Table 23-A

Grade of the body of evidence addressing CHI impact on clinical outcomes in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

1Protection against risk of biasLow
2Number of studies3
3Did the studies have important inconsistency?
y (−1); n (0)
4Was there some (−1) or major (−2) uncertainty about the directness or extent to which the people, interventions and outcomes are similar to those of interest?
Some (−1); major (−2); none (0)
5Were the studies sparse or imprecise?
y (−1); n (0)
6Did the studies show strong evidence of association between intervention and outcome?
“strong*” (+1); “very strong” (+2); No (0)
Overall grade of evidence low

if significant relative risk or odds ratio > 2 based on consistent evidence from 2 or more studies with no plausible confounders

if significant relative risk or odds ratio > 5 based on direct evidence with no major threats to validity

(high, moderate, low): if above score is (+), increase grade; if above score is (−), decrease grade from high to moderate (−1) or low (−2).

From: 3, Results

Cover of Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications
Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 188.
Gibbons MC, Wilson RF, Samal L, et al.

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