Figure 12. ipRGCs at rest show spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs.

Figure 12

ipRGCs at rest show spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs. (a) Synaptic currents in control ringers solution are driven primarily through presumed GABA or glycine receptors. (b) Application of drugs that block GABA and glycine receptors suppresses synaptic input when the ipRGC is held at the reversal potential for glutamate driven currents. (c) Blockade of amacrine cells reveals spontaneous excitatory inputs to ipRGCs. (d) Puffer pipette application of GABA, glycine and glutamate during voltage-ramps reveals receptors are for all three transmitters are expressed in ipRGCs. (e) Presumptive synaptic connection scheme for ipRGCs. '+' and '-' symbols represent excitatory and inhibitory receptors, respectively. ONL, outer nuclear layer; OPL, outer plexiform layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; IPL, inner plexiform layer; GCL, ganglion cell layer; OFF BC, OFF bipolar cell; ON BC, ON bipolar cell; AC, amacrine cell; ipRGC, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell. Adapted from Wong KY, Dunn FA, et al. (2007). "Synaptic influences on rat ganglion-cell photoreceptors." J Physiol. 582(Pt 1): 279-96.

From: Melanopsin Ganglion Cells: A Bit of Fly in the Mammalian Eye

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Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System [Internet].
Kolb H, Fernandez E, Nelson R, editors.
Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995-.

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