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National Academy of Sciences (US), National Academy of Engineering (US), and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Biological, Social, and Organizational Components of Success for Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006.

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Biological, Social, and Organizational Components of Success for Women in Academic Science and Engineering.

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Mahzarin Banaji is Richard Clarke Cabot Professor of Social Ethics in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University and Carol K. Pforzheimer Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. She was born and raised in India, in the town of Secunderabad, where she attended St. Ann’s High School. Her BA is from Nizam College in Hyderabad and her MA in psychology from Osmania University. She received her PhD from Ohio State University (1986), was a postdoctoral fellow at University of Washington, and taught at Yale University from 1986 until 2001 where she was Reuben Post Halleck Professor of Psychology. In 2002 she moved to Harvard University. Banaji studies human thinking and feeling as it unfolds in social context. Her focus is primarily on thinking and feeling systems that operate in implicit or unconscious mode. In particular, she is interested in the unconscious nature of assessments of self and other humans that reflect feelings and knowledge (often unintended) about their social group membership (e.g., age, race/ethnicity, gender, class). From such study of attitudes and beliefs of adults and children, she asks about the social consequences of unintended thought and feeling. Her work relies on cognitive/ affective behavioral measures and neuroimaging (fMRI) with which she explores the implications of her work for theories of individual responsibility and social justice. Banaji is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the American Psychological Association and of the American Psychological Society. She served as Secretary of the APS, on the Board of Scientific Affairs of the APA, and on the Executive Committee of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. She has served as Associate Editor of Psychological Review and of Journal of Experimental Social Psychology and is currently Co-Editor of Essays in Social Psychology. She serves on the editorial board of several journals, among them Psychological Science, Psychological Review, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and The DuBois Review. Banaji was Director of Undergraduate Studies at Yale for several years, chaired APS’s Task force on Dissemination of Psychological Science, and served on APA’s Committee on the Conduct of Internet Research. Among her awards, she has received Yale’s Lex Hixon Prize for Teaching Excellence, a James McKeen Cattell Fund Award, and fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, and the Rockefeller Foundation’s Bellagio Study Center. In 2000, her work with R. Bhaskar received the Gordon Allport Prize for Intergroup Relations. With Anthony Greenwald and Brian Nosek, she maintains an educational website that has accumulated over 2.5 million completed tasks measuring automatic attitudes and beliefs involving self, other individuals, and social groups. It can be reached at

Robert Drago is a Professor of Labor Studies and Women’s Studies at the Pennsylvania State University. He is also Professorial Fellow at the University of Melbourne and moderates the work/family newsgroup on the internet ( He holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and has been a Senior Fulbright Research Scholar. Drago’s recent research concerns biases against caregiving in the workplace, working time, the value of work-family policies. He also studies college and university faculty and public policies related to work and family with funding from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Most recently, in conjunction with Jackie Rogers and Theresa Vescio, he completed research on the relative decline of women as intercollegiate coaches, with funding from the NCAA and NACWAA. He is president elect for 2006 of the College and University Work/Family Association, a cofounder of the Take Care Net, the 2001 recipient of the R.I. Downing Fellowship from the University of Melbourne (Australia), serves on the board of the Berger Institute for Work, Family and Children, is a member of the Council on Contemporary Families and the International Association for Feminist Economics, and serves on the advisory board for the Ms. Foundation’s Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work day. He has published numerous articles in publications such as Academe, American Behavioral Scientist, Handbook of Work and Family, Industrial and Labor Relations, Journal of Labor Economics, and the Monthly Labor Review.

Susan T. Fiske is professor of psychology at Princeton University. She has taught on the faculties of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and Carnegie Mellon University. A 1978 Harvard PhD, she received an honorary doctorate from the Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, in 1995. Her graduate text with Shelley Taylor, Social Cognition (1984; 2nd ed., 1991), defined the subfield of how people think about and make sense of other people. Her 2004 text, Social Beings: A Core Motives Approach to Social Psychology, describes people’s most relevant evolutionary niche as social groups, with core motives (such as belonging) that enable people to adapt. Her research has focused on how people choose between category-based (stereotypic) and individuating impressions of other people, as a function of power and interdependence. Her current research shows that social structure predicts distinct kinds of bias against different groups in society, some more disrespected and others more disliked. Her expert testimony in discrimination cases includes one cited by the U.S. Supreme Court in a 1989 landmark case on gender bias. In 1998, she also testified before President Clinton’s Race Initiative Advisory Board. Fiske won the 1991 American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, Early Career, in part for the expert testimony. She also won, with Glick, the 1995 Allport Intergroup Relations Award from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues for work on ambivalent sexism. Among other elected offices, Fiske was president of the American Psychological Society for 2002–2003. She edited, with Daniel Gilbert and Gardner Lindzey, the Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed., 1998) and with Daniel Schacter and Carolyn Zahn-Waxler, the Annual Review of Psychology (Vols. 51-60, 2000-2009). She has served on the boards of Scientific Affairs for the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, Annual Reviews Inc., the Social Science Research Council, and the Common School in Amherst.

Jay Giedd is the Chief of the HtmlResAnchor Unit on Brain Imaging in the Child Psychiatry Branch at the NIMH. He received his MD from the University of North Dakota in 1986, training in adult psychiatry at the Menninger Foundation in Topeka, KS, and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry training at Duke University in Durham, NC. He is board certified in General, Child and Adolescent, and Geriatric Psychiatry. His research focuses on the relationship between genes, brain, and behavior in healthy development and in neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood onset. His laboratory is conducting longitudinal neuropsychological and brain imaging studies of healthy twins and singletons as well as clinical groups such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia, and others. Over the past 10 years they have acquired over 3000 MRI scans making this the largest pediatric neuroimaging project of its kind. The lab also studies sexual dimorphism in the developing brain, especially important in child psychiatry where nearly all disorders have different ages of onsets, prevalence, and symptomatology between boys and girls, by exploring clinical populations which have unusual levels of hormones (e.g., Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Familial Precocious Puberty) or variations in the sex chromosomes (e.g., Klinefelter’s Syndrome, XYY, XXYY). The lab is also conducting studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins which are beginning to unravel the relative contributions of genes and environment on a variety of developmental trajectories in the pediatric brain. The group is also involved in the development and application of techniques to analyze brain images and is actively collaborating with other imaging centers throughout the world to advance the image analysis field.

Donna Ginther is an Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Kansas. Prior to joining the University of Kansas faculty, she was a research economist and associate policy adviser in the regional group of the Research Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. From 1997 to 2000, she was an assistant professor of economics at Washington University, and from 1995 to 1997 she was an assistant professor of economics at Southern Methodist University. Her major fields of study are scientific labor markets, gender differences in employment outcomes, wage inequality, and children’s educational attainments. Ginther has been published in several journals, including the Journal of the American Statistical Association, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Demography, and the Papers and Proceedings of the American Economic Association. She is a member of the American Economics Association and the Population Association of America. As of 2006, she is a member of the Board of the Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession of the American Economic Association. A native of Wisconsin, Ginther received her doctorate in economics in 1995, master’s degree in economics in 1991, and bachelor of arts in economics in 1987, all from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Diane F. Halpern is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Berger Institute for Work, Family, and Children at Claremont McKenna College. She is the pastpresident (2005) of the American Psychological Association. Halpern has won many awards for her teaching and research, including the 2002 Outstanding Professor Award from the Western Psychological Association, the 1999 American Psychological Foundation Award for Distinguished Teaching, 1996 Distinguished Career Award for Contributions to Education given by the American Psychological Association, the California State University’s State-Wide Outstanding Professor Award, the Outstanding Alumna Award from the University of Cincinnati, the Silver Medal Award from the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education, the Wang Family Excellence Award, and the G. Stanley Hall Lecture Award from the American Psychological Association. She is the author of many books: Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking; Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking (with Heidi Riggio), Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities; Enhancing Thinking Skills in the Sciences and Mathematics, Changing College Classrooms; Student Outcomes Assessment; and States of Mind: American and Post-Soviet Perspectives on Contemporary Issues in Psychology (coedited with Alexander Voiskounsky). Her most recent book is co-edited with Susan Murphy, entitled From Work-Family Balance to Work-Family Interaction: Changing the Metaphor.

Janet Hyde is Helen Thompson Woolley Professor of Psychology and Women’s Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She earned her PhD in 1972 from the University of California, Berkeley. She is the author of a textbook for the psychology of women course, entitled Half the Human Experience: The Psychology of Women. One line of her research has focused on gender differences in abilities and self-esteem. Another line focuses on women, work, and dual-earner couples. One current research project, the Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Health Project (now called the Wisconsin Study of Families and Work), focuses on working mothers and their children; this research has public policy implications in the area of parental leave. Another current project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is the Moms & Math (M&M) Project, in which she is studying mothers interacting with their 5th or 7th grade children as they do mathematics homework together. Other research investigates gender differences in the emergence of depression and negative cognitive style in adolescence. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a winner of the Heritage Award from the Society for the Psychology of Women for career contributions to research on the psychology of women and gender.

Joanne Martin is the Fred H. Merrill Professor of Organizational Behavior and, by courtesy, Sociology at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. Martin received a PhD in Social Psychology from Harvard in 1977 and honorary doctorates from Copenhagen Business School in 2001 and the Vrej University in Amsterdam in 2005. Her current research focuses on gender in organizations, including subtle barriers to advancement for women and how to structure gender equity change programs. She is also known for her research on organizational culture (books include Cultures in Organizations: Three Perspectives and Organizational Culture: Mapping the Terrain). She was elected to serve on the Board of Governors of the Academy of Management and the Faculty Advisory Board (seven elected members) at Stanford University. She also has been a member of the Board of Directors of C.P.P., Inc., where she was the lead outside director, and the International Advisory Board of the International Center for Research in Organizational Discourse, Strategy, and Change, for the Universities of Melbourne, Sydney, London, and McGill. Martin has received numerous awards, including the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Award from the American Psychological Association in 1988 (for a paper with Thomas Pettigrew on barriers to inclusion for African-Americans); the Distinguished Educator Award from the Academy of Management in 2000 (for doctoral education), the Centennial Medal from the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, for researchbased contributions to society, in 2002; and the Distinguished Scholar Career Achievement Award from the National Academy of Management, Organization and Management Theory Division, in 2005.

Bruce McEwen [NAS/IOM] is the Alfred E. Mirsky Professor and Head of the Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology at The Rockefeller University. McEwen graduated Summa Cum Laude in Chemistry from Oberlin College in 1959 and obtained his PhD in Cell Biology in 1964 from The Rockefeller University. He returned to Rockefeller in 1966 to work with the psychologist, Neal Miller, after postdoctoral studies in neurobiology in Sweden and a brief period on the faculty at the University of Minnesota. He was appointed as Professor at Rockefeller in 1981. He is a member of the US National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences. He served as Dean of Graduate Studies from 1991-1993 and as President of the Society for Neuroscience in 1997-1998. As a neuroscientist and neuroendocrinologist, McEwen studies environmentally-regulated, variable gene expression in brain mediated by circulating steroid hormones and endogenous neurotransmitters in relation to brain sexual differentiation and the actions of sex, stress and thyroid hormones on the adult brain. His laboratory discovered adrenal steroid recep tors in the hippocampus in 1968. His laboratory combines molecular, anatomical, pharmacological, physiological and behavioral methodologies and relates their findings to human clinical information. He is a member of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health, in which he is helping to reformulate concepts and measurements related to stress and stress hormones in the context of human societies. He is the co-author with science writer Elizabeth Lasley of the book for a lay audience called The End of Stress as We Know It published by the Joseph Henry Press and the Dana Press (2002).

Kellee Noonan is a manager for the development of HP technical women worldwide and in that context, is the Diversity Program Manager for the Hewlett Packard Technical Career Path. The program was initiated by the CTO and implemented 2 years ago to shatter the glass ceiling for individual contributor technologists and allow them a non-management career path up to executive levels. The goal of the program is to help HP attract, retain, challenge, and engage the world’s strongest technical talent at all levels of the company. Noonan received her MS in Mechanical Engineering Design from Stanford University, and her BS in Mechanical Engineering from the University of the Pacific in Stockton, CA. At HP, Noonan has held a variety of positions including R&D engineer, Program Manager for HP Corporate Continuing Engineering Education, Computer Systems Technical Education Manager, and an Organizational Effectiveness Consultant. Prior to HP, Noonan was a Member of Technical Staff at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories in Pasadena, California.

Joan Reede is the Dean for Diversity and Community Partnership at Harvard Medical School where she works to recruit and prepare minority students for jobs in the biomedical professions, and to promote better health care policies for the benefit of minority populations. She is the first African American woman to hold that rank at Harvard Medical School and one of the few African American women to hold a deanship at a medical school in the United States. She earned her BS from Brown in 1977 and her MD from Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in 1980. She completed an internship and residency in pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a fellowship in child psychiatry at Boston’s Children’s Hospital. Thereafter, she went on to earn two more degrees, an MPH in 1990 and an MS in 1992 from Harvard School of Public Health. At Harvard, Dr. Reede was struck by the absence of minorities among the School of Public Health faculty. In 1990, after a year as a fellow at Harvard Medical School, Reede and several colleagues founded the Biomedical Science Careers Program (BSCP), to match minority students from high school through post-graduate levels with mentors in their fields of interest. Dr. Reede is also a founder and director of the Commonwealth Fund/ Harvard University Fellowship in Minority Health Policy, which offers physicians with an interest in minority and disadvantaged populations a year of professional training for leadership positions in health care policy and practice.

Sue Rosser has served as Dean of Ivan Allen College, the liberal arts college at Georgia Institute of Technology, since 1999; she is also Professor of History, Technology, and Society. She received her PhD in Zoology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1973. From 1995-1999, she was Director for the Center for Women’s Studies and Gender Research and Professor of Anthropology at the University of Florida-Gainesville. In 1995, she was Senior Program Officer for Women’s Programs at the National Science Foundation. From 1986 to 1995 she served as Director of Women’s Studies at the University of South Carolina, where she also was a Professor of Family and Preventive Medicine in the Medical School. She has edited collections and written approximately 115 journal articles on the theoretical and applied problems of women and science and women’s health. She is author of the books Teaching Science and Health from a Feminist Perspective: A Practical Guide (1986), Feminism within the Science and Health Care Professions: Overcoming Resistance (1988), Female-Friendly Science (1990), Feminism and Biology: A Dynamic Interaction (1992), Women’s Health: Missing from U.S. Medicine (1994), and Teaching the Majority (1995), Reengineering Female Friendly Science (1997), and Women, Science, and Society: The Crucial Union (2000). Her latest book is The Science Glass Ceiling: Struggles of Academic Women Scientists (2004). She also served as the Latin and North American co-editor of Women’s Studies International Forum from 1989-1993 and currently serves on the editorial boards of NWSA Journal, Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering and Women’s Studies Quarterly. She has held several grants from the National Science Foundation, including “A USC System Model for Transformation of Science and Math Teaching to Reach Women in Varied Campus Settings” and “POWRE Workshop”; she currently serves as co-PI on a $3.7 million ADVANCE grant from NSF. During the fall of 1993, she was Visiting Distinguished Professor for the University of Wisconsin System Women in Science Project.

Toni Schmader is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Arizona. She received a BA with Honors, summa cum laude from Washington & Jefferson College and a PhD in Social Psychology from the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her research seeks to understand the interplay between self and social identity, particularly when one’s social identity is accorded lower status or is targeted by negative group stereotypes. In exploring these issues, her research draws upon and extends existing theory on social stigma, social justice, social cognition, intergroup emotion, self-esteem, and motivation and performance. Her work has received funding from the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health. In 2000, she was awarded the Social Issues Dissertation Award from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues for her research examining how social status and the perceived legitimacy of that status influence the domains that people value. Her more recent research explores the impact of gender stereotypes on women’s involvement and performance in math related domains.

Angelica Stacy is a Professor of Chemistry and Associate Vice Provost for Faculty Equity at the University of California at Berkeley. She received her Ph.D. at Cornell University (1981) and was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Northwestern University (1981-1983). From there she moved to Cornell University where she was an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry. She moved to UC Berkeley in 1988. Interest in the Stacy Lab is in solid-state inorganic chemistry, with particular emphasis on the synthesis and characterization of new solid state materials with novel electronic and magnetic properties. Stacy was a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator awardee (1984-1989). She has received a number of teaching and research excellence awards, including the Prytanean Society Faculty Enrichment Award, 1986; Exxon Fellowship for Solid State Chemistry, 1987; Sloan Foundation Fellowship (1988-1990); Camille and Henry Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award (1988); Distinguished Teaching Award, University of California (1991), Faculty Award for Women Scientists and Engineers, National Science Foundation (1991); Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Technology Transfer Certification of Merit (1991); President’s Chair for Teaching, University of California (1993-1996); Francis P. Garvan-John M. Olin Medal, American Chemical Society (1994), Catalyst Award, Chemical Manufacturers Association (1995); The Donald Sterling Noyce Prize for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching (1996); Iota Sigma Pi Award for Professional Excellence (1996); and James Flack Norris Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Teaching of Chemistry (1998).

Joan C. Williams is Distinguished Professor of Law and Founding Director of the Center for WorkLife Law at University of California, Hastings College of the Law. A prize-winning author and expert on work/family issues, she is author of Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What To Do About It (Oxford University Press, 2000), which won the 2000 Gustavus Myers Outstanding Book Award. She has authored or co-authored four books and over fifty law review articles; her work is reprinted in casebooks on six different subjects; she has given over two hundred speeches and presentations in North and Latin America to groups as diverse as the National Employment Lawyers’ Association, the Denver Rotary Club, the American Philosophical Association, and the Modern Language Association, and has lectured at virtually every leading U.S. university. Founding Director of WorkLife Law (WLL), she is also co-director of the Project on Attorney Retention. She has played a leading role in documenting workplace bias against mothers. Her “Beyond the Maternal Wall: Relief for Family Caregivers Who are Discriminated against on the Job,” 26 Harvard Women’s Law Review 77 (2003), (co-authored with Nancy Segal), was prominently cited in Back v. Hastings on Hudson Union Free School District, 2004 U.S. App. Lexis 6684 (2d Cir. April 7, 2004). She also has played a central role in organizing social scientists to document maternal wall bias, notably in a special issue of the Journal of Social Issues (2004), co-edited with Monica Biernat and Faye Crosby, which was awarded the Distinguished Publication Award by the Association for Women in Psychology. Her current work focuses on social psychology, and on how work/family conflict affects families across the social spectrum, with a particular focus on how caregiving issues arise in union arbitrations. For more information visit and Williams teaches property as well as courses related to gender, family and employment. She has two children. Her husband is a public interest lawyer specializing in privacy and internet issues.

Yu Xie is the Otis Dudley Duncan Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology at the University of Michigan. He is also affiliated with the Department of Statistics, the Population Studies Center, and the Survey Research Center of the Institute for Social Research and the Center for Chinese Studies. Yu Xie has a PhD in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, an MA in the History of Science and an MS in Sociology both from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He received a BS in Metallurgical Engineering from Shanghai University of Technology (1982). Yu Xie’s main areas of interest are social stratification, demography, statistical methods, and sociology of science. He is the co-author of the recent book, Women in Science, Career Processes and Outcomes, which won the 2005 Choice Magazine Outstanding Academic Title. He has served as the Deputy Editor of American Sociological Review (1996-2000), the Associate Editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association (1999-2001), member of several editorial boards, advisory panel member for the Sociology Program (1995-1997) and the Methodology, Measurements, and Statistics Program (2004-2006) at the National Science Foundation. He has held several distinguished faculty positions including assistant professor (1989-1994), associate professor (1994-1996), and professor (1996-present) in the Department of Sociology at the University of Michigan. Yu Xie is the recipient of numerous awards including the National Academy of Education Spencer Fellowship (1991-1992), the National Science Foundation’s Young Investigator Award (1992-1997), the William T. Grant Foundation’s Faculty Scholar Award (1994-1999), and the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship (2002-2003). He received the Academician recognition from the Taiwan Academia Sinica (1994), and the American Academy of Arts and Science Fellow Award (2004). In addition, he has received several Teaching awards From University of Michigan including the Teaching Development Award from the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching (1990-1991), as well as the Excellence in Education Award from the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts (1992).

Copyright © 2006, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK23782
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