Evidence Table 15

Description of consumer characteristics in addressing impact of CHI applications on intermediate outcomes in smoking

Author, yearControl InterventionsAgeRace, n(%)IncomeEducation, n(%)SESGender, n(%)Marital StatusOther characteristics
Smoking
An, 20081Control groupMean, 19.8 SD, 1.6Black non-Hispanic, 24(9.2)NSYr in school: Freshman, 80 (30.8)
Sophomore, 64 (24.6)
Junior, 67 (25.8)
Senior, 49(18.9)
NRF,196 (75.4)Employment: Not working, 84 (32.3)
Part-time, 159 (61.2)
Full-time, 17 (6.5)
Internet use: 1–5 days/week, 26 (10.0)
6–7 days/week, 233 (90.0)
RealU intervention groupMean, 20.1 SD, 1.6Black non-Hispanic, 20(7.8)NSYr in school: Freshman,67 (26.1)
Sophomore, 63 (24.5)
Junior, 68 (26.5)
Senior, 59 (23.0)
NRF,181 (70.4)Employment: Not working, 81 (31.6)
Part-time, 161 (62.9)
Full-time, 14 (5.5)
Internet use: 1–5 days/week, 32 (12.5)
6–7 days/week, 225 (87.6)
Brendryen, 20082Self-help bookletMean, 39.5
SD, 11.0
Has college degree, 70(49)F, 72(50)Cigarettes smoked per day
Mean 16.6
SD 7.2
Self-efficacy
Mean 5.1
SD 1.4
Happy Ending program (HE)Mean, 39.7
SD, 10.8
Has college degree, 76(52)F, 73(50)Cigarettes smoked per day
Mean 17.6
SD 7.0
Self-efficacy
Mean 5.1
SD 1.3
Curry, 19953ControlMean, 41.2
SD, 11.9
White, 285(87)> $25,000, 230(70)Finished high school, 302(92)F, 157(48)No. cigarettes / day Mean, 17.1, SD 10.3
Stage of readiness to quit smoking
Precontemplation, 121(37)
Contemplation, 134(41)
Preparation, 72(22)
BookletMean, 41.3
SD, 11.5
White, 294(89)> $25,000, 251(76)Finished high school, 300(91)F, 175(53)No. cigarettes / day Mean, 17.2, SD 10.5
Stage of readiness to quit smoking
Precontemplation, 125(38)
Contemplation, 132(40)
Preparation, 69(21)
FeedbackMean, 40.9
SD, 11.1
White, 283(86)> $25,000, 240(73)Finished high school, 303(92)F, 174(53)No. cigarettes / day Mean, 17.7, SD 11.1
Stage of readiness to quit smoking
Precontemplation, 132(40)
Contemplation, 135(41)
Preparation, 63(19)
PhoneMean, 40.8
SD, 11.9
White, 129(86)> $25,000, 112(75)Finished high school, 134(89)F, 88(59)No. cigarettes / day Mean, 17.1, SD 10.1
Stage of readiness to quit smoking
Precontemplation, 65(43)
Contemplation, 65(43)
Preparation, 22(15)
Dijkstra, 20054Standard informationNRNRNRNRNRNRNR
Personalization
Adaptation
Feedback
Hang, 20095No InterventionMean, 25.4
SD, 4.9
NRNR> 10 years, 63(98)NRF, 40(63)Living in a stable partnership, 37(58)
Self-efficacy (1–5)
Mean 2.7
SD 0.7
1 SMS per weekMean, 25.2
SD, 4.8
> 10 years, 46(92)F, 28(56)Living in a stable partnership, 26(52)
Self-efficacy (1–5)
Mean 2.7
SD 0.6
3 SMS per weekMean, 24.3
SD, 3.8
> 10 years, 54(90)F, 31(52)Living in a stable partnership, 25(42)
Self-efficacy (1–5)
Mean 2.8
SD 0.7
Japuntich, 20066Bupropion plus Counseling aloneMean, 41 SD, 11.8White non-Hispanic, (82.6)NS<high school4 (2.8), High school/GED, 40 (27.8)
Some college/tech school, 68 (47.2)
College/graduate school, 31(21.5)
NRF, (54.9)Cigarettes per day: mean, 22.1 SD, 10.2 FTND Test for Nicotine Dependence: mean, 5.5 SD, 4.4 CES-D for Depression: mean, 5.5 SD, 4.4
With CHESS SCRPMean, 40.6 SD, 12.4White non-Hispanic, (75.4)NS<High school, 5 (3.6)
High school/GED, 41 (29.5)
Some college/tech school, 72 (51.8)
College/graduate school, 21 (15.1)
NRF, (55.0)Cigarettes per day: mean, 21.1 SD, 9.5 FTND Test for nicotine dependence: mean, 5.4 SD, 2.1 CES-D for depression: mean, 5.2, SD, 4.7
Pattens, 20067BOIMean, 15.8 SD, 1.4White non-Hispanic, (86)NS6th–8th grade, (9)
9th–11th grade, (79)
>12th grade, (13)
NRF, (49)Literacy--“easy to read English”: (81)
Use of internet: little to no use (12) some use (41) a lot of use (48)
Computer : at home (77) internet access (79)
SOSMean, 15.7 SD, 1.3White non-Hispanic, (90)NS6th–8th grade, (16)
9th–11th grade, (71)
>12th grade, (13)
NRF, (50)Literacy--easy to read English: (86)
Use of internet: little to no use (14) some use (33) a lot of use (53)
Computer: in home (70) internet access (78)
Prochaska, 19938Characteristics not reported by subgroupNRNRNRNRNRNR
Prokhorov, 20089Clearing the Air self-help bookletNRNRNRNRNRNRAmong nonsmokers, NonHispanic 291(58.1)
ASPIRE CD-ROMAmong nonsmokers, NonHispanic 244(42.6)
Schiffman, 200010User Guide onlyMean, 41.7 SD, 13NSGross House Hold Income.
USD mean, 38,000 SD, 22,300
Mean, 13.5 yr SD, 2.1NRF, (54.9)Previous cessation and nicotine replacement therapy experience : Previous quit attempt, ( 91.6) Prior nicotine patch use, (38.7) Prior nicotine gum use, (20.0) Smoking history (mean/SD): Cigarettes per day: 26.9/12.2 Yr of smoking: 23.1/12.6 Time of first cigarette (minutes): 14.6/31.7 No. of lifetime cessation attempts: 4.5/7.3 Initial motivation and confidence (mean/SD) (range, 1–5): Level of motivation: 4.3/0.7 Confidence of success: 3.9/1.0
CQPMean, 41 SD, 12.7NSGross House Hold Income, USD mean, 39800 SD, 22300Mean, 13.6 SD, 2.2NRF, (53.4)Previous cessation and nicotine replacement therapy experience : Previous quit attempt, ( 91.8) Prior nicotine patch use, (34.9) Prior nicotine gum use,( 20.0) Smoking history (mean/SD): Cigarettes per day: 26.1/12.1 Yr of smoking: 22.3/12.4 Time of first cigarette (minutes): 16.8/27.1 No. of lifetime cessation attempts: 5.5/17.7 Initial motivation and confidence (mean/SD) (range, 1–5): Level of motivation: 4.3/0.8 Confidence of success: 4.0/1.0
Committed Quitter Program + CallMean, 41.7 SD, 12.9NSGross House Hold Income, USD mean, 39,100 SD, 22,200Mean, 13.6 SD, 2.1NRF, (54.3)replacement therapy experience: Previous quit attempt, (90.9) Prior nicotine patch use, (35.1) Prior nicotine gum use, (20.2) Smoking history (mean/SD): Cigarettes per day: 26.0/12.1 Yr of smoking: 22.7/12.5 Time of first cigarette (minutes): 14.1/22.8 No. of lifetime cessation attempts: 5.8/18.7 Initial motivation and confidence (mean/SD) (range, 1–5): Level of motivation: 4.3/0.8 Confidence of success: 4.0/1.0
Schumann, 200611Characteristics not reported by subgroup
Schumann, 200812Assessment-only control groupMean, 44.2 SD, 13.2NSNS<10 yr, 81 (26.2)
10 yr, 154 (49.8)
>10 yr, 62 (20.1)
NRSelf-reported health status, score 0–100: mean, 74.2 SD, 17.2 Daily cigarette smoking: 245 (79.3) Cigarettes per day: mean, 15.4 SD, 8.9 Intention to quit within the next 6 months: 79 (32.2)
Computer-tailored TTM-based intervention groupMean, 44.8 SD, 14.6NSNS<10 yr, 77 (25.5)
10 yr, 156 (51.7)
>10 yr, 54 (17.9)
NRSelf-reported health status, score 0–100: mean, 75.7 SD, 15.4 Daily cigarette smoking: 240 (79.5) Cigarettes per day: mean, 15 SD, 7.2 Intention to quit within the next 6 months: 48 (20.0)
Severson, 200813Text-based website (Basic Condition)Mean, 36.9 SD, 9.6White non-Hispanic, 1234(97.7)
Black non-Hispanic, 15(1.2)
Latino/Hispanic, 14(1.1)
API, 4(0.3)
AIAN, 17(1.3)
NS<High school, 38(3.0)
High school, 199(15.8)
College, 548(43.4)
>College 478(37.8)
NRSelf-efficacy: mean, 2.4 SD, 1
Readiness to quit: mean, 8.1 SD, 1.8
Currently smoking: 67 (5.3)
Rural: 459 (36.6)
Strecher, 199414
Study 1
Characteristics not reported by subgroup
Strecher, 200515Characteristics not reported by subgroup
Strecher, 200516ControlBaseline characteristics not reported
Tailored intervention
Strecher, 200617Non-tailored web-based cessation materialBaseline characteristics not reported
Strecher, 200818Low-tailoredBaseline characteristics not reported
High tailored
Tailored Web-based intervention (Enhanced Condition)Mean, 36.7 SD, 9.7White non-Hispanic, 1228(97.5)
Black non-Hispanic, 12(1)
Latino/Hispanic, 17(1.3)
API, 5(0.4)
AIAN, 24(1.9)
NS<High school, 28(2.2)
High school, 208(16.5)
College, 542(43.0)
>College, 482(38.3)
NRSelf-efficacy: mean, 2.4 SD, 1
Readiness to quit: mean, 8.2 SD, 1.9
Currently smoking: 43 (3.4)
Rural: 447 (35.7)
CQPLAN
Swartz, 20061990 day wait period for access to websiteRange, 18 to >70White non-Hispanic, 152(84.4)
Black non-Hispanic, 9(5)
Latino/Hispanic, 7(3.9)
AIAN, 5(2.8) Other, (1.7)
NSNSNRM, 88 (48.9)
F, 92 (50.6)
Cig/day: <16: 69 (38.6) 16–20: 56 (28.1) 21–30: 43 (24) 31+: 17 (9.4)
Video-based internet siteRange, 18 to >70White non-Hispanic, 136(79.5)
Black non-Hispanic, 14(8.2)
Latino/Hispanic, 8(4.7)
AIAN, 2(1.2)
Other, 9 (5.3 )
NSNSNRM, 80 (46.8)
F, 91 (53.2)
Cig/day: <16: 55 (31.9) 16–20: 63(36.8) 21–30: 34 (20.2) 30+: 19 (11)

NR= Not Reported, NS= Not Significant, SD= Standard Deviation, SES= Socioeconomic Status, Yr= year, API = Asian Pacific Islander, AIAN = American Indian/Alaska Native, M= male, F = female, CQP = Committed Quitters Program, USD = United States Dollar

Reference List

1

An LC, Klatt C, Perry CL et al. The RealU online cessation intervention for college smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2008; 47(2):194–9.

2

Brendryen H, Drozd F, Kraft P. A digital smoking cessation program delivered through internet and cell phone without nicotine replacement (happy ending): randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2008; 10(5):e51.

3

Curry SJ, McBride C, Grothaus LC, Louie D, Wagner EH. A randomized trial of self-help materials, personalized feedback, and telephone counseling with nonvolunteer smokers. 1995; 63(6):1005–14.

4

Dijkstra A. Working mechanisms of computer-tailored health education: Evidence from smoking cessation. 2005; 20(5):527–39.

5

Haug S, Meyer C, Schorr G, Bauer S, John U. Continuous individual support of smoking cessation using text messaging: A pilot experimental study. Nicotine Tob Res 2009.

6

Japuntich SJ, Zehner ME, Smith SS et al. Smoking cessation via the internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8 Suppl 1:S59–67.

7

Patten CA, Croghan IT, Meis TM et al. Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based versus brief office intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. Patient Educ Couns 2006; 64(1–3):249–58.

8

Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Velicer WF, Rossi JS. Standardized, Individualized, Interactive, and Personalized Self-Help Programs for Smoking Cessation. 1993; 12(5):399–405.

9

Prokhorov AV, Kelder SH, Shegog R et al. Impact of A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), an interactive, multimedia smoking prevention and cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high-school students. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(9):1477–85.

10

Shiffman S, Paty JA, Rohay JM, Di Marino ME, Gitchell J. The efficacy of computer-tailored smoking cessation material as a supplement to nicotine polacrilex gum therapy. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(11):1675–81.

11

Schumann A, John U, Rumpf H-J, Hapke U, Meyer C. Changes in the “stages of change” as outcome measures of a smoking cessation intervention: A randomized controlled trial. 2006; 43(2):101–6.

12

Schumann A, John U, Baumeister SE, Ulbricht S, Rumpf HJ, Meyer C. Computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention in a general population setting in Germany: outcome of a randomized controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(2):371–9.

13

Severson HH, Gordon JS, Danaher BG, Akers L. ChewFree.com: evaluation of a Web-based cessation program for smokeless tobacco users. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(2):381–91.

14

Strecher VJ, Kreuter M, Den Boer D-J, Kobrin S, Hospers HJ, Skinner CS. The effects of computer-tailored smoking cessation messages in family practice settings. 1994; 39(3):262–70.

15

Strecher VJ, Marcus A, Bishop K et al. A randomized controlled trial of multiple tailored messages for smoking cessation among callers to the cancer information service. J Health Commun 2005; 10 Suppl 1:105–18.

16

Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Addiction 2005; 100(5):682–8.

17

Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Moderators and mediators of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program among nicotine patch users. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8 Suppl 1:S95–101.

18

Strecher VJ, McClure JB, Alexander GL et al. Web-based smoking-cessation programs: results of a randomized trial. Am J Prev Med 2008; 34(5):373–81.

19

Swartz LH, Noell JW, Schroeder SW, Ary DV. A randomised control study of a fully automated internet based smoking cessation programme. Tob Control 2006; 15(1):7–12.

An LC, Klatt C, Perry CL et al. The RealU online cessation intervention for college smokers: a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2008; 47(2):194–9.

Brendryen H, Drozd F, Kraft P. A digital smoking cessation program delivered through internet and cell phone without nicotine replacement (happy ending): randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2008; 10(5):e51.

Curry SJ, McBride C, Grothaus LC, Louie D, Wagner EH. A randomized trial of self-help materials, personalized feedback, and telephone counseling with nonvolunteer smokers. 1995; 63(6):1005–14.

Dijkstra A. Working mechanisms of computer-tailored health education: Evidence from smoking cessation. 2005; 20(5):527–39.

Haug S, Meyer C, Schorr G, Bauer S, John U. Continuous individual support of smoking cessation using text messaging: A pilot experimental study. Nicotine Tob Res 2009.

Japuntich SJ, Zehner ME, Smith SS et al. Smoking cessation via the internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8 Suppl 1:S59–67.

Patten CA, Croghan IT, Meis TM et al. Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based versus brief office intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. Patient Educ Couns 2006; 64(1–3):249–58.

Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Velicer WF, Rossi JS. Standardized, Individualized, Interactive, and Personalized Self-Help Programs for Smoking Cessation. 1993; 12(5):399–405.

Prokhorov AV, Kelder SH, Shegog R et al. Impact of A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), an interactive, multimedia smoking prevention and cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high-school students. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(9):1477–85.

Shiffman S, Paty JA, Rohay JM, Di Marino ME, Gitchell J. The efficacy of computer-tailored smoking cessation material as a supplement to nicotine polacrilex gum therapy. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(11):1675–81.

Schumann A, John U, Rumpf H-J, Hapke U, Meyer C. Changes in the “stages of change” as outcome measures of a smoking cessation intervention: A randomized controlled trial. 2006; 43(2):101–6.

Schumann A, John U, Baumeister SE, Ulbricht S, Rumpf HJ, Meyer C. Computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention in a general population setting in Germany: outcome of a randomized controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(2):371–9.

Severson HH, Gordon JS, Danaher BG, Akers L. ChewFree.com: evaluation of a Web-based cessation program for smokeless tobacco users. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(2):381–91.

Strecher VJ, Kreuter M, Den Boer D-J, Kobrin S, Hospers HJ, Skinner CS. The effects of computer-tailored smoking cessation messages in family practice settings. 1994; 39(3):262–70.

Strecher VJ, Marcus A, Bishop K et al. A randomized controlled trial of multiple tailored messages for smoking cessation among callers to the cancer information service. J Health Commun 2005; 10 Suppl 1:105–18.

Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Addiction 2005; 100(5):682–8.

Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Moderators and mediators of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program among nicotine patch users. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8 Suppl 1:S95–101.

Strecher VJ, McClure JB, Alexander GL et al. Web-based smoking-cessation programs: results of a randomized trial. Am J Prev Med 2008; 34(5):373–81.

Swartz LH, Noell JW, Schroeder SW, Ary DV. A randomised control study of a fully automated internet based smoking cessation programme. Tob Control 2006; 15(1):7–12.

From: Appendix G

Cover of Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications
Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 188.
Gibbons MC, Wilson RF, Samal L, et al.

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