Table 111Total enrollment of minorities in schools for selected health occupations, by race and Hispanic origin: United States, selected academic years 1980–1981 through 2004–2005
[Data are based on reporting by health professions associations]
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Occupation, race, and Hispanic origin 1980–1981 1990–1991 2004–2005 1980–1981 1990–1991 2004–2005
DentistryNumber of studentsPercent distribution of students
All races22,84215,95118,315100.0100.0100.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White119,94711,18512,11287.370.166.1
 Black or African American1,0229409984.55.95.4
Hispanic or Latino27801,2541,0593.47.95.8
American Indian or Alaska Native5353930.20.30.5
Asian or Pacific Islander1,0402,5194,0534.615.822.1
Medicine (Allopathic)3
All races165,18965,16366,821100.0100.0100.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White55,43447,89342,30285.073.563.3
 Black or African American3,7084,2414,9475.76.57.4
Hispanic or Latino2,7613,5384,5094.25.46.7
 Mexican9511,1091,5901.51.72.4
 Puerto Rican1,0121,2531,1431.61.91.7
 Other Hispanic or Latino46831,1761,7761.01.82.7
American Indian or Alaska Native52212775780.30.40.9
Asian or Pacific Islander1,9248,43613,8113.012.920.7
Medicine (Osteopathic)
All races14,9406,79212,525100.0100.0100.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White4,6885,6809,20994.983.673.5
 Black or African American942174691.93.23.7
Hispanic or Latino522774721.14.13.8
American Indian or Alaska Native1936900.40.50.7
Asian or Pacific Islander875821,9611.88.615.7
Nursing, registered6
All races230,966221,170- - -- - -100.0- - -
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White1- - -183,102- - -- - -82.8- - -
 Black or African American- - -23,094- - -- - -10.4- - -
Hispanic or Latino- - -6,580- - -- - -3.0- - -
American Indian or Alaska Native- - -1,803- - -- - -0.8- - -
Asian or Pacific Islander- - -6,591- - -- - -3.0- - -
Optometry
All races14,6414,7605,377100.0100.0100.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White4,2213,7063,39991.077.963.2
 Black or African American571341891.22.83.5
Hispanic or Latino1082962732.36.25.1
American Indian or Alaska Native1221290.30.40.5
Asian or Pacific Islander2436031,2665.212.723.5
Pharmacy7
All races121,62829,79743,908100.0100.0100.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White19,15321,71726,22688.680.559.7
 Black or African American9452,1033,7844.45.78.6
Hispanic or Latino4591,1181,6912.14.23.9
American Indian or Alaska Native36852100.20.30.5
Asian or Pacific Islander1,0353,3469,1034.89.420.7
Occupation, race, and Hispanic origin 1980–1981 1990–1991 2004–2005 1980–1981 1990–1991 2004–2005
PodiatryNumber of studentsPercent distribution of students
All races12,5772,2211,584100.0100.0100.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White2,3531,67195791.375.260.4
 Black or African American1102352284.310.614.4
Hispanic or Latino391491221.56.77.7
American Indian or Alaska Native6790.20.30.6
Asian or Pacific Islander691591762.77.211.1

- - - Data not available.

1

Includes other and unknown races; may also include foreign students.

2

Includes students from the University of Puerto Rico.

3

Starting with 2002–2003 data, allopathic medical students had the option of reporting both their race and ethnicity alone or in combination with some other race or ethnicity, allowing multiple responses. Total enrollments only include unduplicated number of enrollments. Therefore, the data for 2003–2004 and subsequent years are not directly comparable to earlier years.

4

Includes Cuban students.

5

Starting with 1997–1998 data, includes American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian; prior to 1997, included only American Indian and Alaska Native.

6

In 1990, the National League for Nursing developed a new system for analyzing minority data. An evaluation of the former system revealed considerable underreporting. Therefore, race-specific data before 1990 are not comparable and not shown. Additional changes in the minority data question were introduced in academic years 2000–2001 and 2001–2002, resulting in a discontinuity in the trend.

7

Prior to 1992–1993, pharmacy total enrollment data were only for students in the final three years of pharmacy education. Starting with 1992–1993 data, pharmacy data are for all students.

NOTES: Total enrollment data are collected at the beginning of the academic year. Data for chiropractic students, occupational and physical therapy students, and public health students were not available for this table. Some numbers have been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCES: Bureau of Health Professions: Minorities and Women in the Health Fields, 1990 Edition; Association of American Medical Colleges: AAMC Data Book: Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals by the Numbers. Washington, DC. 2005, 2006 (Copyrights 2006, 2007: Used with the permission of the AAMC); American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine: 2006 Annual Report on Osteopathic Medical Education. Chevy Chase, MD. 2007. Available from: http://www​.aacom.org​/data/annualreport/index.html (Copyright 2007: Used with the permission of the AACOM); American Dental Education Association: Dental Education At-A-Glance 2005, available from: www​.adea.org/adea.html and unpublished data; Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry: Annual Student Data Report Academic Year 2002–2004, 2005–2006, and unpublished data (Copyright 2005, 2006: Used with the permission of the ASCO); American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy: Profile of Pharmacy Students, Fall 2005, available from: http://www​.aacp.org; American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine: unpublished data; National League for Nursing: unpublished data.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2007
Health, United States, 2007: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2007 Nov.

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