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Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Microbial Threats; Knobler SL, Mack A, Mahmoud A, et al., editors. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2005.

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The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary.

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Appendix DForum Members, Speakers, and Staff Biographies


ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D. (Chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries, including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines, to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud currently serves as Chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections and is a member of the Board on Global Health, both of the Institute of Medicine. He also chairs the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program.

STANLEY M. LEMON, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board-certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, directing the Hepatitis Laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in 1983, serving first as Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases, and then Vice Chair for Research of the Department of Medicine. In 1997, Dr. Lemon moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch as Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology. He was subsequently appointed Dean pro tem of the School of Medicine in 1999, and permanent Dean of Medicine in 2000. Dr. Lemon's research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis C and hepatitis A. He is particularly interested in the molecular mechanisms controlling replication of these RNA genomes and related mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. He has published over 180 papers, and numerous textbook chapters related to hepatitis and other viral infections, and has a longstanding interest in vaccine development. He has served previously as Chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and is past Chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of WHO's Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as Chairman of the U.S. Hepatitis Panel of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program, and recently chaired an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.

DAVID ACHESON, M.D., is Chief Medical Officer at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). He received his medical degree at the University of London. After completing internships in general surgery and medicine, he continued his post-doctoral training in Manchester, England, as a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow. He subsequently was a Wellcome Trust Training Fellow in Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center and at the Wellcome Research Unit in Vellore, India. Dr. Acheson was Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center, until 2001. He then joined the faculties of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Maryland Medical School. Currently at the FDA, his research concentration is on foodborne pathogens and encompasses a mixture of molecular pathogenesis, cell biology, and epidemiology. Specifically, his research focuses on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and understanding toxin interaction with intestinal epithelial cells using tissue culture models. His laboratory has also undertaken a study to examine Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in food animals in relation to virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns. More recently, Dr. Acheson initiated a project to understand the molecular pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. Other studies have undertaken surveillance of diarrheal disease in the community to determine causes, outcomes, and risk factors of unexplained diarrhea. Dr. Acheson has authored/co-authored over 72 journal articles, and 42 book chapters and reviews, and is coauthor of the book Safe Eating (Dell Health, 1998). He is reviewer of more than 10 journals and is on the editorial board of Infection and Immunity and Clinical Infectious Diseases. Dr. Acheson is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, a Fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America, and holds several patents.

RUTH L. BERKELMAN, M.D., is the Rollins Professor and Director, Center for Public Health Preparedness and Research at the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University. She came to Emory University in 2000 following 20 years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), where she had served as an Assistant Surgeon General both in the position as Senior Adviser to the Director, CDC, and as Deputy Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases. In the mid-1990s, she led CDC's efforts to address the threat of emerging infectious diseases. Her career began as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Officer, and her expertise is primarily in infectious diseases and disease surveillance. Dr. Berkelman is board certified in pediatrics and internal medicine, and is a graduate of Harvard Medical School. She is active in the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Epidemiologic Society, and she currently serves on the Policy and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society of Microbiology. She also consults with the Nuclear Threat Initiative on reduction of the threat of biologic weapons.

ENRIQUETA C. BOND, Ph.D., is President of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund. Dr. Bond received her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College, her M.A. from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical genetics from Georgetown University. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Public Health Association. Dr. Bond serves on the Council of the Institute of Medicine as its Vice-Chair; she chairs the Board of Scientific Counselors for the National Center for Infectious Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and she chairs the Institute of Medicine's Clinical Research Roundtable. She serves on the Board and Executive Committee of the Research Triangle Park Foundation, and on the Board of the Medicines for Malaria Venture. Prior to being named President of the Burroughs Wellcome Fund in 1994, Dr. Bond served on the staff of the Institute of Medicine since 1979, becoming the Institute's Executive Officer in 1989.

STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is Research Advisor, Antibacterials Chemistry, at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was a NIH Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor/co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents, and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily within the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years.

NANCY CARTER-FOSTER, M.S.T.M., is Senior Advisor for Health Affairs for the U.S. Department of State, Assistant Secretary for Science and Health, and the Secretary's Representative on HIV/AIDS. She is responsible for identifying emerging health issues and making policy recommendations for U.S. government foreign policy concerns regarding international health, and coordinates the Department's interactions with the nongovernmental community. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine's Forum on Infectious Diseases, and a member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), and the American Association of the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She has helped bring focus to global health issues in U.S. foreign policy and brought a national security focus to global health. In prior positions as Director for Congressional and Legislative Affairs for the Economic and Business Affairs Bureau of the U.S. Department of State, and Foreign Policy Advisory to the Majority WHIP U.S. House of Representatives, Trade Specialist Advisor to the House of Representatives Ways and Means Trade Subcommittee, and consultant to the World Bank, Asia Technical Environment Division, Ms. Carter-Foster has worked on a wide variety of health, trade, and environmental issues amassing in-depth knowledge and experience in policy development and program implementation.

GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Scientific Affairs, Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director's Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past President of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third 3-year term as Chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director's Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served 8 years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its Chair for 3 years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored over 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.

JESSE L. GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was Professor of Medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, and is now serving as Deputy Director for the FDA Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner's office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA's response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was Co-Chair of a recently formed federal interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases training at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California, Los Angeles, where he was also Chief Medical Resident. He received his M.P.H. from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his laboratory's research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multicenter clinical studies. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

EDUARDO GOTUZZO, M.D., is Principal Professor and Director at the Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Alexander von Humbolt,” Universidad Peruana Cayetan Heredia (UPCH), in Lima, Peru. He is also Chief of the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases at the Cayetano Heredia Hospital and Adjunct Professor of Medicine at the University of Alabama–Birmingham School of Medicine. Dr. Gotuzzo has proven to be an active member in numerous international societies such as President of the Latin America Society of Tropical Disease (2000–2003), member of the Scientific Program of Infectious Diseases Society of America (2000–2003), member of the International Organizing Committee of the International Congress of Infectious Diseases (1994–Present), President Elect of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (1996–1998), and President of the Peruvian Society of Internal Medicine (1991–1992). He has published over 230 articles and chapters as well as six manuals and one book. Recent honors and awards include being named an Honorary member of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (since 2002), Associated Member of National Academy of Medicine (since 2002), Honorary Member of Society of Internal Medicine (since 2000), Distinguished Visitor, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Cordoba, Argentina (since 1999), and the Golden Medal for “Outstanding Contribution in the field of Infectious Diseases,” awarded by the Trnava University, Slovakia (1998), among many others.

CHRISTINE M. GRANT, J.D., M.B.A., is New Jersey's immediate past Commissioner of Health and Senior Services. Chris Grant, is a nationally recognized expert in healthcare and pharmaceutical financing and public health crises. She has had careers in government business and philanthropy and degrees in business, law, and science. As a cabinet member with Governor Whitman, she was New Jersey's Chief Health Official and had responsibility for a 2,000-person, $2 billion agency between 1999 and 2001. She is currently the Vice President of Policy and Government Relations for Aventis Pasteur, the world's largest vaccine company. Her previous work at the company included the creation of a center of activity known as Public Business. She is now working on a number of domestic and global issues including the creation of collaborative systems to manage a global or pandemic influenza outbreak.

MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is Vice President for Biological Programs at Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Dr. Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and/or legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost 6 years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation's largest city, Dr. Hamburg's many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases; the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels; and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians.

CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her B.S. in biology from Boston University in 1972, and earned her M.S. and Ph.D. in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979, respectively. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the National Cancer Institute where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respiratory diseases program officer in DMID and, in 1988, she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as Deputy Director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and WHO in this area. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology.

DAVID L. HEYMANN, M.D., is currently the Executive Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Communicable Diseases Cluster. From October 1995 to July 1998 he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control. Prior to becoming director of this program, he was the chief of research activities in the Global Programme on AIDS. From 1976 to 1989, prior to joining WHO, Dr. Heymann spent 13 years working as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, the former Zaire, and Malawi) on assignment from the CDC in CDC-supported activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases, African hemorrhagic fevers, pox viruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr. Heymann participated in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit. Prior to 1976, Dr. Heymann spent 2 years in India as a medical officer in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme. Dr. Heymann holds a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, and a diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and completed practical epidemiology training in the EIS training program of the CDC. He has published 131 scientific articles on infectious diseases in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals.

JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in health care settings. He became Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an Assistant Surgeon General in the Public Health Service.

GERALD T. KEUSCH, M.D., is Provost and Dean for Global Health at Boston University (BU) and BU School of Public Health. He is a graduate of Columbia College (1958) and Harvard Medical School (1963). After completing a residency in internal medicine, fellowship training in infectious diseases, and two years as an NIH Research Associate at the SEATO Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thailand, Dr. Keusch joined the faculty of Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in 1970, where he established a laboratory to study the pathogenesis of bacillary dysentery and the biology and biochemistry of Shiga toxin. In 1979, he moved to Tufts Medical School and New England Medical Center in Boston, to found the Division of Geographic Medicine, which focused on the molecular and cellular biology of tropical infectious disease. In 1986, he integrated the clinical infectious diseases program into the Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, continuing as Division Chief until 1998. He has worked in the laboratory and in the field in Latin America, Africa, and Asia on basic and clinical infectious diseases and HIV/AIDS research. From 1998 to 2003 he was Associate Director for International Research and Director of the Fogarty International Center at the NIH. Dr. Keusch is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). He is the recipient of the Squibb (1981), Finland (1997), and Bristol (2002) Awards of the IDSA. In 2002 he was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

LONNIE KING, D.V.M., is Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University. Dr. King's previous positions include both Associate Administrator and Administrator of the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and Deputy Administrator for USDA/ APHIS/Veterinary Services. Before his government career, Dr. King was in private practice. He also has experience as a field veterinary medical officer, station epidemiologist, and staff assignments involving Emergency Programs and Animal Health Information. Dr. King has also directed the American Veterinary Medical Association's Office of Governmental Relations, and is certified in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. He has served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medicine Colleges, and currently serves as Co-Chair of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues, Lead Dean at Michigan State University for food safety with responsibility for the National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, and the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases. He is also co-developer and course leader for science, politics, and animal health policy. Dr. King received his B.S. and D.V.M. degrees from Ohio State University, and his M.S. degree in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota. He has also completed the Senior Executive Program at Harvard University, and received an M.P.A. from American University. Dr. King previously served on the Committee for Opportunities in Agriculture, the Steering Committee for a Workshop on the Control and Prevention of Animal Diseases, and the Committee to Ensure Safe Food from Production to Consumption.

JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is Professor emeritus of Molecular Genetics and Informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was Co-Chair of a previous Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and currently is Co-Chair of the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine.

JOSEPH MALONE, M.D., the director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infection System (DoD-GEIS), completed the CDC's EIS program in June 2003. He graduated from Boston University School of Medicine in 1980, and trained in internal medicine and infectious diseases at Naval Hospitals in San Diego, and Bethesda, MD, leading to board certification. He was a staff physician at the Naval Hospitals in San Diego, CA, and Bethesda, MD. He deployed to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in support of Operation Safe Harbor and was attached to Surgical Team 1 during Operation Desert Shield. He later directed the Infectious Disease Division and HIV unit at the Naval Medical Center at Portsmouth, VA, from 1996–1996. In 1999 he worked for the Disease Surveillance Program (in affiliation with DoD-GEIS) at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 in Cairo, Egypt. While at CDC's EIS program he was deployed to New York City to assist in the emergency public health response after the September 11, 2001, attacks, assisted in the public health response to documented anthrax contamination in Kansas City, and was the acting state epidemiologist for the State of Missouri from February–June 2003. Captain Malone has several military awards, including the HHS/USPHS Crisis Response Service Award. He is an Associate Professor at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences and holds the Certificate of Knowledge in Travelers' Health and Tropical Medicine from the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. He has over 20 publications.

LYNN MARKS, M.D., is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He was on faculty at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases Department focusing on patient care, teaching, and research. His academic research interest was on the molecular genetics of bacterial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined SmithKline Beecham's (now GlaxoSmithKline) anti-infectives clinical group and later progressed to global head of the Consumer Healthcare division Medical and Regulatory group. He then returned to pharmaceutical research and development as global head of the Infectious Diseases Therapeutic Area Strategy Team for GlaxoSmithKline.

STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from 4 years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor (Virology) at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by American Scientist for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute's journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM's Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the IOM's Forum on Emerging Infections, and has served as an adviser to WHO, PAHO (Pan-American Health Organization), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past Chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding Chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also Professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the NIAID and CDC. He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past President of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences, IOM Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee on Food Safety, Production to Consumption and the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program, and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism.

GEORGE POSTE, Ph.D., D.V.M., is Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute and Dell E. Webb Distinguished Professor of Biology at Arizona State University. From 1992 to 1999 he was Chief Science and Technology Officer and President, Research and Development of SmithKline Beecham (SB). During his tenure at SB he was associated with the successful registration of 29 drug, vaccine, and diagnostic products. He is Chairman of diaDexus and Structural GenomiX in California and Orchid Biosciences in Princeton. He serves on the Board of Directors of AdvancePCS and Monsanto. He is an advisor on biotechnology to several venture capital funds and investment banks. In May 2003 he was appointed as Director of the Arizona Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University. This is a major new initiative combining research groups in biotechnology, nanotechnology, materials science, advanced computing, and neuromorphic engineering. He is a Fellow of Pembroke College Cambridge and Distinguished Fellow at the Hoover Institution and Stanford University. He is a member of the Defense Science Board of the U.S. Department of Defense and in this capacity he Chairs the Task Force on Bioterrorism. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Working Group on Defense Against Bioweapons. Dr. Poste is a Board Certified Pathologist, a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He was awarded the rank of Commander of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II in 1999 for services to medicine and for the advancement of biotechnology. He has published over 350 scientific papers, co-edited 15 books on cancer, biotechnology, and infectious diseases and serves on the editorial boards of multiple technical journals. He is invited routinely to be the keynote speaker at a wide variety of academic, corporate, investment, and government meetings to discuss the impact of biotechnology and genetics on health care and the challenges posed by bioterrorism. Dr. Poste is married with three children. His personal interests are in military history, photography, automobile racing, and exploring the wilderness zones of the American West.

GARY A. ROSELLE, M.D., received his M.D. from Ohio State University School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at Northwestern University School of Medicine and his Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Dr. Roselle is the Program Director for Infectious Diseases for the VA Central Office in Washington, D.C., as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a Professor of Medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Roselle has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center Director, the Under Secretary for Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings, and has published over 80 papers and several book chapters.

JANET SHOEMAKER is director of the American Society for Microbiology's Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in American Society for Microbiology (ASM) projects, including the production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts, and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She has served as Commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has co-authored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology.

P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is J. Herbert Bate Professor emeritus of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, and is Director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously, he served as Chair of the Department of Medicine and Chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was President of the Infectious Disease Society of America in 1996–1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991–1992). Dr. Sparling's laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron-scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and meningococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal porin proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea.


DAVID M. BELL, M.D., is Senior Medical Officer, Office of the Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta. He served as consultant to WHO in 2003 as the CDC-WHO liaison for SARS and in 2004 to assist in containment of avian influenza, as the WHO “focal point” for developing recommendations to reduce community and international transmission (e.g., quarantines, closing schools, screening at borders). From 1997–2003 Dr. Bell coordinated CDC's programs to combat antimicrobial resistance and was Co-Chair of the U.S. Federal Task Force that produced and implemented a U.S. government action plan to combat this problem. He assisted in developing the WHO Global Strategic Plan for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance, in part by serving as Chair of a WHO consultation that developed global principles for antibiotic use in food animals. From 1987–1997 Dr. Bell directed CDC's programs to prevent HIV transmission in health care settings. Previously he directed the Diagnostic Virology Laboratory at the University of Tennessee and practiced general pediatrics. Dr. Bell is a member of the FDA Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Infectious Diseases Society of America's Committee on National and Global Public Health. He is co-author of over 90 scientific publications, Associate Editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, and Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatric Infectious Diseases at Emory University. Dr. Bell graduated from Princeton University and Harvard Medical School. His medical training included residency at Boston Children's Hospital, the Epidemic Intelligence Service Program at CDC, and fellowship in pediatric infectious diseases at the University of Rochester.

CAROL J. CARDONA, D.V.M., Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor and an Assistant Specialist in Cooperative Extension at the University of California, Davis. She received her B.S. in biology from Hanover College in 1984 and her D.V.M. degree from Purdue University in 1990. In 1992, Dr. Cardona completed a residency in avian diseases and became a diplomate of the American College of Poultry Veterinarians. Dr. Cardona earned her Ph.D. degree from Michigan State University in 1997. After postdoctoral study at Cornell University, Dr. Cardona began her career at the University of California, Davis in a position split between research and extension education. Soon after she joined the faculty at the University of California, Davis, the California poultry industry was hit with an outbreak of H6N2 avian influenza. Dr. Cardona helped the poultry industry develop a widely implemented surveillance and control program. She has studied the use of vaccine in commercial poultry populations, the response of commercial strains of chickens to H6N2 avian influenza virus in commercial settings, and the epidemiology of avian influenza in commercial poultry populations. Dr. Cardona is a member of the American Association of Avian Pathologists, the American Society for Microbiology, and the World Veterinary Poultry Association.

NGUYEN TIEN DZUNG, D.V.M., Ph.D., is Head of the Virology Department of the National Institute for Veterinary Researchs (NIVR) in Hanoi, Vietnam. He received his D.V.M. from the Havana University (Cuba) in 1973. After graduation he worked in the NIVR on diagnostic technique and vaccine development for Classical Swine Fever. He enjoyed a fellowship in France where he earned the Diplome of General Microbiology from the Paris Pasteur Institute (option Virology) and then the Diplome of Doctorat in Biotechnology and Analysis of Natural Substances from the Tours University in France in 1986. Back in Vietnam he was nominated Head of the Virology Department of the NIVR in 1988 and responsible for conducting research on the major viral diseases of animals in Vietnam. Many of his studies dealt with viral diagnosis techniques, vaccine development, and epidemiological surveillance. Dr. Nguyen was the principal scientific adviser for fighting against avian influenza outbreak in Vietnam during 2003–2004.

BRUCE G. GELLIN, M.D., M.P.H., is Director of the National Vaccine Program Office (NVPO). He is one of our nation's top experts on vaccines and infectious diseases. Before joining NVPO, Dr. Gellin was the Director of the National Network for Immunization Information, an organization he founded to be a resource for up-to-date, authoritative information about vaccines and immunizations. Dr. Gellin has had broad experience in public health aspects of infectious diseases and has held positions at the NIAID (NIH), the CDC, the Rockefeller Foundation, and Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. In addition, he has been a regular consultant to the World Health Organization. He is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases and is currently on the faculty at Columbia University School of Public Health, George Washington University School of Medicine, and Vanderbilt University Schools of Medicine and Nursing. Dr. Gellin is a graduate of the University of North Carolina (Morehead Scholar), Cornell University Medical College, and the Columbia University School of Public Health, and is an infectious disease expert with training in epidemiology. He has written extensively about public health aspects of infectious diseases in medical and non-medical texts and the peer-reviewed medical literature. He is an editor of the Clinical Infectious Diseases Journal's special section on vaccines and has been a reviewer for over a dozen medical journals. He also served as a medical advisor to Encyclopedia Britannica.

LAWRENCE O. GOSTIN, J.D., LL.D. (Hon.), is the John Carroll Research Professor at Georgetown University Law Center; Professor of Public Health at the Johns Hopkins University; and Director of the Center for Law & the Public's Health at the Johns Hopkins and Georgetown Universities (CDC Collaborating Center “Promoting Public Health Through Law”) (http://www.publichealthlaw.net). He is a Research Fellow at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, Oxford University. Professor Gostin is an elected lifetime Member of the IOM and serves on the IOM Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Professor Gostin also consults for the WHO and UNAIDS. Professor Gostin has lead major law reform initiatives for the U.S. government including the Model Emergency Health Powers Act (MEHPA) to combat bioterrorism and other emerging health threats. Professor Gostin received the Rosemary Delbridge Memorial Award from the National Consumer Council (United Kingdom) for the person “who has most influenced Parliament and government to act for the welfare of society.” He also received the Key to Tohoko University (Japan) for distinguished contributions to human rights in mental health. Professor Gostin's latest books are: The AIDS Pandemic: Complacency, Injustice, and Unfulfilled Expectations (University of North Carolina Press, 2004); The Human Rights of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities: Different But Equal (Oxford University Press, 2003); Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader (University of California Press and Milbank Memorial Fund, 2002); Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint (University of California Press and Milbank Memorial Fund, 2000).

GORDON W. GRUNDY, M.D., M.B.A., is Regional Medical Director for Aetna Inc. in the northeast. Dr. Grundy has primary health plan responsibility for medical management activities in New England, New York, and northern New Jersey. He also oversees regional quality management activities including NCQA accreditation. Prior to joining Aetna in 1999, Dr. Grundy served as medical director for Yale Preferred Health and HealthChoice of Connecticut for 3 years. He graduated from the University of Colorado in 1966 and received his medical degree from the University of Rochester (NY) School of Medicine in 1970. After serving as a staff associate with the National Cancer Institute, he completed residency training in pediatrics at the Yale-New Haven Hospital in 1975. During his 21-year career as a pediatrician, Dr. Grundy also earned an M.B.A. in health care management from the University of New Haven in 1992. Dr. Grundy currently sits on the Board of Directors of the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA), an international organization dedicated to improving antimicrobial effectiveness and containing drug resistance. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics and holds memberships in the American Medical Association, the Connecticut State Medical Society and the American College of Physician Executives.

MARK LIPSITCH, D. PHIL., is Associate Professor of Epidemiology and Immunology & Infectious Diseases at the Harvard School of Public Health. He studied philosophy at Yale University and received his D.Phil. in zoology from Oxford in 1995. He did postdoctoral work with Bruce Levin at Emory University and at the CDC from 1995–1999. His research in the population biology of infectious diseases has focused on antimicrobial resistance in community- and hospital-acquired pathogens, and on the population dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Recent work has involved development of methods for detecting and predicting malaria epidemics, as well as analyses of the 1918 influenza pandemic and the 2003 SARS epidemic. He also maintains a laboratory research program, focusing on the population biology of S. pneumoniae and on the role of host immunity in determining interactions among strains of this organism. At Harvard he teaches courses in the Epidemiology Department on mathematical modeling of disease transmission and on methods for infectious disease epidemiology. He has recently received outstanding young investigator awards from the Ellison Medical Foundation, the American Society for Microbiology, and the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers' Association Foundation. He is an Associate Editor of the American Journal of Epidemiology and Emerging Themes in Epidemiology.

IRA M. LONGINI, JR., Ph.D., is Professor of Biostatistics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University. He received a Ph.D. in Biometry at the University of Minnesota in 1977. Dr. Longini began his career with the International Center for Medical Research and Training and the Universidad del Valle in Cali, Colombia, where he works on tropical infectious disease problems. He has been at Emory since 1984. His research interests are in the area of stochastic processes applied to epidemiological problems. He has specialized in the mathematical and statistical theory of epidemics—a process that involves constructing and analyzing mathematical models of disease transmission and disease progression and the analysis of infectious disease data based on these models. He has worked extensively in the design, analysis, and interpretation of vaccine trials. This research has been carried out jointly with faculty members and collaborators at other universities, the CDC, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and NIH. Dr. Longini has worked extensively on the analysis of epidemics of influenza, HIV, cholera, dengue fever, rhinovirus, rotavirus, and measles. Dr. Longini is also working with the NIH and the CDC on mathematical and statistical models for the control of a possible bioterrorist attack with an infectious agent such as smallpox, and other natural infectious disease threats such as pandemic influenza and SARS. Dr. Longini is author or co-author of 100 scientific papers, and he has won a number of awards for excellence in research, including the Howard M. Temin Award in Epidemiology for Scientific Excellence in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS. He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association.

ARNOLD S. MONTO, M.D., is Professor of Epidemiology at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and is Director of the University of Michigan Bioterrorism Preparedness Initiative. The major focus of his work has been the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of acute infections. Respiratory infections, in particular influenza, have been a major interest, with special reference to the evaluation of vaccines and the assessment of the value of antivirals such as amantadine, rimantadine, and the neuraminidase inhibitors. Dr. Monto was closely involved in the U.S. HCFA-sponsored studies, which made influenza vaccine a covered benefit for older individuals. He has also studied other approaches to influenza vaccine use, particularly to control transmission of virus in the community and in nursing homes. He is currently involved in assessing the efficacy of the neuraminidase inhibitors in prophylaxis and therapy of influenza and internationally in evaluating the relative efficacy of hepatitis A vaccine in post-exposure prophylaxis. Dr. Monto has served for periods of time in the Acute Respiratory Infection program at WHO, Geneva, and as Scholar in Residence at IOM/NRC. He has also been a member of the National Advisory Allergy and Infectious Diseases Council. He is now President of the American Epidemiological Society.

DENNIS M. PERROTTA, Ph.D., CIC., is the Texas State Epidemiologist, and Scientific Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness and Response, Texas Department of Health. He is doctorally trained in epidemiology, board certified in infection control, and has worked in public health, for more than 22 years spanning a wide range of subject areas including bioterrorism, asthma, influenza control, environmental health and infectious disease epidemiology. He has served as President of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists and as President of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board. He served on the 1997–1999 IOM Committee to Improve Civilian Medical Response to Chemical and Biological Terrorism and is facilitating state health department efforts regarding bioterrorism preparedness. He is Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Texas School of Nursing and the three schools of public health in Texas. He is the principal investigator on three major bioterrorism and emerging infections grants.

LONE SIMONSEN, Ph.D., is a senior epidemiologist at NIAID at NIH in Bethesda, Md. She received her Ph.D. in population biology from University of Massachusetts in 1991 in the area of mathematical modeling in infectious diseases. Dr. Simonsen then joined the EIS program at the CDC where she worked as an epidemiologist in the Influenza Branch during 1992–1996. Subsequently she worked as an epidemiologist for WHO and UNAIDS in Geneva during 1997–2000 on technical issues relating to global surveillance and burden of TB, drug resistance, and HIV/AIDS. After returning to the United States, Dr. Simonsen joined NIAID in May 2000 to conduct research in infectious disease epidemiology. She has contributed broadly to developing the field of quantitative epidemiology of infectious diseases, in particular mathematical modeling tools needed to study seasonal variations in disease outcomes to better estimate burden of disease for influenza, rotavirus, and malaria. She has recently undertaken several studies to better quantify the benefits of elderly influenza vaccination efforts as well as the risk of intussusception following rotavirus immunization of infants. Her primary focus of research since 1992 has been studies on the impact of pandemic and epidemic influenza; she has published numerous scientific papers in this area.

DAVID E. SWAYNE, D.V.M., Ph.D., is Director of the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL), Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). SEPRL is USDA's national laboratory that conducts research on exotic and emerging poultry diseases, including avian influenza. He received his B.S. in domestic animal biology from University of Arkansas (1980), Ph.D. in veterinary medicine and M.S. in veterinary pathology from the University of Missouri (1984), and Ph.D. in veterinary pathology from the University of Georgia (1987). Dr. Swayne began his career as an Assistant and Associate Professor in Veterinary Pathobiology at The Ohio State University (1987–1994), where he studied pathogenicity and pathogenesis of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in poultry, especially the avian influenza viruses from wild birds. In 1994, he joined SEPRL in his current position. His research has focused on understanding the pathobiology of influenza virus infections in poultry and other birds, development of vaccines and vaccination control programs, and prediction of the emergence of high from low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. Dr. Swayne is a member of the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Association of Avian Pathologists, World Veterinary Poultry Association, and U.S. Animal Health Association. He is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and American College of Poultry Veterinarians. He serves as an avian influenza expert and consultant for the World Organization of Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties [OIE]).

JEFFREY K. TAUBENBERGER, M.D., Ph.D., serves as Chief of the Department of Molecular Pathology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, D.C., a position he has held since 1994. He received his M.D. in 1986 and Ph.D. in 1987 from the Medical College of Virginia, and did a residency in pathology at the National Cancer Institute. His clinical activities involve diagnostic molecular genetics. He holds dual board certifications in anatomic pathology and in molecular genetic pathology from the American Board of Pathology and the American Board of Medical Genetics. His clinical interests are chiefly in the development and implementation of molecular diagnostic assays for neoplasia and infectious diseases. His research interests include (1) influenza virus biology and surveillance, including characterization of the 1918 influenza virus that killed 40 million people; (2) biology of other RNA viruses including SARS and marine mammal morbilliviruses; and (3) gene expression during early lymphocyte differentiation. He is the recipient of numerous awards and is a frequent speaker at national and international meetings, including multiple keynote addresses. He has published over 80 papers in such journals as Science and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and has written twelve book chapters. His work has been funded by grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Veterans Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the American Registry of Pathology. He is currently the principal investigator on two NIH grants to characterize the 1918 influenza virus. His 1918 influenza work has generated national and international publicity since 1997.


STACEY L. KNOBLER is Director of the Forum on Microbial Threats at IOM and a senior program officer for the Board on Global Health (BGH). She has served as the director of the BGH study, Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders in Developing Countries and as a research associate for the Board's earlier studies on The Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola (Smallpox) Virus and Cardiovascular Disease in Developing Countries. Previously, Ms. Knobler has held positions as a Research Associate at the Brookings Institution, Foreign Policy Studies Program, and as an Arms Control and Democratization Consultant for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in Vienna and Bosnia-Herzegovina. She has also worked as a research and negotiations analyst in Israel and Palestine. Ms. Knobler received her baccalaureate, summa cum laude, in political science and molecular genetics from the University of Rochester, and her M.P.A from Harvard University. She has conducted research and published on issues that include biological and nuclear weapons control, foreign aid, health in developing countries, poverty and public assistance, and the Arab-Israeli peace process.

ELIZABETH KITCHENS, Ph.D., is a Research Associate for IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats. Prior to joining the Forum, Elizabeth was a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow at The National Academies. In December 2003, she was awarded a Ph.D. in molecular and cellular biology from the University of California, Berkeley, where she studied the developmental process of T-cells. She received a B.S. from the University of California, San Diego, in biochemistry and cell biology. Elizabeth recently joined the staff at IOM in September 2004.

KATHERINE A. OBERHOLTZER is Research Assistant for IOM's Board on Global Health. She recently played a key role in the development and production of the BGH study, Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response. Katherine received her B.S. in integrated science and technology with a concentration in biotechnology from James Madison University in 2000. She is currently pursuing her Professional Editing Certificate at the George Washington University. Katherine has worked as the Meeting Coordinator for the Maryland AIDS Education and Training Center of the Institute of Human Virology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. Katherine joined the staff at IOM in December 2000.

LAURA SIVITZ, M.S.J., joined the staff of IOM in 2002 as the research associate in an 18-month study on prion diseases. She played a leadership role in the development, production, and dissemination of the report Advancing Prion Science: Guidance for the National Prion Research Program. In November 2003, she joined the staff of the Forum on Microbial Threats in the Board on Global Health at IOM. Previously, Ms. Sivitz had served as a technology reporter for Washington Techway magazine; as the science-writer intern for Science News; as the Washington correspondent for the York Daily Record of Pennsylvania; and as a science, legal, and business reporter for the Medill News Service of Chicago. She won a National Science Foundation fellowship in 1994 to conduct research at the University of Pennsylvania on piezoelectric ceramics for use in mammography systems. Ms. Sivitz received her B.A. in physics from Bryn Mawr College in 1996 and her M.S. in journalism from Northwestern University in 2001.

Copyright © 2005, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK22165
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