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Figure 13.5. Effects of amino acid substitutions on fitness.

Figure 13.5

Effects of amino acid substitutions on fitness. In an experimental setting, one begins with a particular, defined genotype as the genetic background for further analysis. One then obtains single amino acid substitutions or small numbers of substitutions derived from the original background genotype. Substitutions may be obtained by imposing selective pressures such as antibodies in an experimental evolution regime or by imposing site-directed or random mutagenesis. Substitutions affect various components of fitness as described in the text.

From: Chapter 13, Experimental Evolution: Influenza

Cover of Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease
Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease.
Frank SA.
Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press; 2002.
Copyright © 2002, Steven A Frank.

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