TABLE C-2Maternal Weight Gain in Twin and Triplet Pregnancies (by trimester and total weight gain)

Author (Year)Population CharacteristicsStudy CriteriaWeight Gain by Trimester Total Weight Gain
1st2nd3rd
Twins
Author, year:
Brown and Schloesser, 1990

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
203,768

Group Description:
Twins (n = 1,984)
Singletons (n = 201,784)
Prepregnancy Weight Status:
Twins
 Underweight17.9 kg
 Normal weight16.9 kg
 Overweight17.0 kg
 Obese15.2 kg
 Very obese12.7 kg
Singletons
 Underweight13.5 kg
 Normal weight13.8 kg
 Overweight13.9 kg
 Obese12.6 kg
 Very obese11.0 kg
Author, year:
Fenton et al., 1994

Country:
Canada
Total Study N:
100

Group Description:
Normal weight women (BMI = 19–28), aged 20–35
To 34 wks
Birth weight:
 > 3 kg15.50 kg
 Intermediate13.37 kg
SGA14.66 kg
Author, year:
Lantz et al., 1996

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
163

Group Description:
White women (n = 112)
Black women (n = 51)
BMI Categories:
Overall14.7 kg
< 19.817.7 kg
19.8–26.015.6 kg
> 26.014.8 kg
Author, year:
Luke et al., 1991

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
275

Group Description:
White women, delivered twins (term and preterm)
Parity and Age:
Primiparas
 18–24 years19.4
 25–34 years18.5
 35–44 years22.8
Multiparas
 18–24 years22.3
 25–34 years20.4
 35–44 years16.8
Author, year:
Luke et al., 1992

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
270
Pregravid BMI and birth weight categories:Before 24 wksAfter 24 wks
All BMIs
 < 2,500 g (n = 105)0.41 kg/wk0.49 kg/wk15.01 kg
 ≥ 2,500 g (n = 58)0.43 kg/wk0.65 kg/wk19.28 kg
Underweight BMI < 19.8
 < 2,500 g (n = 26)0.39 kg/wk0.49 kg/wk14.74 kg
 ≥ 2,500 g (n = 14)0.44 kg/wk0.66 kg/wk19.78 kg
Normal weight BMI
19.8–26.0
 < 2,500 g (n = 63)0.39 kg/wk0.51 kg/wk14.70 kg
 ≥ 2,500 g (n = 36)0.43 kg/wk0.65 kg/wk19.01 kg
Overweight BMI > 26.0
 < 2,500 g (n = 16)0.51 kg/wk0.42 kg/wk16.65 kg
 ≥ 2,500 g (n = 8)0.42 kg/wk0.68 kg/wk19.73 kg
Author, year:
Luke and Leurgans, 1996

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
924

Group Description:
Data collected during
Twins Days Festival
Ideal outcomea (n = 148)20.3 kg
Non-ideal outcome (n = 776)18.6 kg
Author, year:
Pederson et al., 1989

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
217

Group Description:
Mostly white women, all > 18 years of age
Optimum OutcomebMean:
Percent ideal body weight:
 < 90%19.1 kg
 90–120%21.8 kg
 > 120%15.0 kg
Less-than-optimum
Outcome
Percent ideal body weight:
 < 90%18.2 kg
 90–120%17.3 kg
 > 120%12.3 kg
Author, year:
Yeh and Shelton, 2007

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
1,342
Prepregnancy BMI:
 < 19.8 (n = 127)19.1 kg
 19.8–26.0 (n = 649)18.1 kg
 26.1–29.0 (n = 185)17.2 kg
 > 29.0 (n = 381)14.3 kg
Triplets
Author, year:
Eddib et al., 2007

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
56

Group Description:
Triplet gestations
Prepregnancy BMI:Median:
 < 19.8 (n = 5)15.5 kg
 19.8–26.0 (n = 24)21.8 kg
 > 26.0 (n = 27)15.0 kg
Adverse Maternal Outcome present (yes/no)?
Gestational diabetes:
 No (n = 53, BMI 25.8)17.3 kg
 Yes (n = 3, BMI 37.6)15.5 kg
Gestational hypertension:
 No (n = 51, BMI 25.8)17.7 kg
 Yes (n = 5, BMI 36.8)15.5 kg
Preeclampsia:
 No (n = 49, BMI 25.8)15.9 kg
 Yes (n = 7, BMI 28.1)17.3 kg
Author, year:
Luke et al., 1995

Country:
USA
Total Study N:
38
Gestation categories:Before 24 wksAfter 24 wks19.91 kg
 27–30 wks0.51kg/wk0.77kg/wk
 31–34 wks0.50kg/wk1.08kg/wk
 35–37 wks0.44kg/wk0.90kg/wk
 Total0.48kg/wk0.96kg/wk

NOTE: First trimester, 0–13 weeks; Second trimester, 13–26 weeks; Third trimester, 27–40 weeks.

a

Ideal outcome is defined as mean birth weight between 2,000 and 2,800 g and gestation between 35–38 weeks.

b

Optimum outcome was defined as a pregnancy resulting in two living infants with birth weights ≥ 2,500g, Apgar scores ≥ 7 at 5 minutes, and Dubowitz scores > 37 weeks.

Ideal outcome is defined as mean birth weight between 2,000 and 2,800 g and gestation between 35–38 weeks.

Optimum outcome was defined as a pregnancy resulting in two living infants with birth weights ≥ 2,500g, Apgar scores ≥ 7 at 5 minutes, and Dubowitz scores > 37 weeks.

From: C, Supplementary Information on Composition and Components of Gestational Weight Gain

Cover of Weight Gain During Pregnancy
Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines.
Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee to Reexamine IOM Pregnancy Weight Guidelines; Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2009.
Copyright © 2009, National Academy of Sciences.

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