M Administration of epidural bupivacaine combined with epidural morphine after esophageal surgery. Surgery. 1997;121(4):359–65. [PubMed: 9122864]
  1255. Teres D, Roizen MF, Bushnell LS Successful weaning from controlled ventilation despite high deadspace-to-tidal volume ratio. Anesthesiology. 1973;39(6):656–9. [PubMed: 4586605]
  1256. Thibodeau LG, Verdile VP, Bartfield JM Incidence of aspiration after urgent intubation. Am J Emerg Med. 1997;15(6):562–5. [PubMed: 9337361]
  1257. Thomas R, Kumar EV, Kameswaran M, et al Post intubation laryngeal sequelae in an intensive care unit. J Laryngol Otolaryngol. 1995;109(4):313–6. [PubMed: 7782687]
  1258. Thomson IR, Hudson RJ, Rosenbloom M, et al A randomized double-blind comparison of fentanyl and sufentanil anaesthesia for coronary artery surgery. Can J Anaesth. 1987;34(3 Pt 1):227–32. [PubMed: 2953500]
  1259. Thorens JB, Kaelin RM, Jolliet P, et al Influence of the quality of nursing on the duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Crit Care Med. 1995;23(11):1807–15. [PubMed: 7587255]
  1260. Thrush DN, Mentis SW, Downs JB Weaning with end-tidal CO2 and pulse oximetry. J Clin Anesth. 1991;3(6):456–60. [PubMed: 1760168]
  1261. Tibballs J, Shann FA, Landau LI Placebo-controlled trial of prednisolone in children intubated for croup. Lancet. 1992;340(8822):745–8. [PubMed: 1356176]
  1262. Tigerstedt I, Tammisto T, Neuvonen PJ The efficacy of intravenous indomethacin in prevention of postoperative pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1991;35(6):535–40. [PubMed: 1897350]
  1263. Tindol GAJ, DiBenedetto RJ, Kosciuk L Unplanned extubations. Chest. 1994;105(6):1804–7. [PubMed: 8205881]
  1264. Tobias JD, Deshpande JK, Pietsch JB, et al Pentobarbital sedation for patients in the pediatric intensive care unit. South Med J. 1995;88(3):290–4. [PubMed: 7886524]
  1265. Tobin M Weaning patients from mechanical ventilation using gastric pH. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120(5):–. [PubMed: 8304667]
  1266. Tobin MJ Predicting the outcome of attempts to discontinue mechanical ventilation. [Review] [35 refs] Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1998;53(4):493–7. [PubMed: 9828611]
  1267. Tobin MJ Predicting ventilator independence. Semin Respir Med. 1993;14:275–83.
  1268. Tobin MJ Update in mechanical ventilation. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 1996;51(6):510–3. [PubMed: 9046165]
  1269. Tobin MJ Predicting weaning outcome. Chest. 1988;94(2):227–8. [PubMed: 3396393]
  1270. Tobin MJ Which respiratory parameters can predict successful weaning? J Crit Illn. 1990;(8):819–22,831-34,837.
  1271. Tobin MJ, Guenther SM, Perez W, et al Konno-Mead analysis of ribcage-abdominal motion during successful and unsuccessful trials of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;135(6):1320–8. [PubMed: 2954499]
  1272. Tobin MJ, Jenouri G, Birch S, et al Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on breathing patterns of normal subjects and intubated patients with respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 1983;11(11):859–67. [PubMed: 6354586]
  1273. Tobin MJ, Jubran A, Hines E, Jr Pathophysiology of failure to wean from mechanical ventilation. Schweizer Med Wochenschr. 1994;124(47):2139–45. [PubMed: 7992029]
  1274. Tobin MJ, Perez W, Guenther SM, et al The pattern of breathing during successful and unsuccessful trials of weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1986;134(6):1111–8. [PubMed: 3789513]
  1275. Tobin MJ, Yang K Weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Clin. 1990;6(3):725–47. [PubMed: 2199003]
  1276. Tochen ML Orotracheal intubation in the newborn infant: A method for determining depth of tube insertion. J Pediatr. 1979;95(6):1050–1. [PubMed: 501484]
  1277. Tognet E, Mercatello A, Polo P, et al Treatment of acute respiratory failure with non-invasive intermitent positive pressure ventilation in haematological patients. Clin Intensive Care. 1994;5(6):282–8. [PubMed: 10150555]
  1278. Tomaru A, Hamada M, Tani T, et al Attempt of clinical use of dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Jikeikai Med J. 1986;33(4):421–9.
  1279. Tominaga GT, Rudzwick H, Scannell G, et al Decreasing unplanned extubations in the surgical intensive care unit. Am J Surg. 1995;170(6):586–90. [PubMed: 7492006]
  1280. Tomlin PJ Psychological problems in intensive care. Br Med J. 1977;2(6084):441–3. [PMC free article: PMC1631196] [PubMed: 890332]
  1281. Tomlinson JR, Miller KS, Lorch DG, et al A prospective comparison of IMV and T-piece weaning from mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1989;96(2):348–52. [PubMed: 2666046]
  1282. Tong DA Weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. A knowledge-based system approach. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1991;35(4):267–78. [PubMed: 1752122]
  1283. Tonz M, von Segesser LK, Mihaljevic T, et al Clinical implications of phrenic nerve injury after pediatric cardiac surgery. J Pediatr Surg. 1996;31(9):1265–7. [PubMed: 8887098]
  1284. Toyooka H [Computer-controlled optimization of ventilatory support]. [Japanese] Kokyu to Junkan Respir Circ. 1990;38(9):849–54. [PubMed: 2236954]
  1285. Travaline JM, Bolton CF, Rutledge FS, et al Indexes predictive of weaning from mechanical ventilation [1] N Engl J Med. 1991;325(20):1442–4. [PubMed: 1922258]
  1286. Treu TM, Knoch M, Focke N, et al [Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy, a new method in intensive care: Procedure, advantages and risks.] [German] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1997;122(19):599–605. [PubMed: 9182024]
  1287. Trinder TJ, Lavery GG, Fee JP, et al Low gastric intramucosal pH: Incidence and significance in intensive care patients. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1995;23(3):315–21. [PubMed: 7573918]
  1288. Troche G, Moine P Is the duration of mechanical ventilation predictable? Chest. 1997;112(3):745–51. [PubMed: 9315810]
  1289. Troncy E, Collet JP, Shapiro S, et al Inhaled nitric oxide in acute respiratory distress syndrome: A pilot randomized controlled study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157(5 I):1483–8. [PubMed: 9603127]
  1290. Tschernko EM, Wisser W, Hofer S, et al The influence of lung volume reduction surgery on ventilatory mechanics in patients suffering from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(5):996–1001. [PubMed: 8895275]
  1291. Tseloval'nikov IM, Shtatnov MK, Ostreikov IF [The use of methods of assisted pulmonary ventilation in the weaning of children from ventilator breathing]. [Russian] Anesteziol Reanimatol. 1998;(1):53–5. [PubMed: 9553264]
  1292. Tsushima K, Shingu K, Okuda H, et al A comparison between sevoflurane and propofol when combined with continuous epidural blockade in adult patients. J Anesth. 1998;12(2):57–61.
  1293. Tugrul M, Pembeci K, Camci E, et al Comparison of the effects of sodium nitroprusside and isoflurane during rewarming on bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1997;11(6):712–7. [PubMed: 9327311]
  1294. Tuman KJ, McCarthy RJ, Spiess BD, et al Does choice of anesthetic agent significantly affect outcome after caronary artery surgery? Anesthesiology. 1989;70(2):189–98. [PubMed: 2563316]
  1295. Tuman KJ, McCarthy RJ, March RJ, et al Morbidity and duration of ICU stay after cardiac surgery. A model for preoperative risk assessment. Chest. 1992;102(1):36–44. [PubMed: 1623792]
  1296. Tupper-Carey DA Early vs late tracheal extubation after CABG surgery (multiple letters) [9] Br J Anaesth. 1998;81(1):–. [PubMed: 9771287]
  1297. Tur A, Doganay Z, Yesiltas F, et al Administration of midazolam for premedication. Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi Tip Dergisi. 1997;14(3):194–9.
  1298. Turfrey DJ, Ray DA, Sutcliffe NP, et al Thoracic epidural anaesthesia for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Effects on postoperative complications. Anaesthesia. 1997;52(11):1090–5. [PubMed: 9404174]
  1299. Turner E, Braun U, Leitz KH, et al [Whole body oxygen uptake in coronary artery bypass surgery.] [German] Anaesthesist. 1982;31(6):280–6. [PubMed: 6981361]
  1300. Tutuncu AS, Cakar N, Camci E, et al Comparison of pressure- and flow-triggered pressure-support ventilation on weaning parameters in patients recovering from acute respiratory failure. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(5):756–60. [PubMed: 9187592]
  1301. Tutuncu AS, Cakar N, Esen F, et al Effects of different CPAP systems on weaning parameters in patients recovering from acute respiratory failure. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;388:579–83. [PubMed: 8798862]
  1302. Tuxen DV, Williams TJ, Scheinkestel CD, et al Use of a measurement of pulmonary hyperinflation to control the level of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute severe asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992;146(5 Pt 1):1136–42. [PubMed: 1443862]
  1303. Udwadia ZF, Santis GK, Steven MH, et al Nasal ventilation to facilitate weaning in patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. Thorax. 1992;47(9):715–8. [PMC free article: PMC474804] [PubMed: 1440465]
  1304. Unver S, Akan B, Yucel D, et al Hemodynamic and endocrine responses to intubation with different induction agent. Acta Anaesthesiol Italia. 1995;46(Suppl 1):35–43.
  1305. Uroz-Tristan J, Sanchis Solera L, Benitez del Rosario J, et al [Surgical treatment of laryngotracheal stenosis in childhood]. [Spanish] Cir Pediatr. 1995;8(2):68–71. [PubMed: 7766482]
  1306. Uzark K, Frederick C, Lamberti JJ, et al Changing practice patterns for children with heart disease: A clinical pathway approach. Am J Crit Care. 1998;7(2):101–5. [PubMed: 9509223]
  1307. Valentine DD, Hammond MD, Downs JB, et al Distribution of ventilation and perfusion with different modes of mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;143(6):1262–6. [PubMed: 2048810]
  1308. Vallverdu I, Calaf N, Subirana M, et al Clinical characteristics, respiratory functional parameters, and outcome of a two-hour T-piece trial in patients weaning from mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158(6):1855–62. [PubMed: 9847278]
  1309. Van Surell C, Louis B, Lofaso F, et al Acoustic method to estimate the longitudinal area profile of endotracheal tubes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;149(1):28–33. [PubMed: 8111593]
  1310. Van de Kelft E, Segnarbieux F, Candon E, et al Clinical recovery of consciousness after traumatic coma. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(7):1108–13. [PubMed: 8026199]
  1311. van den Berg AA, Honjol NM Clinical comparison of spontaneous respiration versus controlled ventilation general anaesthesia using isoflurane for intraocular surgery: Intraoperative, recovery and postoperative effects. Anaesth Intensive Care. 1994;22(6):683–90. [PubMed: 7892972]
  1312. van den Berg AA, Savva D, Honjol NM Attenuation of the haemodynamic responses to noxious stimuli in patients undergoing cataract surgery. A comparison of magnesium sulphate, esmolol, lignocaine, nitroglycerine and placebo given i.v. with induction of anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1997;14(2):134–47. [PubMed: 9088811]
  1313. van den Berg B, Bogaard JM, Hop WC High fat, low carbohydrate, enteral feeding in patients weaning from the ventilator. Intensive Care Med. 1994;20(7):470–5. [PubMed: 7995861]
  1314. van den Berg B, Stam H, Hop WJ Effects of dietary protein content on weaning from the ventilator. Clin Nutr. 1989;8(4):207–12. [PubMed: 16837291]
  1315. van der Hoeven M, Brouwer E, Blanco CE Nasal high frequency ventilation in neonates with moderate respiratory insufficiency. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Med. 1998;79(1):F61–F63. [PMC free article: PMC1720809] [PubMed: 9797628]
  1316. van der Werf TS, Dijkstra D, van Essen H, et al [Difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation: a graduated approach and teamwork]. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1998;142(44):2390–5. [PubMed: 9864533]
  1317. Varon J, Walsh GL, Fromm-RE Feasibility of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in postoperative cancer patients. J Crit Care. 1998;13(2):55–7. [PubMed: 9627271]
  1318. Vassal T, Anh NG, Gabillet JM, et al Prospective evaluation of self-extubations in a medical intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med. 1993;19(6):340–2. [PubMed: 8227724]
  1319. Vassilakopoulos T, Zakynthinos S, Roussos C The tension-time index and the frequency/tidal volume ratio are the major pathophysiologic determinants of weaning failure and success. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158(2):378–85. [PubMed: 9700110]
  1320. Vaynblat M, Chiavarelli M, Anderson JE, et al Pleural drainage after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;12(2):71–6. [PubMed: 9271724]
  1321. Vedrinne C, Bastien O, De Varax R, et al Predictive factors for usefulness of fiberoptic pulmonary artery catheter for continuous oxygen saturation in mixed venous blood monitoring in cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 1997;85(1):2–10. [PubMed: 9212114]
  1322. Vedrinne JM, Duperret S, Gratadour P, et al [Effects of mechanical ventilation with PEEP on right to left intra-cardiac shunt caused by patent foramen ovale]. [French] Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1995;14(5):387–92. [PubMed: 8572404]
  1323. Veness-Meehan KA, Richter S, Davis JM Pulmonary function testing prior to extubation in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1990;9(1):2–6. [PubMed: 2388775]
  1324. Venus B, Smith RA, Mathru M National survey of methods and criteria used for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 1987;15:–. [PubMed: 3568717]
  1325. Viale JP, Annat GJ, Bouffart YM, et al Oxygen cost of breathing in postoperative patients: Pressure support ventilation vas positive airway pressure. Chest. 1988;93(3):506–9. [PubMed: 3125013]
  1326. Vianna PG, Lapa-JJB J, Ganem EM, et al Effect of sufentanil on the reduction of isoflurane and sevoflurane MAC. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 1998;48(3):161–8.
  1327. Vichitvejpaisal P, Joshi GP, Liu J, et al Effect of severity of pulmonary disease on nitrous oxide washin and washout characteristics? J Med Assoc Thai. 1997;80(6):378–83. [PubMed: 9240012]
  1328. Vigil AR, Clevenger FW The effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on intrapulmonary shunt and ventilatory deadspace in nonhypoxic trauma patients. J Trauma. 1996;40(4):618–23. [PubMed: 8614043]
  1329. Vila J, Bosque MD, Garcia M, et al Endoscopic evolution of laryngeal injuries caused by translaryngeal intubation. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol Suppl. 1997;1:S97–S100. [PubMed: 9065639]
  1330. Vincent J, Bihari D, Suter PM, et al The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. Results of the European Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) Study. EPIC International Advisory Committee (EPIC) JAMA. 1995;274(8):639–44. [PubMed: 7637145]
  1331. Vincer M, Allen A, Evans J, et al Early intravenous indomethacin prolongs respiratory support in very low birth weight infants. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1987;76(6):894–7. [PubMed: 3321891]
  1332. Viscardi RM, Adeniyi-Jones SC Retrospective study of the effectiveness of cromolyn sodium in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Neonat Intensive Care. 1964;7(3):18–20.
  1333. Visconti JA, Anderson HG, Dasta JF Pharmacoepidemiologic study of flumazenil use in a University Teaching Hospital. Hosp Pharm. 1996;31(8):959–64.
  1334. Visveshwara N, Freeman B, Peck M, et al Patient-triggered synchronized assisted ventilation of newborns. Report of a preliminary study and three years' experience. J Perinatol. 1991;11(4):347–54. [PubMed: 1770392]
  1335. Vitacca M, Clini E, Foglio K, et al Hygroscopic condenser humidifiers in chronically tracheostomized patients who breathe spontaneously. Eur Respir J. 1994;7(11):2026–32. [PubMed: 7875277]
  1336. Vitacca M, Clini E, Rubini F, et al Non invasive mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive lung disease and acute respiratory failure: Short- and long-term prognosis. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22(2):94–100. [PubMed: 8857115]
  1337. Vogel F, Exner M, Merkes B, et al Interactions between the bacterial colonization of the ventilation system and the respiratory tract. Intensivmedizin. 1981;18(2):61–4.
  1338. Voggenreiter G, Neudeck F, Aufmkolk M, et al Operative chest wall stabilization in flail chest - outcomes of patients with or without pulmonary contusion. J Am Coll Surg. 1998;187(2):130–8. [PubMed: 9704957]
  1339. Voggenreiter G, Neudeck F, Aufmkolk M, et al [Outcome of operative chest wall stabilization in fail chest with or without pulmonary contusion.] [German] Unfallchirurg. 1996;99(6):425–34. [PubMed: 8767139]
  1340. Volpi D, Lin PT, Kuriloff DB, et al Risk factors for intubation injury of the larynx. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1987;96(6):684–6. [PubMed: 3688758]
  1341. Volsko TA, Chatburn RL Comparison of two methods for securing the endotracheal tube in neonates. Respir Care. 1997;42(3):288–91.
  1342. Votto J, Brancifort JM, Scalise PJ, et al COPD and other diseases in chronically ventilated patients in a prolonged respiratory care unit: A retrospective 20-year survival study. Chest. 1998;113(1):86–90. [PubMed: 9440573]
  1343. Vuori A Central haemodynamics and oxygen transport with and without continuous positive pressure ventilation after open-heart surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1981;25(2):77–80. [PubMed: 7034443]
  1344. Vuori A Central haemodynamics, oxygen transport and oxygen consumption during three methods for CPAP. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1981;25(5):376–80. [PubMed: 7041507]
  1345. Vuori A Different ventilatory methods during the weaning period following open-heart surgery. Ann Chir Gynaecol Suppl. 1982;196(S):68–72. [PubMed: 6760782]
  1346. Vuori A, Jalonen J, Laaksonen V Continuous positive airway pressure during mechanical and spontaneous ventilation. Effects on central haemodynamics and oxygen transport. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1979;23(5):453–61. [PubMed: 43651]
  1347. Waldhorn RE, Herrick TW, Nguyen MC, et al Long-term compliance with nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy of obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 1990;97(1):33–8. [PubMed: 2403899]
  1348. Walker P, Forte V Failed extubation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1993;102(7):489–95. [PubMed: 8333669]
  1349. Waller DA, Saunders NR Terbutaline improves efficiency of oxygenation after coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg. 1996;37(1):59–62. [PubMed: 8606209]
  1350. Walmsley S, Levinton C, Brunton J, et al A multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive corticosteroids in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia complicating the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995;8(4):348–57. [PubMed: 7882099]
  1351. Walz MK, Thurauf N, Eigler FW [Puncture tracheostomy in intensive care patients. Technique and results of a minimally invasive method]. [German] Z Chir. 1993;118(7):406–11. [PubMed: 8372522]
  1352. Wang JY, Yeh TF, Lin YC, et al Measurement of pulmonary status and surfactant protein levels during dexamethasone treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Thorax. 1996;51(9):907–13. [PMC free article: PMC472613] [PubMed: 8984701]
  1353. Wappler F, Scholz J, Prause A, et al Analgesia and sedation with sufentanil in intensive care medicine. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 1998;33(1):18–26.
  1354. Warwick WJ Mechanisms of mucous transport. Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1983;127:162–7. [PubMed: 6578055]
  1355. Wattenmaker I, Concepcion M, Hibberd P, et al Upper-airway obstruction and perioperative management of the airway in patients managed with posterior operations on the cervical spine for rheumatoid arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg. 1994;76(3):360–5. [PubMed: 8126041]
  1356. Watterberg KL, Murphy S, Kelly HW, et al Failure of cromolyn sodium to reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: A pilot study. Pediatrics. 1993;91(4):803–6. [PMC free article: PMC375534] [PubMed: 8464671]
  1357. Waugaman WR, Jordan LM, Tallman RDJ, et al Does the employed technique of endotracheal extubation reduce the risk of aspiration? Nurse Anesth. 1990;1(1):5–10. [PubMed: 2285715]
  1358. Way C, Peck TE Minerva. BMJ. 1998;317(7155):–. [PMC free article: PMC58840]
  1359. Weinbroum A, Rudick V, Sorkine P, et al Use of flumazenil in the treatment of drug overdose: A double-blind and open clinical study in 110 patients. Crit Care Med. 1996;24(2):199–206. [PubMed: 8605789]
  1360. Weinbroum AA, Halpern P, Rudick V, et al Midazolam versus propofol for long-term sedation in the ICU: A randomized prospective comparison. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23(12):1258–63. [PubMed: 9470082]
  1361. Weintraub W, Jones E, Craver J, et al Determinants of prolonged length of stay after coronary bypass surgery. Circulation. 1989;80(2):276–84. [PubMed: 2787709]
  1362. Welborn LG, Hannallah RS, Norden JM, et al Comparison of emergence and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane, desflurane, and halothane in pediatric ambulatory patients. Anesth Analg. 1996;83(5):917–20. [PubMed: 8895263]
  1363. Welsh MG, Katowitz JA Timing of silastic tubing removal after intubation for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Opthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1989;5(1):43–8. [PubMed: 2487195]
  1364. Werner NP, Conway AE Caregiver contacts experienced by premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Matern Child Nurs J. 1990;19(1):21–43. [PubMed: 2134777]
  1365. West KW, Bengston K, Rescorla FJ, et al Delayed surgical repair and ECMO improves survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Ann Surg. 1992;216(4):454–62. [PMC free article: PMC1242652] [PubMed: 1417195]
  1366. Westerlind A, Nilsson F, Ricksten SE The use of continuous positive airway pressure by face mask and thoracic epidural analgesia after lung transplantation. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1999;13(3):249–52. [PubMed: 10392672]
  1367. Westerlind A, Nilsson F, Ricksten SE The use of thoracic epidural analgesia after lung transplantation. Br J Anaesth. 1997;79(Suppl 2):–.
  1368. Wexler HR, Pikul J The effect of nitrogen balance on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Can J Anaesth. 1988;35(3, Part II):–.
  1369. Wey W [Injury to the larynx and trachea following artificial respiration]. [German] Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1985;115(6):194–6. [PubMed: 3975589]
  1370. Weyland W, Schuhmann M, Rathgeber J, et al Oxygen cost of breathing for assisted spontaneous breathing modes: investigation into three states of pulmonary function. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(3):211–7. [PubMed: 7790606]
  1371. Wheeler WB, Maguire EL, Kurachek SC, et al Chronic respiratory failure of infancy and childhood: Clinical outcomes based on underlying etiology. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1994;17(1):1–5. [PubMed: 7509054]
  1372. Whelan J, Simpson SQ, Levy H Unplanned extubation. Predictors of successful termination of mechanical ventilatory support. Chest. 1994;105(6):1808–12. [PubMed: 7726887]
  1373. Whiffler K, Andrew WK, Thomas RG The hazardous cuffed endotracheal tube - Aspiration on extubation. S Afr Med J. 1982;61(7):240–1. [PubMed: 7058448]
  1374. Whiteman K, Nachtmann L, Sereika S, et al Rotational bed therapy in liver transplant patients. Heart Lung. 1992;21(3):–.
  1375. Wiebel M, Schulz M, Herth F, et al [Follow-up of intermitten self-ventilation (ISB). Mortality and causes]. [German] Med Klin. 1997;92(Suppl 1):63–7. [PubMed: 9235478]
  1376. Williams M An algorithm for selecting a communication technique with intubated patients. Dimensions Crit Care Nurs. 1992;11:222–33. [PubMed: 1535586]
  1377. Winkler WB, Karnik R, Seelmann O, et al Bedside percutaneous dilational tracheostomy with endoscopic guidance: Experience with 71 ICU patients. Intensive Care Med. 1994;20(7):476–9. [PubMed: 7995862]
  1378. Wiswell TE, Graziani LJ, Kornhauser MS, et al High-frequency jet ventilation in the early management of respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a greater risk for adverse outcomes. Pediatrics. 1996;98(6):1035–43. [PubMed: 8951251]
  1379. Withington DE, Ramsay JG, Saoud AT Weaning from ventilation after cardi-pulmonry bypass: Evaluation of a non-invasive technique. Can J Anaesth. 1991:38(1):15–9. [PubMed: 1899203]
  1380. Witta K New techniques for weaning difficult patients from mechanical ventilation. AACN Clin Issues Crit Care Nurs. 1990;1(2):260–6. [PubMed: 2206727]
  1381. Wohlner EC, Usubiaga LJ, Jacoby RM, et al Cardiovascular effects of extubation. Anesthesiology. 1979;51(3 Suppl):–.
  1382. Wolf AR, Lawson RA, Dryden CM, et al Recovery after desflurane anaesthesia in the infant: Comparison with isoflurane. Br J Anaesth. 1996;76(3):362–4. [PubMed: 8785134]
  1383. Wolff G, Brunner JX, Gradel E Gas exchange during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing. Intermittent mandatory ventilation after open heart surgery. Chest. 1986;90(1):11–7. [PubMed: 3522115]
  1384. Wong J, Brown G Does once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides affect neuromuscular function? J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996;21(6):407–11. [PubMed: 9201567]
  1385. Wood G Effect of antihypertensive agents on the arterial partial pressure of oxygen and venous admixture after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(11):1807–12. [PubMed: 9366762]
  1386. Wood G, MacLeod B, Moffatt S Weaning from mechanical ventilation: Physician-directed vs a respiratory-therapist-directed protocol. Respir Care. 1995;40(3):219–24. [PubMed: 10141679]
  1387. Wood GG, Martin E Withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy in a Canadian intensive care unit. Can J Anaesth. 1995;42(3):186–91. [PubMed: 7743566]
  1388. Wunderlich RJ, Perry A, Lavin MA, et al Patients' perceptions of uncertainty and stress during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Dimensions Crit Care Nurs. 1999;18(1):2–10. [PubMed: 10639993]
  1389. Wung JT Respiratory management for low-birth-weight infants. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(9 Suppl):S364–S365. [PubMed: 8365229]
  1390. Yamashita M, Tanaka J, et al Human mortality in organophosphate poisonings. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1997;39(2):84–5. [PubMed: 9080632]
  1391. Yamazaki Y, Mimura M, Sonoda H, et al [Positive end-expiratory pressure facilitates washout of nitrous oxide in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease]. [Japanese] Jpn J Anesthesiol. 1998;47(4):404–9. [PubMed: 9594511]
  1392. Yang KL Inspiratory pressure/maximal inspiratory pressure ratio: A predictive index of weaning outcome. Intensive Care Med. 1993;19(4):204–8. [PubMed: 8366228]
  1393. Yang KL Reproducibility of weaning parameters. A need for standardization. Chest. 1992;102(6):1829–32. [PubMed: 1446497]
  1394. Yang KL, Tobin MJ A prospective study of indexes predicting the outcome of trials of weaning from mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(21):1445–50. [PubMed: 2023603]
  1395. Yang KL, Tobin MJ Measurement of minute ventilation in ventilator-dependent patients: Need for standardization. Crit Care Med. 1991;19(1):49–53. [PubMed: 1986889]
  1396. Yazigi A, Madi-Jebara S, Haddad F, et al Hemodynamic effects of pressure support ventilation following cardiac surgery. Middle East J Anesthesiol. 1995;13(3):315–23. [PubMed: 8849987]
  1397. Ye T, Luo A, Ren H, et al Preliminary report on cardiovascular responses to urapidil during intubation and extubation. Chin Med Soc J. 1993;8(4):240–2. [PubMed: 8032072]
  1398. Yeh TF, Shibli A, Leu ST, et al Early furosemide therapy in premature infants (less than or equal to 2,000 gm) with respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr. 1984;105(4):603–9. [PubMed: 6384452]
  1399. Yeh TF, Torre JA, Rastogi A, et al Early postnatal dexamethasone therapy in premature infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome: A double-blind, controlled study. J Pediatr. 1990;117(2 Pt 1):273–82. [PubMed: 2199642]
  1400. Young JM, Marshall CL, Anderson EJ Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' perspectives on use of mechanical ventilation Health Soc Work 199419(4)253–60.View this and related citations using . [PubMed: 7813963]
  1401. O-Yurvati AH, Laub GW, Sanders SP, et al Reduction in pulmonary microvascular pressure following cardiopulmonary bypass: Beneficial effects of dobutamine. Int Surg. 1995;80(3):231–4. [PubMed: 8775609]
  1402. Zakynthinos SG, Vassilakopoulos T, Roussos C The load of inspiratory muscles in patients needing mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152(4 Pt 1):1248–55. [PubMed: 7551378]
  1403. Zaleski JR Modeling spontaneous minute volume in coronary artery bypass graft patients. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 1998;17(1):122–7. [PubMed: 9460628]
  1404. Zanotti E, Rubini F, Iotti G, et al Elevated static compliance of the total respiratory system: Early predictor of weaning unsuccess in severed COPD patients mechanically ventilated. Intensive Care Med. 1995;21(5):399–405. [PubMed: 7665749]
  1405. Ziegler MM, Shaw S, Goldberg AI, et al Sequelae of prolonged ventilatory support for pediatric surgical patients. J Pediatr Surg. 1979;14(6):768–72. [PubMed: 121745]
  1406. Zinman R Tracheal stenting improves airway mechanics in infants with tracheobronchomalacia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1995;19(5):275–81. [PubMed: 7567202]
Bookshelf ID: NBK33314


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...