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Al-Khatib SM, Lapointe NA, Chatterjee R, et al. Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Jun. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 119.)

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Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation [Internet].

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Appendix CList of Included Studies

  1. Abreu Filho CA, Lisboa LA, Dallan LA, et al. Effectiveness of the maze procedure using cooled-tip radiofrequency ablation in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and rheumatic mitral valve disease. Circulation. 2005;112(9 Suppl):I20–5. [PubMed: 16159816]
  2. Akpinar B, Guden M, Sagbas E, et al. Combined radiofrequency modified maze and mitral valve procedure through a port access approach: early and mid-term results. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003;24(2):223–30. [PubMed: 12895612]
  3. Alatawi F, Gurevitz O, White RD, et al. Prospective, randomized comparison of two biphasic waveforms for the efficacy and safety of transthoracic biphasic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2005;2(4):382–7. [PubMed: 15851340]
  4. Albrecht A, Kalil RA, Schuch L, et al. Randomized study of surgical isolation of the pulmonary veins for correction of permanent atrial fibrillation associated with mitral valve disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138(2):454–9. [PubMed: 19619795]
  5. Alp NJ, Rahman S, Bell JA, et al. Randomised comparison of antero-lateral versus antero-posterior paddle positions for DC cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol. 2000;75(2-3):211–6. [PubMed: 11077136]
  6. Ambler JJ, Deakin CD. A randomized controlled trial of efficacy and ST change following use of the Welch-Allyn MRL PIC biphasic waveform versus damped sine monophasic waveform for external DC cardioversion. Resuscitation. 2006;71(2):146–51. [PubMed: 16987583]
  7. Anonymous Maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation: an AFFIRM substudy of the first antiarrhythmic drug. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(1):20–9. [PubMed: 12849654]
  8. Arentz T, Weber R, Burkle G, et al. Small or large isolation areas around the pulmonary veins for the treatment of atrial fibrillation? Results from a prospective randomized study. Circulation. 2007;115(24):3057–63. [PubMed: 17562956]
  9. Atwood JE, Myers JN, Tang XC, et al. Exercise capacity in atrial fibrillation: a substudy of the Sotalol-Amiodarone Atrial Fibrillation Efficacy Trial (SAFE-T) Am Heart J. 2007;153(4):566–72. [PubMed: 17383295]
  10. Balla I, Petrela E, Kondili A. Pharmacological conversion of recent atrial fibrillation: a randomized, placebo-controlled study of three antiarrhythmic drugs. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2011;11(7):600–6. [PubMed: 21911317]
  11. Batcher EL, Tang XC, Singh BN, et al. Thyroid function abnormalities during amiodarone therapy for persistent atrial fibrillation. Am J Med. 2007;120(10):880–5. [PubMed: 17904459]
  12. Bellandi F, Simonetti I, Leoncini M, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of propafenone and sotalol for the maintenance of sinus rhythm after conversion of recurrent symptomatic atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88(6):640–5. [PubMed: 11564387]
  13. Bertaglia E, D'Este D, Zerbo F, et al. Success of serial external electrical cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation in maintaining sinus rhythm; a randomized study. Eur Heart J. 2002;23(19):1522–8. [PubMed: 12242072]
  14. Bittner A, Monnig G, Zellerhoff S, et al. Randomized study comparing duty-cycled bipolar and unipolar radiofrequency with point-by-point ablation in pulmonary vein isolation. Heart Rhythm. 2011;8(9):1383–90. [PubMed: 21457793]
  15. Blomstrom-Lundqvist C, Johansson B, Berglin E, et al. A randomized double-blind study of epicardial left atrial cryoablation for permanent atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery: the SWEDish Multicentre Atrial Fibrillation study (SWEDMAF) Eur Heart J. 2007;28(23):2902–8. [PubMed: 17984136]
  16. Boersma LV, Castella M, van Boven W, et al. Atrial Fibrillation Catheter Ablation Versus Surgical Ablation Treatment (FAST): A 2-Center Randomized Clinical Trial. Circulation. 2012;125(1):23–30. [PubMed: 22082673]
  17. Boodhoo L, Mitchell AR, Bordoli G, et al. DC cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation: a comparison of two protocols. Int J Cardiol. 2007;114(1):16–21. [PubMed: 16644036]
  18. Boos C, Thomas MD, Jones A, et al. Higher energy monophasic DC cardioversion for persistent atrial fibrillation: is it time to start at 360 joules? Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 2003;8(2):121–6. [PubMed: 12848792]
  19. Brazdzionyte J, Babarskiene RM, Stanaitiene G. Anterior-posterior versus anterior-lateral electrode position for biphasic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Medicina (Kaunas) 2006;42(12):994–8. [PubMed: 17211107]
  20. Brignole M, Menozzi C, Gasparini M, et al. An evaluation of the strategy of maintenance of sinus rhythm by antiarrhythmic drug therapy after ablation and pacing therapy in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2002;23(11):892–900. [PubMed: 12042011]
  21. Bulava A, Hanis J, Sitek D, et al. Catheter ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized comparison between multielectrode catheter and point-by-point ablation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2010;33(9):1039–46. [PubMed: 20528997]
  22. Bush D, Martin LW, Leman R, et al. Atrial fibrillation among African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians: clinical features and outcomes from the AFFIRM trial. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98(3):330–9. [PMC free article: PMC2576117] [PubMed: 16573295]
  23. Calo L, Lamberti F, Loricchio ML, et al. Left atrial ablation versus biatrial ablation for persistent and permanent atrial fibrillation: a prospective and randomized study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(12):2504–12. [PubMed: 16781381]
  24. Capucci A, Villani GQ, Aschieri D, et al. Oral amiodarone increases the efficacy of direct-current cardioversion in restoration of sinus rhythm in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2000;21(1):66–73. [PubMed: 10610746]
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  26. Carlsson J, Miketic S, Windeler J, et al. Randomized trial of rate-control versus rhythm-control in persistent atrial fibrillation: the Strategies of Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (STAF) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41(10):1690–6. [PubMed: 12767648]
  27. Chen M, Yang B, Chen H, et al. Randomized comparison between pulmonary vein antral isolation versus complex fractionated electrogram ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011;22(9):973–81. [PubMed: 21539635]
  28. Chevalier P, Leizorovicz A, Maureira P, et al. Left atrial radiofrequency ablation during mitral valve surgery: a prospective randomized multicentre study (SAFIR) Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;102(11):769–75. [PubMed: 19944393]
  29. Chung MK, Shemanski L, Sherman DG, et al. Functional status in rate- versus rhythm-control strategies for atrial fibrillation: results of the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) Functional Status Substudy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46(10):1891–9. [PubMed: 16286177]
  30. Corrado A, Bonso A, Madalosso M, et al. Impact of systematic isolation of superior vena cava in addition to pulmonary vein antrum isolation on the outcome of paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent atrial fibrillation ablation: results from a randomized study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010;21(1):1–5. [PubMed: 19732237]
  31. Curtis AB, Gersh BJ, Corley SD, et al. Clinical factors that influence response to treatment strategies in atrial fibrillation: the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. Am Heart J. 2005;149(4):645–9. [PubMed: 15990747]
  32. de Lima GG, Kalil RA, Leiria TL, et al. Randomized study of surgery for patients with permanent atrial fibrillation as a result of mitral valve disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77(6):2089–94. discussion 2094-5. [PubMed: 15172273]
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  34. De Simone A, Turco P, De Matteis C, et al. Effect of verapamil on secondary cardioversion in patients with early atrial fibrillation recurrence after electrical cardioversion. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90(2):185–7. [PubMed: 12106857]
  35. Deisenhofer I, Estner H, Reents T, et al. Does electrogram guided substrate ablation add to the success of pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation? A prospective, randomized study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009;20(5):514–21. [PubMed: 19207759]
  36. Delle Karth G, Geppert A, Neunteufl T, et al. Amiodarone versus diltiazem for rate control in critically ill patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(6):1149–53. [PubMed: 11395591]
  37. Demircan C, Cikriklar HI, Engindeniz Z, et al. Comparison of the effectiveness of intravenous diltiazem and metoprolol in the management of rapid ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation. Emerg Med J. 2005;22(6):411–4. [PMC free article: PMC1726824] [PubMed: 15911947]
  38. Deneke T, Khargi K, Grewe PH, et al. Efficacy of an additional MAZE procedure using cooled-tip radiofrequency ablation in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and mitral valve disease. A randomized, prospective trial. Eur Heart J. 2002;23(7):558–66. [PubMed: 11922646]
  39. Di Biase L, Elayi CS, Fahmy TS, et al. Atrial fibrillation ablation strategies for paroxysmal patients: randomized comparison between different techniques. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009;2(2):113–9. [PubMed: 19808455]
  40. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Callans DJ, et al. Comparison of cool tip versus 8-mm tip catheter in achieving electrical isolation of pulmonary veins for long-term control of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized pilot study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17(10):1074–9. [PubMed: 16879626]
  41. Dixit S, Gerstenfeld EP, Ratcliffe SJ, et al. Single procedure efficacy of isolating all versus arrhythmogenic pulmonary veins on long-term control of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized study. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5(2):174–81. [PubMed: 18242535]
  42. Dixit S, Marchlinski FE, Lin D, et al. Randomized Ablation Strategies for the Treatment of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: RASTA Study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012;5(2):287–94. [PubMed: 22139886]
  43. Dorian P, Mangat I. Quality of life variables in the selection of rate versus rhythm control in patients with atrial fibrillation: observations from the Canadian Trial of Atrial Fibrillation. Card Electrophysiol Rev. 2003;7(3):276–9. [PubMed: 14739727]
  44. Dorian P, Paquette M, Newman D, et al. Quality of life improves with treatment in the Canadian Trial of Atrial Fibrillation. Am Heart J. 2002;143(6):984–90. [PubMed: 12075253]
  45. Doshi RN, Daoud EG, Fellows C, et al. Left ventricular-based cardiac stimulation post AV nodal ablation evaluation (the PAVE study) J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005;16(11):1160–5. [PubMed: 16302897]
  46. Doukas G, Samani NJ, Alexiou C, et al. Left atrial radiofrequency ablation during mitral valve surgery for continuous atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2005;294(18):2323–9. [PubMed: 16278360]
  47. Elayi CS, Verma A, Di Biase L, et al. Ablation for longstanding permanent atrial fibrillation: results from a randomized study comparing three different strategies. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5(12):1658–64. [PubMed: 19084800]
  48. Fassini G, Riva S, Chiodelli R, et al. Left mitral isthmus ablation associated with PV Isolation: long-term results of a prospective randomized study. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005;16(11):1150–6. [PubMed: 16302895]
  49. Fiala M, Chovancik J, Nevralova R, et al. Pulmonary vein isolation using segmental versus electroanatomical circumferential ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: over 3-year results of a prospective randomized study. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2008;22(1):13–21. [PubMed: 18418704]
  50. Forleo GB, Mantica M, De Luca L, et al. Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2: results from a randomized study comparing pulmonary vein isolation versus antiarrhythmic drug therapy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2009;20(1):22–8. [PubMed: 18775050]
  51. Fragakis N, Bikias A, Delithanasis I, et al. Acute beta-adrenoceptor blockade improves efficacy of ibutilide in conversion of atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular rate. Europace. 2009;11(1):70–4. [PubMed: 18987127]
  52. Gaita F, Caponi D, Scaglione M, et al. Long-term clinical results of 2 different ablation strategies in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2008;1(4):269–75. [PubMed: 19808418]
  53. Gavin AR, Singleton CB, Bowyer J, et al. Pulmonary venous isolation versus additional substrate modification as treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2012;33(1):101–7. [PubMed: 21938518]
  54. Glover BM, Walsh SJ, McCann CJ, et al. Biphasic energy selection for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. The BEST AF Trial. Heart. 2008;94(7):884–7. [PubMed: 17591649]
  55. Groenveld HF, Crijns HJ, Rienstra M, et al. Does intensity of rate control influence outcome in persistent atrial fibrillation? Data of the RACE study. Am Heart J. 2009;158(5):785–91. [PubMed: 19853699]
  56. Groenveld HF, Crijns HJ, Van den Berg MP, et al. The effect of rate control on quality of life in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation: data from the RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation II) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(17):1795–803. [PubMed: 21996393]
  57. Gronefeld GC, Lilienthal J, Kuck KH, et al. Impact of rate versus rhythm control on quality of life in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Results from a prospective randomized study. Eur Heart J. 2003;24(15):1430–6. [PubMed: 12909072]
  58. Guglin M, Chen R, Curtis AB. Sinus rhythm is associated with fewer heart failure symptoms: insights from the AFFIRM trial. Heart Rhythm. 2010;7(5):596–601. [PubMed: 20159046]
  59. Hagens VE, Ranchor AV, Van Sonderen E, et al. Effect of rate or rhythm control on quality of life in persistent atrial fibrillation. Results from the Rate Control Versus Electrical Cardioversion (RACE) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(2):241–7. [PubMed: 14736444]
  60. Hagens VE, Rienstra M, Van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. Determinants of sudden cardiac death in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation in the rate control versus electrical cardioversion (RACE) study. Am J Cardiol. 2006;98(7):929–32. [PubMed: 16996876]
  61. Hagens VE, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Kamp O, et al. Effect of rate and rhythm control on left ventricular function and cardiac dimensions in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation: results from the RAte Control versus Electrical Cardioversion for Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (RACE) study. Heart Rhythm. 2005;2(1):19–24. [PubMed: 15851259]
  62. Haissaguerre M, Sanders P, Hocini M, et al. Changes in atrial fibrillation cycle length and inducibility during catheter ablation and their relation to outcome. Circulation. 2004;109(24):3007–13. [PubMed: 15184286]
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  73. Joseph AP, Ward MR. A prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of sotalol, amiodarone, and digoxin for the reversion of new-onset atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;36(1):1–9. [PubMed: 10874228]
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