Table 81Pneumococcal vaccination among adults aged 18 and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1989–2011

Updated data when available, Excel, PDF, more data years, and standard errors: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus/contents2012.htm#081.

[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]

Characteristic19891995200020052008200920102011
Percent of adults ever receiving pneumococcal vaccination 1
18 years and over, age-adjusted 2,34.612.015.416.718.319.019.020.4
18 years and over, crude 34.411.715.116.518.519.319.621.1
Age
18–49 years2.16.55.45.86.87.57.38.8
50–64 years4.410.014.717.118.519.221.020.9
65 years and over14.134.053.156.260.060.659.762.3
 65–74 years13.131.448.249.452.554.654.656.0
 75 years and over15.737.859.163.968.768.066.070.0
High-risk group 4
Total, 18–64 years - - - - - - 18.322.624.917.418.320.0
 18–49 years - - - - - - 12.215.016.011.210.613.6
 50–64 years - - - - - - 26.030.633.928.230.830.1
65 years and over
Sex
Male13.934.652.153.456.459.257.659.5
Female14.333.653.958.462.861.761.364.5
Race 5
White only14.835.355.658.462.563.161.664.7
Black or African American only6.421.930.640.244.144.245.547.5
American Indian or Alaska Native only31.2*70.1*66.9**48.553.0
Asian only**23.440.935.045.744.847.940.3
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander only - - - - - - ******
2 or more races - - - - - - 55.664.8*35.967.965.577.1
Hispanic origin and race 5
Hispanic or Latino9.823.230.427.536.440.139.043.1
 Mexican12.9*18.832.031.339.542.841.447.1
Not Hispanic or Latino14.334.554.458.161.862.261.363.8
 White only15.035.956.860.664.564.863.566.5
 Black or African American only6.221.830.640.444.544.746.247.6
Percent of poverty level 6
Below 100%11.228.740.646.746.548.542.649.6
100%–199%15.130.751.454.559.560.657.260.3
200%–399%15.136.155.860.861.462.962.263.4
400% or more15.539.556.955.362.861.564.066.4
Hispanic origin and race and percent of poverty level 5,6
Hispanic or Latino:
 Below 100%**14.123.820.9*25.732.630.234.8
 100%–199%*11.0*15.632.326.932.941.836.949.3
 200%–399%*11.1*34.437.635.244.840.045.839.2
 400% or more**55.1*26.4*25.242.449.143.049.1
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White only:
  Below 100%13.332.547.955.660.461.051.160.3
  100%–199%16.033.556.160.566.366.361.364.6
  200%–399%15.737.157.664.164.566.364.966.9
  400% or more15.939.359.557.464.162.966.068.6
 Black or African American only:
  Below 100%*5.0*22.628.842.337.633.834.939.5
  100%–199%7.8*20.928.136.643.546.946.445.6
  200%–399%*5.9*21.735.541.644.549.351.854.2
  400% or more***32.644.656.545.850.149.1
Any basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation 7
Any basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation - - - - - - 56.661.664.965.963.967.0
 Any basic actions difficulty - - - - - - 56.861.665.166.064.267.3
 Any complex activity limitation - - - - - - 58.063.367.067.865.266.7
No disability - - - - - - 48.047.853.453.153.355.6
Geographic region
Northeast10.428.251.255.860.958.556.760.0
Midwest13.731.052.658.563.858.461.265.6
South14.935.951.357.459.861.960.963.2
West17.941.159.751.455.463.058.959.5
Location of residence
Within MSA 813.133.852.455.159.160.058.861.7
Outside MSA 817.134.855.459.863.262.963.364.6
- - -

Data not available.

*

Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error (RSE) of 20%–30%. Data not shown have an RSE greater than 30%.

1

Respondents were asked, “Have you ever had a pneumonia shot? This shot is usually given only once or twice in a person’s lifetime and is different from the flu shot. It is also called the pneumococcal vaccine.”

2

Estimates are age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using four age groups: 18–49 years, 50–64 years, 65–74 years, and 75 years and over. See Appendix II, Age adjustment.

3

Includes all other races not shown separately, unknown poverty level in 1989, and unknown disability status.

4

High-risk group membership is based on recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). The high-risk group includes persons who reported diabetes, cancer, heart, lung, liver, or kidney disease. Starting in 2009, this group also includes persons who reported asthma or cigarette smoking, to be consistent with the revised ACIP recommendation. For more information on high-risk groups, see the ACIP recommendation available from: http://www​.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5934​.pdf.

5

The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 2 or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The five single-race categories plus multiple-race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group; the category 2 or more races includes persons who reported more than one racial group. Prior to 1999, data were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards with four racial groups, and the Asian only category included Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. Starting with 2003 data, race responses of other race and unspecified multiple race were treated as missing, and then race was imputed if these were the only race responses. Almost all persons with a race response of other race were of Hispanic origin. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race.

6

Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Poverty level was unknown for 11% of persons aged 18 and over in 1989. Missing family income data were imputed for 1991 and beyond. See Appendix II, Family income; Poverty; Table VI.

7

Any basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation is defined as having one or more of the following limitations or difficulties: movement difficulty, emotional difficulty, sensory (seeing or hearing) difficulty, cognitive difficulty, self-care (activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living) limitation, social limitation, or work limitation. For more information, see Appendix II, Basic actions difficulty; Complex activity limitation. Starting with 2007 data, the hearing question, a component of the basic actions difficulty measure, was revised. Consequently, data prior to 2007 are not comparable with data for 2007 and beyond. For more information on the impact of the revised hearing question, see Appendix II, Hearing trouble.

8

MSA is metropolitan statistical area. Starting with 2006 data, MSA status is determined using 2000 census data and the 2000 standards for defining MSAs. For data prior to 2006, see Appendix II, Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) for the applicable standards.

NOTES: In 1997, CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended universal pneumonia vaccination for adults aged 65 and over. A pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was first licensed in 1977. Medicare reimbursement for the costs of the vaccine and its administration began in 1981. CDC. Prevention of pneumococcal disease: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR 1997;46(RR–08);1–24. Available from: http://www​.cdc.gov/mmwr​/preview/mmwrhtml/00047135.htm. Pneumococcal vaccination among adults aged 19–64 is recommended for those with other risk factors (medical, occupational, lifestyle, or other indications). For information on high-risk groups, see the ACIP recommendation available from: http://www​.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5934​.pdf. For more information on the adult vaccination schedule, see: http://www​.cdc.gov/vaccines​/schedules/index.html. Standard errors for selected years are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: http://www​.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: CDC/NCHS, National Health Interview Survey. Data are from the following questionnaire supplements: immunization (1981), health promotion and disease prevention (1991), and the year 2000 objectives (1993–1995). Starting in 1997, data are from the sample adult questionnaire. See Appendix I, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Respondents were asked, “Have you ever had a pneumonia shot? This shot is usually given only once or twice in a person’s lifetime and is different from the flu shot. It is also called the pneumococcal vaccine.”

Estimates are age-adjusted to the year 2000 standard population using four age groups: 18–49 years, 50–64 years, 65–74 years, and 75 years and over. See Appendix II, Age adjustment.

Includes all other races not shown separately, unknown poverty level in 1989, and unknown disability status.

High-risk group membership is based on recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). The high-risk group includes persons who reported diabetes, cancer, heart, lung, liver, or kidney disease. Starting in 2009, this group also includes persons who reported asthma or cigarette smoking, to be consistent with the revised ACIP recommendation. For more information on high-risk groups, see the ACIP recommendation available from: http://www​.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5934​.pdf.

The race groups, white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 2 or more races, include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The five single-race categories plus multiple-race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group; the category 2 or more races includes persons who reported more than one racial group. Prior to 1999, data were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards with four racial groups, and the Asian only category included Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. Starting with 2003 data, race responses of other race and unspecified multiple race were treated as missing, and then race was imputed if these were the only race responses. Almost all persons with a race response of other race were of Hispanic origin. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race.

Percent of poverty level is based on family income and family size and composition using U.S. Census Bureau poverty thresholds. Poverty level was unknown for 11% of persons aged 18 and over in 1989. Missing family income data were imputed for 1991 and beyond. See Appendix II, Family income; Poverty; Table VI.

Any basic actions difficulty or complex activity limitation is defined as having one or more of the following limitations or difficulties: movement difficulty, emotional difficulty, sensory (seeing or hearing) difficulty, cognitive difficulty, self-care (activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living) limitation, social limitation, or work limitation. For more information, see Appendix II, Basic actions difficulty; Complex activity limitation. Starting with 2007 data, the hearing question, a component of the basic actions difficulty measure, was revised. Consequently, data prior to 2007 are not comparable with data for 2007 and beyond. For more information on the impact of the revised hearing question, see Appendix II, Hearing trouble.

MSA is metropolitan statistical area. Starting with 2006 data, MSA status is determined using 2000 census data and the 2000 standards for defining MSAs. For data prior to 2006, see Appendix II, Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) for the applicable standards.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2012
Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care.
National Center for Health Statistics (US).
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2013 May.

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