Table 13.2

Reflex seizures, related reflex epilepsies and the precipitating stimuli (for details see refs 4;5)

I. Somatosensory stimuli 1. Exteroceptive somatosensory stimuli
  1. Tapping epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with somatosensory evoked spikes16–19
  2. Sensory (tactile) evoked idiopathic myoclonic seizures in infancy20
  3. Toothbrushing epilepsy21;22
2. Complex exteroceptive somatosensory stimuli
  1. Hot water epilepsy23–26
3. Proprioceptive somatosensory stimuli
  1. Seizures induced by movements27
  2. Seizures induced by eye closure and/or eye movements28
  3. Paroxysmal kinesiogenic choreoathetosis29
  4. Seizures induced by micturition30;31
4. Complex proprioceptive stimuli
  1. Eating epilepsy32;33
II. Visual stimuli 1. Simple visual stimuli
  1. Photosensitive epilepsies12 (including self-induced photosensitive epilepsy)12;15;34;35
  2. Pattern-sensitive epilepsies12;36;37 (including self-induced pattern-sensitive epilepsy)15;34;38
  3. Fixation-off sensitive epilepsies39
  4. Scotogenic epilepsy39
2. Complex visual stimuli and language processing (language-induced seizures)
  1. Reading epilepsy40–44
  2. Graphogenic epilepsy45;46
IlI. Auditory, vestibular, olfactory and gustatory stimuli 1;27
  1. Seizures induced by pure sounds or words27
  2. Audiogenic seizures 47
  3. Musicogenic epilepsy (and singing epilepsy)48;49
  4. Telephone-induced seizures50
  5. Olfacto-rhinoencephalic epilepsy4
  6. Eating epilepsy triggered by tastes33
  7. Seizures triggered by vestibular and auditory stimuli27
IV.High-level process induced seizures (cognitive, emotional, decision-making tasks and other complex stimuli) 1
  1. Thinking (noogenic) epilepsy51;52
  2. Reflex decision-making epilepsy53;54
  3. Epilepsia arithmetica (mathematica)55
  4. Emotional epilepsies56;57
  5. Startle epilepsy58;59

Modified from Panayiotopoulos (1996)6 with the permission of the Editor S. Wallace and the Publishers Chapman & Hall

From: Chapter 13, Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies

Cover of The Epilepsies
The Epilepsies: Seizures, Syndromes and Management.
Panayiotopoulos CP.
Oxfordshire (UK): Bladon Medical Publishing; 2005.
Copyright © 2005, Bladon Medical Publishing, an imprint of Springer Science+Business Media.

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