TABLE E-3Risk Factors for Substance Abuse

Context
Developmental PeriodIndividualFamilySchool and PeersNeighborhood and Community
Preconception/prenatalGenetic predisposition1,2,3
Prenatal alcohol exposure3
Infancy
Early childhoodDifficult temperament1,2,3Cold and unresponsive mother behavior
Parental modeling of drug/alcohol using1
Middle childhoodPoor impulse control1,2,3
Low harm avoidance1,2
Sensation seeking1,2
Lack of behavioral self-control/regulation2
Aggressiveness1,2,3
Anxiety2
Depression2,3
Hyperactivity
ADHD1,2,3
Antisocial behavior1,3
Early persistent problem behaviors1
Early substance use1,2
Permissive parenting1,3
Parent–child conflict1
Low parental warmth1
Parental hostility 1,3
Harsh discipline1,3
Child abuse/maltreatment2
Parental/sibling modeling of drug using1,2
Parental favorable attitudes toward alcohol and/or drugs1,2,3
Inadequate supervision and monitoring1,2,3
Parental involvement
Low parental aspirations for child
Lack of or inconsistent discipline
School failure 1,2
Low commitment to school1
Peer rejection1,2
Deviant peer group2,3
Peer attitudes toward drug2
Interpersonal alienation 1,2,3
Laws and norms favorable toward use1,2
Accessibility/availability1,2
Extreme poverty for those children antisocial in childhood1,2
AdolescenceBehavioral disengagement coping
Negative emotionality
Conduct disorder
Favorable attitudes toward drugs
Rebelliousness
Early substance use
Antisocial behavior
School failure1
Low commitment to school1
Not college bound
Aggression toward peers
Associating with drug-using peers
Norms (e.g., advertising) favorable toward alcohol use
Accessibility/availability
Young adulthoodLack of commitment to conventional adult roles
Antisocial behavior
Leaving homeAttending college
Substance-using peers
1

Hawkins, Catalano, and Miller (1992).

2

Mayes and Suchman (2006).

3

Sher, Grekin, and Williams (2005).

Hawkins, Catalano, and Miller (1992).

Sher, Grekin, and Williams (2005).

From: E, Tables of Risk Factors

Cover of Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People
Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities.
National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth, and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions; O'Connell ME, Boat T, Warner KE, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2009.
Copyright © 2009, National Academy of Sciences.

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