Table 12.2Historical Clues to Possible Cause of Syncope

Historical featuresConsider
Noncardiac causes
Fearful or emotional situationVasodepressor
Occuring during or immediately after:
 MicturitionMicturition syncope
 DefecationDefecation syncope
 SwallowSwallow syncope
Occuring with paroxysms of coughCough syncope
Related to change of postureOrthostatic hypotension
After drug ingestionDrug-induced
Lateral neck movementCarotid sinus syncope
Throat or facial painGlossopharyngeal or trigeminal neuralgia
Arm exerciseSubclavian steal
Associated neurologicTransient ischemic attacks, subclavian steal, migraines, seizure disorder
Cardiac causes
ExertionalAortic stenosis IHSS, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary stenosis, congenital heart disease
Associated with chest painMyocardial infarction aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism
Associated with dyspneaPulmonary embolism
No premonitory symptomsArrhythmias

From: Chapter 12, Syncope

Cover of Clinical Methods
Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition.
Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors.
Boston: Butterworths; 1990.
Copyright © 1990, Butterworth Publishers, a division of Reed Publishing.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.