Box 5.23Causes of symptomatic hypocalcemia*

  • Common (~99%)
    • Neonatal
      • Maternal disorder e.g. pre-eclampsia, diabetes, placental insufficiency, hyperparathyroidism
      • Prematurity
    • Adulthood
      • Post-surgical damage
  • Rare (~<1%)
    • Neonatal
      • DiGeorge syndrome
      • X-linked or autosomal inherited hypoparathyroidism
      • Activating mutations of the parathyroid gland Ca2+ receptor (see Box 5.22)
      • PTH gene mutations (usually in the signal or intronic sequences leading to loss of function)
    • Childhood
      • Autoimmune (in polyglandular syndrome type 1 with mucocutaneous candidiasis)
    • Adulthood
      • Iron (hemochromatosis) or copper deposition (Wilson's disease) or metastases
*

See also the causes of vitamin D deficiency. For the reasons given in the text this rarely gives rise to symptomatic hypocalcemia.

See also the causes of vitamin D deficiency. For the reasons given in the text this rarely gives rise to symptomatic hypocalcemia.

From: Chapter 5, The parathyroid glands and vitamin D

Cover of Endocrinology
Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach.
Nussey S, Whitehead S.
Copyright © 2001, BIOS Scientific Publishers Limited.

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