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Cover of Molecular Cell Biology

Molecular Cell Biology, 4th edition

, , , , , and .

New York: W. H. Freeman; .
ISBN-10: 0-7167-3136-3

Excerpt

Modern biology is rooted in an understanding of the molecules within cells and of the interactions between cells that allow construction of multicellular organisms. The more we learn about the structure, function, and development of different organisms, the more we recognize that all life processes exhibit remarkable similarities. Molecular Cell Biology concentrates on the macromolecules and reactions studied by biochemists, the processes described by cell biologists, and the gene control pathways identified by molecular biologists and geneticists. In this millennium, two gathering forces will reshape molecular cell biology: genomics, the complete DNA sequence of many organisms, and proteomics, a knowledge of all the possible shapes and functions that proteins employ.

All the concepts of molecular cell biology continue to be derived from experiments, and powerful experimental tools that allow the study of living cells and organisms at higher and higher levels of resolution are being developed constantly. In this fourth edition, we address the current state of molecular cell biology and look forward to what further exploration will uncover in the twenty-first century.

Contents

  • About the Authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Supplements
  • 1. The Dynamic Cell
    • 1.1 Evolution: At the Core of Molecular Change
    • 1.2 The Molecules of Life
    • 1.3 The Architecture of Cells
    • 1.4 The Life Cycle of Cells
    • 1.5 Cells into Tissues
    • 1.6 Molecular Cell Biology: An Integrated View of Cells at Work
  • 2. Chemical Foundations
    • 2.1 Covalent Bonds
    • 2.2 Noncovalent Bonds
    • 2.3 Chemical Equilibrium
    • 2.4 Biochemical Energetics
    • 2.5 Activation Energy and Reaction Rate
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 3. Protein Structure and Function
    • 3.1 Hierarchical Structure of Proteins
    • 3.2 Folding, Modification, and Degradation of Proteins
    • 3.3 Functional Design of Proteins
    • 3.4 Membrane Proteins
    • 3.5 Purifying, Detecting, and Characterizing Proteins
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 4. Nucleic Acids, the Genetic Code, and the Synthesis of Macromolecules
    • 4.1 Structure of Nucleic Acids
    • 4.2 Synthesis of Biopolymers: Rules of Macromolecular Carpentry
    • 4.3 Nucleic Acid Synthesis
    • 4.4 The Three Roles of RNA in Protein Synthesis
    • 4.5 Stepwise Formation of Proteins on Ribosomes
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 5. Biomembranes and the Subcellular Organization of Eukaryotic Cells
    • 5.1 Microscopy and Cell Architecture
    • 5.2 Purification of Cells and Their Parts
    • 5.3 Biomembranes: Structural Organization and Basic Functions
    • 5.4 Organelles of the Eukaryotic Cell
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 6. Manipulating Cells and Viruses in Culture
    • 6.1 Growth of Microorganisms in Culture
    • 6.2 Growth of Animal Cells in Culture
    • 6.3 Viruses: Structure, Function, and Uses
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 7. Recombinant DNA and Genomics
    • 7.1 DNA Cloning with Plasmid Vectors
    • 7.2 Constructing DNA Libraries with λ Phage and Other Cloning Vectors
    • 7.3 Identifying, Analyzing, and Sequencing Cloned DNA
    • 7.4 Bioinformatics
    • 7.5 Analyzing Specific Nucleic Acids in Complex Mixtures
    • 7.6 Producing High Levels of Proteins from Cloned cDNAs
    • 7.7 Polymerase Chain Reaction: An Alternative to Cloning
    • 7.8 DNA Microarrays: Analyzing Genome-Wide Expression
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 8. Genetic Analysis in Cell Biology
    • 8.1 Mutations: Types and Causes
    • 8.2 Isolation and Analysis of Mutants
    • 8.3 Genetic Mapping of Mutations
    • 8.4 Molecular Cloning of Genes Defined by Mutations
    • 8.5 Gene Replacement and Transgenic Animals
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 9. Molecular Structure of Genes and Chromosomes
    • 9.1 Molecular Definition of a Gene
    • 9.2 Chromosomal Organization of Genes and Noncoding DNA
    • 9.3 Mobile DNA
    • 9.4 Functional Rearrangements in Chromosomal DNA
    • 9.5 Organizing Cellular DNA into Chromosomes
    • 9.6 Morphology and Functional Elements of Eukaryotic Chromosomes
    • 9.7 Organelle DNAs
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 10. Regulation of Transcription Initiation
    • 10.1 Bacterial Gene Control: The Jacob-Monod Model
    • 10.2 Bacterial Transcription Initiation
    • 10.3 Eukaryotic Gene Control: Purposes and General Principles
    • 10.4 Regulatory Sequences in Eukaryotic Protein-Coding Genes
    • 10.5 Eukaryotic Transcription Activators and Repressors
    • 10.6 RNA Polymerase II Transcription-Initiation Complex
    • 10.7 Molecular Mechanisms of Eukaryotic Transcriptional Control
    • 10.8 Other Transcription Systems
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 11. RNA Processing, Nuclear Transport, and Post-Transcriptional Control
    • 11.1 Transcription Termination
    • 11.2 Processing of Eukaryotic mRNA
    • 11.3 Regulation of mRNA Processing
    • 11.4 Signal-Mediated Transport through Nuclear Pore Complexes
    • 11.5 Other Mechanisms of Post-Transcriptional Control
    • 11.6 Processing of rRNA and tRNA
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 12. DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
    • 12.1 General Features of Chromosomal Replication
    • 12.2 The DNA Replication Machinery
    • 12.3 The Role of Topoisomerases in DNA Replication
    • 12.4 DNA Damage and Repair and Their Role in Carcinogenesis
    • 12.5 Recombination between Homologous DNA Sites
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 13. Regulation of the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle
    • 13.1 Overview of the Cell Cycle and Its Control
    • 13.2 Biochemical Studies with Oocytes, Eggs, and Early Embryos
    • 13.3 Genetic Studies with S. pombe
    • 13.4 Molecular Mechanisms for Regulating Mitotic Events
    • 13.5 Genetic Studies with S. cerevisiae
    • 13.6 Cell-Cycle Control in Mammalian Cells
    • 13.7 Checkpoints in Cell-Cycle Regulation
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 14. Gene Control in Development
    • 14.1 Cell-Type Specification and Mating-Type Conversion in Yeast
    • 14.2 Cell-Type Specification in Animals
    • 14.3 Anteroposterior Specification during Embryogenesis
    • 14.4 Specification of Floral-Organ Identity in Arabidopsis
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 15. Transport across Cell Membranes
    • 15.1 Diffusion of Small Molecules across Phospholipid Bilayers
    • 15.2 Overview of Membrane Transport Proteins
    • 15.3 Uniporter-Catalyzed Transport
    • 15.4 Intracellular Ion Environment and Membrane Electric Potential
    • 15.5 Active Transport by ATP-Powered Pumps
    • 15.6 Cotransport by Symporters and Antiporters
    • 15.7 Transport across Epithelia
    • 15.8 Osmosis, Water Channels, and the Regulation of Cell Volume
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 16. Cellular Energetics: Glycolysis, Aerobic Oxidation, and Photosynthesis
    • 16.1 Oxidation of Glucose and Fatty Acids to CO2
    • 16.2 Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • 16.3 Photosynthetic Stages and Light-Absorbing Pigments
    • 16.4 Molecular Analysis of Photosystems
    • 16.5 CO2 Metabolism during Photosynthesis
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 17. Protein Sorting: Organelle Biogenesis and Protein Secretion
    • 17.1 Synthesis and Targeting of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Proteins
    • 17.2 Synthesis and Targeting of Peroxisomal Proteins
    • 17.3 Overview of the Secretory Pathway
    • 17.4 Translocation of Secretory Proteins across the ER Membrane
    • 17.5 Insertion of Membrane Proteins into the ER Membrane
    • 17.6 Post-Translational Modifications and Quality Control in the Rough ER
    • 17.7 Protein Glycosylation in the ER and Golgi Complex
    • 17.8 Golgi and Post-Golgi Protein Sorting and Proteolytic Processing
    • 17.9 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and the Sorting of Internalized Proteins
    • 17.10 Molecular Mechanisms of Vesicular Traffic
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 18. Cell Motility and Shape I: Microfilaments
    • 18.1 The Actin Cytoskeleton
    • 18.2 The Dynamics of Actin Assembly
    • 18.3 Myosin: The Actin Motor Protein
    • 18.4 Muscle: A Specialized Contractile Machine
    • 18.5 Actin and Myosin in Nonmuscle Cells
    • 18.6 Cell Locomotion
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 19. Cell Motility and Shape II: Microtubules and Intermediate Filaments
    • 19.1 Microtubule Structures
    • 19.2 Microtubule Dynamics and Associated Proteins
    • 19.3 Kinesin, Dynein, and Intracellular Transport
    • 19.4 Cilia and Flagella: Structure and Movement
    • 19.5 Microtubule Dynamics and Motor Proteins during Mitosis
    • 19.6 Intermediate Filaments
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 20. Cell-to-Cell Signaling: Hormones and Receptors
    • 20.1 Overview of Extracellular Signaling
    • 20.2 Identification and Purification of Cell-Surface Receptors
    • 20.3 G Protein –Coupled Receptors and Their Effectors
    • 20.4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and Ras
    • 20.5 MAP Kinase Pathways
    • 20.6 Second Messengers
    • 20.7 Interaction and Regulation of Signaling Pathways
    • 20.8 From Plasma Membrane to Nucleus
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 21. Nerve Cells
    • 21.1 Overview of Neuron Structure and Function
    • 21.2 The Action Potential and Conduction of Electric Impulses
    • 21.3 Molecular Properties of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
    • 21.4 Neurotransmitters, Synapses, and Impulse Transmission
    • 21.5 Neurotransmitter Receptors
    • 21.6 Sensory Transduction
    • 21.7 Learning and Memory
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 22. Integrating Cells into Tissues
    • 22.1 Cell-Cell Adhesion and Communication
    • 22.2 Cell-Matrix Adhesion
    • 22.3 Collagen: The Fibrous Proteins of the Matrix
    • 22.4 Noncollagen Components of the Extracellular Matrix
    • 22.5 The Dynamic Plant Cell Wall
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 23. Cell Interactions in Development
    • 23.1 Dorsoventral Patterning by TGFβ-Superfamily Proteins
    • 23.2 Tissue Patterning by Hedgehog and Wingless
    • 23.3 Molecular Mechanisms of Responses to Morphogens
    • 23.4 Reciprocal and Lateral Inductive Interactions
    • 23.5 Overview of Neuronal Outgrowth
    • 23.6 Directional Control of Neuronal Outgrowth
    • 23.7 Formation of Topographic Maps and Synapses
    • 23.8 Cell Death and Its Regulation
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • 24. Cancer
    • 24.1 Tumor Cells and the Onset of Cancer
    • 24.2 Proto-Oncogenes and Tumor-Suppressor Genes
    • 24.3 Oncogenic Mutations Affecting Cell Proliferation
    • 24.4 Mutations Causing Loss of Cell-Cycle Control
    • 24.5 Mutations Affecting Genome Stability
    • PERSPECTIVES for the Future
    • PERSPECTIVES in the Literature
    • Testing Yourself on the Concepts
    • MCAT/GRE-Style Questions
    • References
  • Glossary

By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.

Copyright © 2000, W. H. Freeman and Company.
Bookshelf ID: NBK21475

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