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Riddle DL, Blumenthal T, Meyer BJ, et al., editors. C. elegans II. 2nd edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1997.

Cover of C. elegans II

C. elegans II. 2nd edition.

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Part DList of Characterized Genes

Genes are listed in alphabetical order of gene names. Most genes in this list have been defined by the isolation of one or more mutant alleles, but an increasing number have been defined only by the cloning and characterization of the wild-type gene.

Each gene name category (e.g., dpy) is preceded by an explanation of the gene name ( d um py : shorter than wild type) and by the strain designation of the laboratory assigning gene names within that category (CB). A full listing of these strain designations is provided in Part B. In some cases, assignment of gene names within a category is made by the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center (CGC).

Each gene entry begins with the gene name and its chromosomal location (all in bold type): the name and relevant linkage group ( I , II , III , IV , V , or X ) are followed by the map coordinate of the gene on that linkage group, as determined for the 1995 Genetic Map of C. elegans. A skeleton genetic map is provided (Part C). Genes that have been mapped precisely are usually given positions to two decimal places. Less precisely mapped genes are usually given positions to one or zero decimal places. Genes with very approximate positions are indicated by L, LC, C, RC, R (left, left-center, center, right-center, right). Some genes have not been mapped beyond linkage assignment (position given as N). Finally, some genes have been defined molecularly but have not yet been assigned to any location on the physical map of the genome; the position of these is given as ?.

Genes for which no mutations have yet been identified are indicated NMK (no mutations known). For all other genes, the reference allele is given in bold type. This is usually the mutation that has been studied in most detail, and a brief description of the relevant mutant phenotype follows. Penetrance of mutant phenotypes is 100% unless otherwise noted. Most mutations have been induced with ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS); alleles induced with other mutagens are usually indicated by an appended descriptor (see abbreviations below). Additional descriptive abbreviations for the allele (e.g., ts, ird) may also be used and are explained below. Other abbreviations used are:

ES (Ease of Scoring)

This indicates (very approximately) how easy it is to recognize a particular mutant phenotype. ES3 = easy to score; ES2 = hard to score (may become easier with practice); ES1 = very hard to score except by special means (such as enzyme assay or cell lineage analysis); ES0 = impossible to score, which may be the case for particular stages, sexes, or genetic background. In general, the ES score refers to ease of scoring at the stage when the mutation is maximally expressed. ES scores have only been included where relevant and known, and omitted for genes such as let genes.

ME (Male mating Efficiency)

This is recorded, where known, by an ME score, where ME0 = no successful mating, ME1 = rare successful mating, ME2 = poor mating, ME3 = fair-to-excellent mating. Hermaphrodite mating efficiency is recorded where relevant and known by a corresponding HME score.

OA (Other Alleles)

The number of additional alleles is listed by an OA score, followed by a list of some or all of these alleles, together with brief phenotypic descriptions for alleles with properties significantly different from that of the reference allele. Most mutations result in partial or complete loss of function and are recessive. Unusual alleles may exhibit gain-of-function properties, or dominant negative effects, and therefore lead to phenotypes very different from that of the reference allele. If only one allele is known, this is often indicated by NA1 (Number of Alleles 1). Total number of alleles for each gene is based on data reported to the CGC and is therefore likely to be an underestimate in many cases.

Synonyms

Previously used gene names are included in the list, with cross reference to the current gene name. These previously used names are also included in each gene entry and prefixed by “pka” (previously known as).

References

A few key references are listed at the end of each entry, in brackets, e.g., [Herman and Hedgecock 1995]. The most recent key reference has been included wherever possible, because this can be used to trace earlier publications. A list of comprehensive references for each gene is not feasible, for reasons of space. Such listings can be obtained by means of databases such as ACeDB. A large amount of additional information in this list is based on unpublished observations communicated to the CGC or reported in the Worm Breeder's Gazette. The sources of this and further information are indicated in the reference list by the strain codes for the relevant laboratories (Part B), given in alphabetical order. It is not feasible, again for reasons of space, to acknowledge separately all of the hundreds of individual workers who have communicated information used in the compilation of this list.

Phenotypic abbreviations

aci

acetaldehyde-induced

amb

amber nonsense (UAG)

cs

cold-sensitive (phenotype stronger at low temperatures)

des

diethylsulfate-induced

dm

dominant

fdi

formaldehyde-induced

gf

gain-of-function

gri

gamma-ray-induced

icr

induced by ICR compounds

ird

intragenic revertant of dominant

lf

loss-of-function

mat

maternal-effect

mm

maternal expression of wild-type allele required for viability

mn

either maternal or embryonic expression of wild-type allele required for viability

mnp

paternal expression of wild-type allele required for viability

mnz

paternal expression of wild-type allele insufficient for viability

mut

mutator induced (usually transposon-associated)

nm

both maternal and embryonic expression of wild-type allele required for viability

oc

ochre nonsense (UAA)

op

opal nonsense (UGA)

pat

paternal effect

pdi

induced by 32P decay

sd

semidominant (incompletely dominant)

spo

spontaneous

tci

transposon (Tc) insertion

te

allele derived by transposon excision

ts

temperature-sensitive (phenotype stronger at higher temperature)

uvi

ultraviolet irradiation-induced

uvp

ultraviolet plus psoralen-induced

xri

X irradiation-induced

Other abbreviations

In many places, standard phenotypic abbreviations are used, such as Unc for uncoordinated and Ric for resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase. These are defined in the relevant gene category. Identified cells and neurons are given standard names (see Wood et al. 1988).

aa

amino acids

°C

degrees centigrade (15°C = 15 degrees Centigrade, etc.)

Con

constipated

Daf-c

constitutive formation of dauer larvae

Daf-d

defective in dauer larva formation

ES

ease of scoring (see above)

FITC

fluoroscein isothiocyanate

GABA

gamma amino butyric acid

HME

hermaphrodite mating efficiency (see above)

kb

kilobases

kD

kilodaltons

ME

mating efficiency (see above)

MMS

methylmethanesulfonate

Muv

multivulva

NA1

number of alleles one

NMK

no mutations known

OA

other alleles (see above)

TSP

temperature-sensitive period

UTR

untranslated region

Vul

vulvaless

wt

wild-type

Copyright © 1997, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Bookshelf ID: NBK20064
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