Table 16.1Hard and Soft Materials, of Different Shape and Dimension, Found to Be Carcinogenic When Implanted into Rodents

Metals
Gold
Platinum
Silver
Steel
Titanium
Metallic alloys
Vitallium (chromium, cobalt, molybdenum)
Water-insoluble polymers
Hydrocarbon polymers (synthetic)
Polyethylene (Polythene)
Polymethylmethacrylate (Lucite)
Polyvinylbenzol (Polystyrol)
Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon)
Polyester condensate of terephthalate and ethylene glycol (Dacron)
Phenol-formaldehyde condensate (Bakelite)
Halogenated hydrocarbon polymers (synthetic)
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, Igelit, Vestolit, Vinnol)
Polyvinylidene chloride (Saran)
Polyfluor(chlor)-olefine (Teflon)
Polymethylmethacrylate chloride (Pliofilm)
Copolymer of vinyl chloride and acrylonitrile (Vinyon N, Dynel)
Aminized hydrocarbon polymers (polyamides) (synthetic)
Polyhexamethylene diamine adipanide (nylon)
Poly-e-caprolactam, polyurethane (Perlon)
Hydrocarbon polymers (semisynthetic and natural)
Processed latex gum (rubber)
Processed polyglucose (cellulose) (cellophane)
Processed cellulose (linen, parchment paper)
Natural organic materials (silk, keratin, ivory)
Silicon polymers (synthetic)
Processed polydimethylsiloxanes (silicone rubber) (Silastic)
Mixture of different siloxanes (silicone gel for prostheses)

From: Chapter 16, Physical Carcinogens

Cover of Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine
Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 5th edition.
Bast RC Jr, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al., editors.
Hamilton (ON): BC Decker; 2000.
© 2000, BC Decker Inc.

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