TABLE 7-5Probit Regressions for Employment, Africans Ages 50-75, 2001 Census

Variable Probit Regression Coefficients and Robust Standard Errors
Female Regression 1 Male Regression 2 Female Regression 3 Male Regression 4
b SE dF/dXbSE dF/dXbSE dF/dXbSE dF/dX
Years of schooling 0.064 (0.001)*** 0.010 0.032 (0.001)*** 0.0110.062 (0.001)*** 0.010 0.031 (0.001)*** 0.010
Widowed 0.030 (0.010)*** 0.005 −0.329 (0.019)*** −0.0980.030 (0.011)*** 0.005 −0.345 (0.019)*** −0.102
Divorced 0.388 (0.021)*** 0.080 −0.426 (0.031)*** −0.1200.370 (0.021)*** 0.074 −0.463 (0.031)*** −0.129
Never Married 0.203 (0.011)*** 0.036 −0.655 (0.015)*** −0.1780.181 (0.012)*** 0.032 −0.678 (0.015)*** −0.182
Age 60–0.207 (0.023)*** –0.034 –0.017 (0.022) –0.005−0.206 (0.023)*** −0.034 −0.011 (0.022) −0.004
Age 65 –0.185 (0.030)*** –0.029 –0.228 (0.027)*** –0.072−0.188 (0.030)*** −0.029 −0.228 (0.027)*** −0.072
Age-50 0.023 (0.008)*** 0.004 0.001 (0.008) 0.0000.021 (0.008)*** 0.003 0.001 (0.008) 0.000
(Age 50) squared −0.008 (0.001)*** −0.001 −0.005 (0.001)*** −0.002−0.008 (0.001)*** −0.001 −0.005 (0.001)*** −0.002
(Age 50) cubed 0.000 (0.000)*** 0.000 0.000 (0.000)*** 0.0000.000 (0.000)*** 0.000 0.000 (0.000)*** 0.000
Urban 0.265 (0.011)*** 0.045 0.038 (0.011)*** 0.0120.244 (0.011)*** 0.041 0.025 (0.011)** 0.008
Eastern Cape −0.355 (0.028)*** −0.050 −0.650 (0.026)*** −0.186−0.344 (0.028)*** −0.048 −0.647 (0.026)*** −0.182
Northern Cape −0.258 (0.050)*** −0.035 −0.080 (0.043)* −0.026−0.256 (0.050)*** −0.035 −0.079 (0.043)* −0.025
Free State −0.035 (0.029) −0.006 −0.117 (0.027)*** −0.037−0.035 (0.029) −0.005 −0.117 (0.027)*** −0.037
KwaZulu-Natal −0.204 (0.027)*** −0.031 −0.402 (0.026)*** −0.121−0.170 (0.027)*** −0.026 −0.377 (0.026)*** −0.114
Northwest −0.161 (0.028)*** −0.024 −0.144 (0.026)*** −0.046−0.158 (0.028)*** −0.023 −0.156 (0.026)*** −0.049
Gauteng 0.115 (0.026)*** 0.020 0.023 (0.024) 0.0080.104 (0.026)*** 0.017 0.012 (0.025) 0.004
Mpumulanga 0.049 (0.029)* 0.008 0.024 (0.027) 0.0080.064 (0.030)** 0.011 0.031 (0.027) 0.010
Northern Province −0.096 (0.029)*** −0.015 −0.144 (0.027)*** −0.104−0.083 (0.029)*** −0.013 −0.325 (0.027)*** −0.098
Number < 18−0.058 (0.007)*** −0.009 −0.037 (0.004)*** −0.012
Men 18-59−0.009 (0.005)* −0.002 0.003 (0.000)*** 0.000
Women 18-590.004 (0.001)*** 0.001 0.000 (0.003) 0.001
Constant −0.943 (0.031)*** 0.108 (0.029)***−0.807 (0.036)*** 0.174 (0.030)***
Sample size 172,241 118,858172,241 118,858
Pseudo R-squared 0.208 0.1560.214 0.160
Log likelihood −56986 −62038−56569 −61759

NOTES: Robust standard errors in parentheses. Significance levels: *** = 0.01, ** = 0.05, * = 0.1. Omitted categories: Married, Western Cape.

From: 7, Labor Force Withdrawal of the Elderly in South Africa

Cover of Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa
Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa: Recommendation for Furthering Research.
National Research Council (US) Committee on Population; Cohen B, Menken J, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006.
Copyright © 2006, National Academy of Sciences.

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