Table 87Use of Pap smears for women 18 years of age and over, according to selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1987–2003
[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]
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Characteristic 1987 1993 1994 1998 1999 2000 2003
Percent of women having a Pap smear within the past 3 years1
18 years and over, age adjusted2,374.177.776.879.380.881.379.2
18 years and over, crude274.477.776.879.180.881.279.0
18–44 years83.384.682.884.486.884.983.9
 18–24 years74.878.876.673.676.873.575.1
 25–44 years86.386.384.687.689.988.586.8
45–64 years70.577.277.481.481.784.681.3
 45–54 years75.782.181.983.783.886.383.6
 55–64 years65.270.671.078.078.482.077.8
65 years and over50.857.657.359.861.064.560.8
 65–74 years57.964.764.967.070.071.670.1
 75 years and over40.448.047.351.250.856.751.1
18 years and over, crude:
 White only74.177.376.278.980.681.378.7
 Black or African American only80.782.783.584.285.785.184.0
 American Indian and Alaska Native only85.478.173.574.692.276.884.8
 Asian only51.968.866.468.564.466.468.3
 Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander only- - -- - -- - -- - -***
 2 or more races- - -- - -- - -- - -86.980.081.6
Hispanic origin and race4
18 years and over, crude:
 Hispanic or Latino67.677.274.475.276.377.075.4
 Not Hispanic or Latino74.977.877.079.681.381.779.5
  White only74.777.376.579.381.081.879.3
  Black or African American only80.982.783.884.
Age, Hispanic origin, and race4
18–44 years:
 Hispanic or Latino73.980.980.676.477.078.175.9
 Not Hispanic or Latino:
  White only84.585.382.985.788.786.685.8
  Black or African American only89.
45–64 years:
 Hispanic or Latino57.775.870.178.379.577.877.9
 Not Hispanic or Latino:
  White only71.277.277.581.781.985.981.4
  Black or African American only76.280.382.284.184.685.784.7
65 years and over:
 Hispanic or Latino41.757.143.859.863.766.864.6
 Not Hispanic or Latino:
  White only51.857.158.259.760.564.260.7
  Black or African American only44.861.259.561.764.567.259.6
Age and poverty status5
18 years and over, crude:
 Below poverty64.370.368.869.873.672.070.5
 Near poor68.271.268.870.672.573.471.4
 18–44 years:
  Below poverty77.177.078.977.179.777.177.1
  Near poor80.481.978.
 45–64 years:
  Below poverty53.666.562.067.673.173.666.0
  Near poor60.464.866.269.970.476.171.4
 65 years and over:
  Below poverty33.247.444.048.251.953.752.6
  Near poor50.455.751.555.154.761.055.4
Characteristic 1987 1993 1994 1998 1999 2000 2003
Health insurance status6Percent of women having a Pap smear within the past 3 years1
18–64 years of age:
 Insured- - -84.783.886.087.287.886.4
  Private- - -84.883.686.587.588.087.0
  Medicaid- - -82.786.
 Uninsured- - -69.468.669.673.370.466.6
65 years of age and over:
 Medicare HMO- - -- - -- - -66.169.667.661.4
 Private- - -60.661.261.362.967.263.0
 Medicaid- - -47.844.949.954.857.853.9
 Medicare fee-for-service only- - -43.642.449.848.455.153.8
Age and education7
 25 years and over, crude:
  No high school diploma or GED57.161.960.965.066.169.964.9
  High school diploma or GED76.478.276.077.479.379.875.9
  Some college or more84.084.485.286.987.888.086.2
  25–44 years of age:
   No high school diploma or GED75.173.673.676.879.079.671.7
   High school diploma or GED85.685.482.483.987.686.284.3
   Some college or more90.189.889.191.593.091.490.8
  45–64 years of age:
   No high school diploma or GED58.065.666.169.271.675.771.4
   High school diploma or GED72.377.675.981.079.881.877.6
   Some college or more80.183.084.785.585.789.186.2
  65 years of age and over:
   No high school diploma or GED44.050.747.752.451.856.652.5
   High school diploma or GED55.461.661.260.763.766.961.2
   Some college or more59.462.366.567.968.869.867.8

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Data not shown have a relative standard error greater than 30 percent.

- - - Data not available.


Questions concerning use of Pap smears differed slightly on the National Health Interview Survey across the years for which data are shown. See Appendix II, Pap smear.


Includes all other races not shown separately, unknown poverty status in 1987, unknown health insurance status, and unknown education.


Estimates are age adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using five age groups: 18–44 years, 45–54 years, 55–64 years, 65–74 years, and 75 years and over. Age-adjusted estimates in this table may differ from other age-adjusted estimates based on the same data and presented elsewhere if different age groups are used in the adjustment procedure. See Appendix II, Age adjustment.


The race groups, white, black, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and 2 or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with data year 1999 race-specific estimates are tabulated according to 1997 Standards for Federal data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The five single race categories plus multiple race categories shown in the table conform to 1997 Standards. Starting with data year 1999, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group; the category "2 or more races" includes persons who reported more than one racial group. Prior to data year 1999, data were tabulated according to 1977 Standards with four racial groups and the category "Asian only" included Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. See Appendix II, Race.


Poor persons are defined as below the poverty threshold. Near poor persons have incomes of 100 percent to less than 200 percent of the poverty threshold. Nonpoor persons have incomes of 200 percent or greater than the poverty threshold. Poverty status was unknown for 9 percent of women 18 years of age and over in 1987. Missing family income data were imputed for 17–20 percent of women 18 years of age and over in 1990–94 and 35–39 percent in 1998–2003. See Appendix II, Family income; Poverty level.


Health insurance categories are mutually exclusive. Persons who reported both Medicaid and private coverage are classified as having private coverage. Starting in 1997 Medicaid includes State-sponsored health plans and State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). In addition to private and Medicaid, the category "insured" also includes military plans, other government-sponsored health plans, and Medicare, not shown separately. Persons 65 years of age and over who reported Medicare HMO (health maintenance organization) and some other type of health insurance coverage are classified as having Medicare HMO. For persons 65 years of age and over the category "private" includes private and Medicare coverage. See Appendix II, Health insurance coverage.


Education categories shown are for 1998 and subsequent years. GED stands for General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma. In years prior to 1998 the following categories based on number of years of school completed were used: less than 12 years, 12 years, 13 years or more. See Appendix II, Education.

NOTES: Standard errors are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. See www​ Data starting in 1997 are not strictly comparable with data for earlier years due to the 1997 questionnaire redesign. See Appendix I, National Health Interview Survey. Starting with Health, United States, 2005, estimates for 2000 and later years use weights derived from the 2000 census. Estimates for 2000–2002 were recalculated using 2000-based weights and may differ from previous editions of Health, United States. Some data for 1993 and 1994 have been revised and differ from previous editions of Health, United States.

SOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. Data are from the following supplements: cancer control (1987), year 2000 objectives (1993–94). Starting in 1998, data are from the family core and sample adult questionnaires.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2005
Health, United States, 2005: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2005 Nov.

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