Evidence Table 14

Description of RCTs addressing impact of CHI applications on intermediate outcomes in smoking (KQ1b)

Author, yearConsumer under studyCHI Application typeLocationYear data collected/duration of interventionInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaControlInterventionJadad score
An, 20081Individuals interested in their own health careInteractive consumer websiteUniversity of Minnesota internet health screening2004≥18 yr, Smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days, indicated that they intended to be in school for the next two semestersControl groupRealU intervention group 2
Brendryen, 20082Smokers in NorwayInternet and cell phoneOnline2006/February 2006 to March, 200718 years or older, Willing to quit on March 6, 2006, currently smoking five cigarettes or more a day, willing to quit without using NRT, owning a mobile phone, owning a Norwegian-registered phone number and postal address, and having daily access to the Internet and email.NRSelf-help bookletHappy Ending program (HE)
Curry, 19953Random sample of group health cooperative enrolleesComputer generated tailored feedbackResidenceNS/21 monthsSelf-identified smokerNo treatmentBooklet (self-help booklet)
Feedback (self-help booklet + personalized feedback)
Phone (Booklet + Feedback + Counselor phone call)
Dijkstra, 20054Students who are smokersInformationLaboratory at universityNR/One sessionStudent who is a smokerNRStandard informationPersonalization
Hang, 20095Daily smokerSMS messagingUniversity2007/August to DecemberDaily smoker, use SMS (text messaging) at least weeklyNRNo intervention1 SMS per week
3 SMS per week
Japuntich, 20066Individuals interested in their own health careInteractive consumer websiteHome/residenceRecruitment took place from October 2001 to July 2002.≥18 yr, Smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day, Have a traditional telephone line, Literate in EnglishCurrent depression, current use of psychiatric medication, medical conditions contraindicating bupropion SR (e.g., history of seizure disorder), current use of a smoking cessation product or treatment, Being pregnant or likely to become pregnant during the treatment phase of the studybupropion plus counseling aloneCHESS intervention with bupropion 2
Pattens, 20067Individuals interested in their own health care, adolescent smokersInteractive consumer websiteClinician officeMarch 2000 to November 200311–18 yr, gave written consent or received consent from parent/guardian, 18 yr, Smoked 10 or more cigarettes in last 30 days, Cigarettes were primary tobacco product used, Willing and able to complete treatment assessment visitsHomeless, Alcohol or drug abuse in the last 3 monthsBrief office interventionStomp Out Smokes 1
Prochaska, 19938Volunteer smokers in Rhode IslandTailored manuals and computer reportsResidenceNS/18 monthsSmokers who responded to advertisementALA + (standard self-help manual)TTT (individualized manual)
ITT (interactive computer reports)
PITT (personalized counselor calls + ITT TTT)
Prokhorov, 20089Students in culturally diverse high schoolsInteractive CD-ROMHigh schoolNS/4 years10th grade Speaks, reads and writes EnglishClearing the Air self-help bookletASPIRE Interactive CD-ROM
Schiffman, 200010Individuals interested in their own health careComputer tailored mailings via computer assisted automated telephone interviewsHome/residence1996/NS≥18 yr, Current cigarette smoker, Purchased 2 or 4 mg nicotine prolacrilex gum, Were attempting to quit smoking cigarettes, Target quit date was within 7 days of enrollment, Agreed to be contacted at follow up at 6 and 12 weeksUser Guide onlyCommitted Quitter Program 2.5
Schumann, 200611Smokers drawn from representative population of 20–79 year olds living in Western Pomeania, GERMANYComputer generated tailored feedbackResidence2002 – 2004/24 monthsProvided written informed consent and said yes to a question about currently smokingNo interventionFeedback letters
Schumann, 200812Individuals interested in their own health careLetters entered into a system with PHI and generating tailored information for the consumerNSStarted in April 200220–79 yr, Currently smoke cigarettes, Currently smoke cigars or cigarillos, Currently a pipe smokerAssessment-only control groupComputer-tailored TTM-based intervention group 2.5
Severson, 200813Individuals interested in their own health careInteractive consumer websiteOnlineNSAt least 18 yr old, Male, A resident of the US or Canada, E-mail address checked at least weekly, any ST user (defined as having used ST for at least 1 year and used at least at in a week), and willing to provide his or her name, mailing address, and phone numberText-based website (Basic Condition)Tailored web-based intervention (Enhanced Condition) 2
Strecher, 199414 Study 1Adult cigarette smokers in North CarolinaComputer generated tailored feedbackResidenceStudy 1: 1990/4 months40–65 years old, seen by family physician in last 6 months, telephone available and working, not sharing household with other subject, mentally and physically capable of being interviewed.Standardized generic letterTailored letter from individual’s physician
Strecher, 200515Callers to NCI CIS call centers18 yrs or older, English as a primary language, smoked at least five cigarettes per day, interested in quitting, not currently in another cessation program, not currently undergoing or planning cancer treatment
Strecher, 200516Individuals interested in their own health careInteractive consumer websiteNS≥18 yr, Target quit date within 7 days, Valid email address, Internet access, Smoke more than 10 cig/day Purchased NiQuitin CQ 21 mg, Agreed to contact for FU email and questionnaire at 6 and 12 weeks1
Strecher, 200617Individuals interested in their own health careInteractive consumer websiteHome/residenceNS≥ 18 yr, Smokers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland who purchased NiQuitin CQ 21-mg patch and connected to a Web site to enroll for free behavioral support materials, Had a target quit date that was within seven days from the enrollment date, Provided a valid e-mail address and had Internet access for the duration of the study, Were attempting to quit smoking cigarettes (i.e., not smokeless tobacco), Had been smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day, had purchased NiQuitin CQ 21 mg (21 mg of nicotine; indicated for those who smoke at least 10 cigarettes per day), Agreed to be contacted for follow-up e-mail and Web-based questionnaires at 6 and 12 weeksNon-tailored Web-based cessation materialTailored web-based smoking cessation (CQ PLAN) 0.5
Strecher, 200818Individuals interested in their own health careInteractive consumer websiteNSSeptember 200421–70 yr, had smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime, Currently smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day, and had smoked in the past 7 days, was seriously considering quitting in the next 30 days, was a member of either Group Health or HFHS, had home or work access to the Internet and an e-mail account that he or she used at least twice weekly, was not currently enrolled in another formal smoking-cessation program or was not currently using pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, had no medical contraindications for NRTMedical contraindications for NRT, Not currently enrolled in the HMO, Lack of adequate Internet/e-mail access, Already enrolled in another smoking-cessation program, Medical contraindications for NRT, Currently using pharmacotherapy to quit smokingLow-tailoredHigh-tailored 0
Swartz, 200619Individuals interested in their own health careInteractive consumer websiteHome/residence
Remote: work site
NS>18 yr, Daily smoker, Wish to quit in the next 30 days, Ability to access website<18 yr90 day wait period for access to websiteAccess to website 1

NS = not specified, yr = year, NRT = nicotine replacement therapy, CHESS = Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System

Reference List


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Brendryen H, Drozd F, Kraft P. A digital smoking cessation program delivered through internet and cell phone without nicotine replacement (happy ending): randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 2008; 10(5):e51.


Curry SJ, McBride C, Grothaus LC, Louie D, Wagner EH. A randomized trial of self-help materials, personalized feedback, and telephone counseling with nonvolunteer smokers. 1995; 63(6):1005–14.


Dijkstra A. Working mechanisms of computer-tailored health education: Evidence from smoking cessation. 2005; 20(5):527–39.


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Japuntich SJ, Zehner ME, Smith SS et al. Smoking cessation via the internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8 Suppl 1:S59–67.


Patten CA, Croghan IT, Meis TM et al. Randomized clinical trial of an Internet-based versus brief office intervention for adolescent smoking cessation. Patient Educ Couns 2006; 64(1–3):249–58.


Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Velicer WF, Rossi JS. Standardized, Individualized, Interactive, and Personalized Self-Help Programs for Smoking Cessation. 1993; 12(5):399–405.


Prokhorov AV, Kelder SH, Shegog R et al. Impact of A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), an interactive, multimedia smoking prevention and cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high-school students. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(9):1477–85.


Shiffman S, Paty JA, Rohay JM, Di Marino ME, Gitchell J. The efficacy of computer-tailored smoking cessation material as a supplement to nicotine polacrilex gum therapy. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(11):1675–81.


Schumann A, John U, Rumpf H-J, Hapke U, Meyer C. Changes in the “stages of change” as outcome measures of a smoking cessation intervention: A randomized controlled trial. 2006; 43(2):101–6.


Schumann A, John U, Baumeister SE, Ulbricht S, Rumpf HJ, Meyer C. Computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention in a general population setting in Germany: outcome of a randomized controlled trial. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(2):371–9.


Severson HH, Gordon JS, Danaher BG, Akers L. ChewFree.com: evaluation of a Web-based cessation program for smokeless tobacco users. Nicotine Tob Res 2008; 10(2):381–91.


Strecher VJ, Kreuter M, Den Boer D-J, Kobrin S, Hospers HJ, Skinner CS. The effects of computer-tailored smoking cessation messages in family practice settings. 1994; 39(3):262–70.


Strecher VJ, Marcus A, Bishop K et al. A randomized controlled trial of multiple tailored messages for smoking cessation among callers to the cancer information service. J Health Commun 2005; 10 Suppl 1:105–18.


Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Addiction 2005; 100(5):682–8.


Strecher VJ, Shiffman S, West R. Moderators and mediators of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program among nicotine patch users. Nicotine Tob Res 2006; 8 Suppl 1:S95–101.


Strecher VJ, McClure JB, Alexander GL et al. Web-based smoking-cessation programs: results of a randomized trial. Am J Prev Med 2008; 34(5):373–81.


Swartz LH, Noell JW, Schroeder SW, Ary DV. A randomised control study of a fully automated internet based smoking cessation programme. Tob Control 2006; 15(1):7–12.

From: Appendix G

Cover of Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications
Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 188.
Gibbons MC, Wilson RF, Samal L, et al.

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