Table 3-3Levels of Significant Exposure to 1,4-Dioxane - Dermal

Species
(Strain)
Exposure/
Duration/
Frequency
(Route)
SystemNOAELLOAELComments
Less SeriousSeriousReference
Chemical Form
ACUTE EXPOSURE
Death
Rabbit
(NS)
once7600
ml/kg
(LD50)RTECS 2004
Systemic
Human3 minOcular2000
ppm
Fairley et al. 1934
Human15 minOcular200 B
Ppm
300 B(eye irritation)Silverman et al. 1946
Human10 minOcular1600
Ppm
(slight eye irritation)Yant et al. 1930
Human6 hrOcular50 M
Ppm
(eye irritation)Young et al. 1977
Rat
(Wistar)
OnceDermal8300 M
mg/kg
Clark et al. 1984No signs of skin
irritation
INTERMEDIATE EXPOSURE
Systemic
Gn Pig
(NS)
49-101 d
5 d/wk
2 ×/d
Hepatic143
mg/kg
(cloudy swelling and
patchy cell degeneration)
Fairley et al. 1934No signs of skin
irritation.
Renal143
mg/kg
(degeneration and
necrosis of cortical
tubules)
Dermal143
mg/kg
Rabbit
(NS)
49-101 d
5 d/wk
2 ×/d
Hepatic57
mg/kg
(patchy cell
degeneration)
Fairley et al. 1934No signs of skin
irritation.
Renal57
mg/kg
(tubular cell
degeneration)
Dermal57
mg/kg

B = both male and female; d = day(s); Gn pig = guinea pig; hr = hour(s); LD50 = lethal dose, 50% kill; LOAEL = lowest-observed-adverse-effect level; M = male; min = minute(s); NOAEL = no-observed-adverse-effect level; NS = not specified; ppm = parts per million; wk = week(s); × = time(s)

From: 3, HEALTH EFFECTS

Cover of Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane
Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dioxane.
Wilbur S, Jones D, Risher JF, et al.

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