Table 10.1Common covalent modifications of protein activity

ModificationDonor moleculeExample of modified proteinProtein function
PhosphorylationATPGlycogen phosphorylaseGlucose homeostasis; energy transduction
AcetylationAcetyl CoAHistonesDNA packing; transcription
MyristoylationMyristoyl CoASrcSignal transduction
ADP-ribosylationNADRNA polymeraseTranscription
FarnesylationFarnesyl pyrophosphateRasSignal transduction
γ-CarboxylationHCO3-ThrombinBlood clotting
Sulfation3′-Phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfateFibrinogenBlood-clot formation
UbiquitinationUbiquitinCyclinControl of cell cycle

From: Section 10.4, Covalent Modification Is a Means of Regulating Enzyme Activity

Cover of Biochemistry
Biochemistry. 5th edition.
Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L.
New York: W H Freeman; 2002.
Copyright © 2002, W. H. Freeman and Company.

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