Table 13.4A Summary of Established Hormonal Risk and Protective Factors for Ovarian Cancer

Risk factors (increased number of ovulations)
Late menopause
Protective factors (decreased number of ovulations)
Pregnancy
Oral contraceptives

From: Chapter 13, Hormones and the Etiology of Cancer

Cover of Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine
Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 5th edition.
Bast RC Jr, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al., editors.
Hamilton (ON): BC Decker; 2000.
© 2000, BC Decker Inc.

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