Table 133Health maintenance organization (HMO) coverage among persons under 65 years of age by private insurance and Medicaid, according to selected characteristics: United States, 1998-2002
[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population] Click here for spreadsheet version

Private 1 and Medicaid 2 Private 1 Medicaid 2
Characteristic 1998 2000 2001 2002 1998 2000 2001 2002 1998 2000 2001 2002
Number of persons in millions
Total under age 65 years383.
Percent of population
Total under age 65 years335.235.732.031.130.529.527.925.
Under 18 years39.439.735.435.330.128.427.
 Under 6 years41.742.237.537.229.227.726.523.512.712.211.113.9
 6–17 years38.338.534.434.430.528.727.425.
18–44 years33.434.030.329.230.629.927.826.
 18–24 years28.830.126.225.725.024.422.921.
 25–34 years34.834.231.130.531.831.428.627.
 35–44 years34.936.132.230.432.731.830.
45–64 years33.
 45–54 years34.335.332.230.332.531.430.428.
 55–64 years31.
White only33.934.630.829.530.629.727.825.
Black or African American only40.941.637.237.929.129.328.026.611.610.69.211.4
American Indian and Alaska Native only30.321.722.218.821.914.615.1*10.8*8.2*7.0*7.0*
Asian only41.640.737.536.337.536.333.732.04.0*3.2*3.64.3
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander only- - -***- - -***- - -***
2 or more races- - -40.536.034.2- - -29.627.124.2- - -10.38.910.3
Hispanic origin and race4
Hispanic or Latino34.635.732.233.326.826.325.
 Puerto Rican44.846.
 Other Hispanic or Latino35.338.931.533.228.429.926.625.
Not Hispanic or Latino35.235.732.030.731.130.028.426.
 White only34.034.530.729.
 Black or African American only40.641.737.337.829.129.428.026.511.310.59.211.4
Percent of poverty level5
Below 100 percent30.930.527.
100–149 percent26.626.626.327.018.716.917.314.
150–199 percent30.330.127.127.626.924.622.521.
200 percent or more37.838.534.332.336.935.533.531.
Geographic region
Location of residencePercent of population
Within MSA638.439.234.833.633.732.530.828.
Outside MSA622.922.320.620.618.417.216.314.

- - - Data not available.

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20–30 percent. Data not shown have an RSE of greater than 30 percent.


Persons reporting private health insurance coverage are considered to have health maintenance organization (HMO) coverage if they responded HMO or Individual Practice Association (IPA) when asked their plan type.


Persons reporting Medicaid coverage are considered to have HMO coverage if they must choose from a book or list of doctors or the doctor is assigned or if they are required to sign up with a certain primary care doctor, group of doctors, or certain clinic for all routine care.


Includes all other races not shown separately.


The race groups, white, black, American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN), Asian, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and 2 or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with data year 1999 race-specific estimates are tabulated according to 1997 Standards for Federal data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The five single race categories plus multiple race categories shown in the table conform to 1997 Standards. The 1999 and later race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group; the category “2 or more races” includes persons who reported more than one racial group. Prior to data year 1999, data were tabulated according to 1977 Standards with four racial groups and the category “Asian only” included Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. The effect of the 1997 Standard on the 1999 estimates can be seen by comparing 1999 data tabulated according to the two Standards. Estimates based on the 1977 Standards of the percent with HMO coverage among those under 65 years are: identical for the white group; 0.1 percentage points higher for the black group; 0.4 percentage points higher for the Asian and Pacific Islander group; and 0.1 percentage points higher for the AI/AN group than estimates based on the 1997 Standards. See Appendix II, Race.


Starting with Health, United States, 2004 a new methodology for imputing family income was used for data years 1997 and beyond. Missing family income data were imputed for 24 percent of persons under 65 years of age in 1997 and 28–31 percent in 1998 to 2002. Therefore, estimates by poverty for 1997–2001 differ from those in previous editions of Health, United States. See Appendix II, Family income; Poverty level.


MSA is metropolitan statistical area.

NOTES: Standard errors for selected years are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. See www‚Äč Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey. Data are from the family core questionnaires.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2004
Health, United States, 2004: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2004 Sep.

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