Table 12Mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, by detailed race, Hispanic origin, age, and education of mother: United States, selected years, 1989–2004
[Data are based on birth certificates]
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42 reporting areas
Characteristic of mother 1989 1990 1995 2000 2002 2003 1 2003 2 2004 1
Race of motherPercent of mothers who smoked3,4
All races19.518.413.912.211.410.710.410.2
White20.419.415.013.212.311.611.111.0
Black or African American17.115.910.69.18.78.18.38.2
American Indian or Alaska Native23.022.420.920.019.718.118.218.2
Asian or Pacific Islander55.75.53.42.82.52.22.22.2
 Chinese2.72.00.80.60.5- - -- - -- - -
 Japanese8.28.05.24.24.0- - -- - -- - -
 Filipino5.15.33.43.22.9- - -- - -- - -
 Hawaiian19.321.015.914.413.7- - -- - -- - -
 Other Asian or Pacific Islander4.23.82.72.32.1- - -- - -- - -
Hispanic origin and race of mother6
Hispanic or Latino8.06.74.33.53.02.72.72.6
 Mexican6.35.33.12.42.22.02.12.0
 Puerto Rican14.513.610.410.39.07.98.58.5
 Cuban6.96.44.13.32.82.45.86.4
 Central and South American3.63.01.81.51.31.11.11.2
 Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino12.110.88.27.46.56.66.96.4
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White21.721.017.115.615.014.313.813.8
 Black or African American17.215.910.69.28.88.38.48.4
Age of mother3
Under 15 years7.77.57.37.15.85.35.14.1
15–19 years22.220.816.817.816.715.414.914.2
 15–17 years19.017.614.615.013.411.911.510.5
 18–19 years23.922.518.119.218.217.116.516.0
20–24 years23.522.117.116.816.716.115.515.5
25–29 years19.018.012.810.59.99.49.09.2
30–34 years15.715.311.48.07.16.56.26.1
35–39 years13.613.312.09.17.86.86.76.3
40–54 years713.212.310.19.58.48.07.87.2
Education of mother8Percent of mothers 20 years of age and over who smoked3,4
0–8 years18.917.511.07.96.86.25.75.5
9–11 years42.240.532.028.226.825.524.223.7
12 years22.821.918.316.616.015.214.914.9
13–15 years13.712.810.69.18.88.58.38.4
16 years or more5.04.52.72.01.71.61.51.5

- - - Data not available.

1

Reporting areas that have adopted the 2003 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth are excluded because maternal tobacco use and education data based on the 2003 revision are not comparable with data based on the 1989 and earlier revisions of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. In 2003, Pennsylvania and Washington adopted the 2003 revision; in 2004 Florida, Idaho, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New York State (excluding New York City), South Carolina, and Tennessee adopted the 2003 revision. In addition, California did not require reporting of tobacco use during pregnancy. See Appendix II, Cigarette smoking.

2

Data for 2003 are limited to the 42 reporting areas using the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth in 2004 and are provided for comparison with 2004.

3

Data from states that did not require the reporting of mother's tobacco use during pregnancy on the birth certificate are not included. Reporting area for tobacco use increased from 43 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 1989 to 49 states and DC in 2000–2002. See Appendix II, Cigarette smoking.

4

Excludes live births for whom smoking status of mother is unknown.

5

Maternal tobacco use during pregnancy was not reported on the birth certificates of California, which in 2004 accounted for 30% of the births to Asian or Pacific Islander mothers. Starting with 2003 data, estimates are not shown for Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups during the transition from single race to multiple race reporting. See Appendix II, Race, Birth File.

6

Data from states that did not require the reporting of Hispanic origin of mother on the birth certificate are not included. Reporting of Hispanic origin increased from 47 states in 1989 to include all 50 states and DC by 1993. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin.

7

Prior to 1997, data are for live births to mothers 45–49 years of age.

8

Data from states that did not require the reporting of mother's education on the birth certificate are not included. See Appendix II, Education.

NOTES: Data are based on the 1989 revision of the U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth. The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2003 data, some states reported multiple-race data. The multiple-race data for these states were bridged to the single race categories of the 1977 Office of Management and Budget standards for comparability with other states. See Appendix II, Race. Interpretation of trend data should take into consideration changes in reporting areas and immigration. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Birth File.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2006
Health, United States, 2006: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2006 Nov.

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