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Figure 9.7. Occipital paroxysms in their classical form with fixation-off sensitivity from the initial study of Panayiotopoulos (1981).

Figure 9.7

Occipital paroxysms in their classical form with fixation-off sensitivity from the initial study of Panayiotopoulos (1981).69

Top: EEGs from two patients with PS and G-ICOE. In routine EEG, repetitive, high amplitude, occipital sharp and slow wave complexes (occipital paroxysms) occur immediately after the eyes are closed and persist for as long as the eyes remain closed. The EEG normalises immediately after the eyes are opened and for as long as the eyes remain open. The activation of the occipital paroxysms is due to the elimination of central vision and fixation (left of the vertical bar, symbol of eyes with glasses) and inhibition by fixation (right of the vertical bar, symbol of eyes without glasses).

Bottom: Effect of darkness on occipital paroxysms:

(a). Complete darkness activates the occipital paroxysms even when eyes are open.

(b). The occipital paroxysms become continuous in darkness irrespective of whether the eyes are open or closed.

Modified from Panayiotopoulos (1981)69 and reproduced with the permission of the Editor ofNeurology.

From: Chapter 9, Benign Childhood Focal Seizures and Related Epileptic Syndromes

Cover of The Epilepsies
The Epilepsies: Seizures, Syndromes and Management.
Panayiotopoulos CP.
Oxfordshire (UK): Bladon Medical Publishing; 2005.
Copyright © 2005, Bladon Medical Publishing, an imprint of Springer Science+Business Media.

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