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Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

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Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition.

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Figure 23-3. TGFβ signaling pathway.

Figure 23-3TGFβ signaling pathway

Binding of ligand to the type I and type II receptors, which are serine/threonine kinases, induces formation of multimeric receptors. Type II receptors phosphorylate type I receptors in the juxtamembrane region. Activated type I receptors specifically phosphorylate receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which then dimerize with Co-Smads in the cytosol. The R-Smad/ Co-Smad complex translocates to the nucleus where it binds to regulatory sequences in combination with specific transcription factors, leading to transcription of specific target genes. [Adapted from J. Massagué, 1998, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67:753.]

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