Appendix DExcluded Studies List

Wrong Population

  • Aizpitarte Pegenaute E, Ag, Zugazagoitia Ciarrusta N, Margall Coscojuela MA, Asiain Erro MC. Pressure ulcers in intensive care: assessment of risk and prevention measures [Spanish] Enferm Intensiva. 2005;16(4):153–63. [PubMed: 16324543]

  • Andrews JBR. The prevention and treatment of pressure sores by use of pressure distributing mattresses. Decubitus. 1988;1(4):14–21. [PubMed: 3254240]

  • Bates-Jensen BM, Cadogan M, Osterweil D, Levy-Storms L, Jorge J, Al-Samarrai N, et al. The minimum data set pressure ulcer indicator: does it reflect differences in care processes related to pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in nursing homes? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(9):1203–12. [PubMed: 12919231]

  • Beeckman D, Schoonhoven L, Boucque H, Van Maele G, Defloor T. Pressure ulcers: e-learning to improve classification by nurses and nursing students. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(13):1697–707. [PubMed: 18592624]

  • Benati G, Delvecchio S, Cilla D, Pedone V. Impact on pressure ulcer healing of an arginine-enriched nutritional solution in patients with severe cognitive impairment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2001;7:43–7. [PubMed: 11431045]

  • Bliss MR. Preventing pressure sores in elderly patients: a comparison of seven mattress overlays. Age Ageing. 1995;24(4):297–302. [PubMed: 7484486]

  • Bours GJJW, Halfens RJG, Candel MJJM, Grol RTPM, Abu-Saad HH. A pressure ulcer audit and feedback project across multi-hospital settings in the Netherlands. Int J Qual Health Care. 2004;16(3):211–8. [PubMed: 15150152]

  • Brem H, Maggi J, Nierman D, Rolnitzky L, Bell D, Rennert R, et al. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers. Am J Surg. 2010;200(4):473–7. [PMC free article: PMC2950802] [PubMed: 20887840]

  • Brown KL, Phillips TJ. Nutrition and wound healing. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(4):432–9. [PubMed: 20620761]

  • Casimiro C, Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Usan L. Prevalence of decubitus ulcer and associated risk factors in an institutionalized Spanish elderly population. Nutrition. 2002;18(5):408–14. [PubMed: 11985946]

  • Castillo JLS, Roman VP. Study of the efficacy of using the water mattress for preventing pressure sores. Medula Espinal. 1996;2(2):104–7.

  • Celani MG, Spizzichino L, Ricci S, Zampolini M, Franceschini M. Spinal cord injury in Italy: a multicenter retrospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(5):589–96. [PubMed: 11346833]

  • Chaloner DM, Franks PJ. Validity of the Walsall Community Pressure Sore Risk Calculator. Br J Nurs. 1999;8(17):1142–4. 6. 8 passim. [PubMed: 10897696]

  • Charlier C. Prevalence, incidence and risk: a study of pressure ulcers at a rural base hospital. Primary Intention: Aust J Wound Manage. 2001;9(1):12.

  • Chernoff RS, Milton KY, Lipschitz DA. The effect of a very high-protein liquid formula on decubitus ulcers healing in long-term tube-fed institutionalized patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90:A-130.

  • Collins AS, Rodd R, McCoy A, Deitz G, Pruitt D, Garner M, et al. Stride right. Nurs Manage. 2002;33(9):33. [PubMed: 12352796]

  • Collins F. The contribution made by an armchair with integral pressure-reducing cushion in the prevention of pressure sore incidence in the elderly, acutely ill patient. J Tissue Viability. 1999;9(4):133–7. [PubMed: 10808843]

  • Cox KS, Holdredge T, Timms J. Prevention of pressure ulcers: a new approach. J S C Med Assoc. 1998;94(10):433–5. [PubMed: 9803041]

  • Dealey C. Risk assessment of pressure sores: a comparative study of Norton and Waterlow scores. Nurs Stand Spec Suppl. 1989;1(3):11–2. [PubMed: 2716916]

  • Economides NG, Skoutakis VA, Carter CA, Smith VH. Evaluation of the effectiveness of two support surfaces following myocutaneous flap surgery. Adv Wound Care. 1995;8(1):49–53. 1995. [PubMed: 7795873]

  • Forni C, Loro L, Tremosini M, Mini S, Pignotti E, Bigoni O, et al. Use of polyurethane foam inside plaster casts to prevent the onset of heel sores in the population at risk. A controlled clinical study. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(5/6):675–80. [PubMed: 21320196]

  • Frain R. Decreasing the incidence of heel pressure ulcers in long-term care by increasing awareness: results of a 1-year program. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2008;54(2):62–7. [PubMed: 18382044]

  • Frias Soriano L, Lage Vazquez MA, Maristany CP, Xandri Graupera JM, Wouters-Wesseling W, Wagenaar L. The effectiveness of oral nutritional supplementation in the healing of pressure ulcers. J Wound Care. 2004;13(8):319–22. [PubMed: 15469215]

  • Fromantin I, Falcou MC, Baffie A, Petot C, Mazerat R, Jaouen C, et al. Inception and validation of a pressure ulcer risk scale in oncology. J Wound Care. 2011;20(7):328, 30–4. [PubMed: 21841721]

  • Fuhrer MJ, Garber SL, Rintala DH, Clearman R, Hart KA. Pressure ulcers in community-resident persons with spinal cord injury: prevalence and risk factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993;74(11):1172–7. [PubMed: 8239957]

  • GI, Schoonhoven L, Mintjes JAJ, Borm GF, Hulscher MEJL, Defloor T, et al. Fewer adverse events as a result of the SAFE or SORRY? programme in hospitals and nursing homes. Part I: Primary outcome of a cluster randomised trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48(9):1040–8. [PubMed: 21419411]

  • GI, Schoonhoven L, Mintjes JAJ, Borm GF, Koopmans RTCM, van Achterberg T. The SAFE or SORRY? programme. Part II: Effect on preventive care. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48(9):1049–57. [PubMed: 21440891]

  • Garber SL, Rintala DH, Rossi CD, Hart KA, Fuhrer MJ. Reported pressure ulcer prevention and management techniques by persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(8):744–9. [PubMed: 8702366]

  • Gawron CL. Risk factors for and prevalence of pressure ulcers among hospitalized patients. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1994;21(6):232–40. [PubMed: 7704130]

  • Gray D, Palk M. A clinical evaluation of the Transfoam mattress after 4 years. Br J Nurs. 2000;9(14):939–42. [PubMed: 11261030]

  • Gunes UY. A prospective study evaluating the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH Tool) to assess stage II, stage III, and stage IV pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2009;55(5):48–52. [PubMed: 19471048]

  • Gunningberg L, Lindholm C, Carlsson M, Sjoden PO. Implementation of risk assessment and classification of pressure ulcers as quality indicators for patients with hip fractures. J Clin Nurs. 1999;8(4):396–406. [PubMed: 10624256]

  • Hampton S, Collins F. Reducing pressure ulcer incidence in a long-term setting. Br J Nurs. 2005;14(15):S6–12. [PubMed: 16144070]

  • Hampton S. Can electric beds aid pressure sore prevention in hospitals? Br J Nurs. 1998;7(17):1010–7. [PubMed: 9830895]

  • Hanson DS, Langemo D, Olson B, Hunter S, Burd C. Decreasing the prevalence of pressure ulcers using agency standards. Home Healthc Nurse. 1996;14(7):525–31. [PubMed: 8717934]

  • Henoch I, Gustafsson M. Pressure ulcers in palliative care: development of a hospice pressure ulcer risk assessment scale. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2003;9(11):474–84. [PubMed: 14676724]

  • Hon J, Lagden K, McLaren A-M, O’Sullivan D, Orr L, Houghton PE, et al. A prospective, multicenter study to validate use of the PUSH in patients with diabetic, venous, and pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2010;56(2):26–36. [PubMed: 20200443]

  • Hughes AW. Prevention of pressure sores in patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Injury. 1986;17(1):19–22. [PubMed: 3770878]

  • Jackson M, McKenney T, Drumm J, Merrick B, LeMaster T, VanGilder C. Pressure Ulcer Prevention in High-Risk Postoperative Cardiovascular Patients. Crit Care Nurse. 2011;31(4):44–53. [PubMed: 21807683]

  • Jiricka MK, Ryan P, Carvalho MA, Bukvich J. Pressure ulcer risk factors in an ICU population. Am J Crit Care. 1995;4(5):361–7. [PubMed: 7489039]

  • Klingel R, Mumme C, Fassbender T, Himmelsbach F, Altes U, Lotz J, et al. Rheopheresis in patients with ischemic diabetic foot syndrome: results of an open label prospective pilot trial. Ther Apher Dial. 2003;7(4):444–55. [PubMed: 12887730]

  • Kloth LC, Berman JE, Dumit-Minkel S, Sutton CH, Papanek PE, Wurzel J. Effects of a normothermic dressing on pressure ulcer healing. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2000;13(2):69–74. [PubMed: 11074989]

  • Kordestani S, Shahrezaee M, Tahmasebi MN, Hajimahmodi H, Ghasemali DH, Abyaneh MS. A randomised controlled trial on the effectiveness of an advanced wound dressing used in Iran. J Wound Care. 2008;17(7):323–7. [PubMed: 18705234]

  • Kramer JD, Kearney M. Patient, wound, and treatment characteristics associated with healing in pressure ulcers. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2000;13(1):17–24. [PubMed: 11061706]

  • Kurita M, Ichioka S, Oshima Y, Harii K. Orthopaedic POSSUM scoring system: an assessment of the risk of debridement in patients with pressure sores. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2006;40(4):214–8. [PubMed: 16911994]

  • LaMantia JG, Hirschwald JF, Goodman CL, Wooden VM, Delisser O, Staas WE Jr. A program design to reduce chronic readmissions for pressure sores. Rehabil Nurs. 1987;12(2):22–5. 16. [PubMed: 3643616]

  • Land L, Evans D, Geary A, Taylor C. A clinical evaluation of an alternating-pressure mattress replacement system in hospital and residential care settings. J Tissue Viability. 2000;10(1):6–11. [PubMed: 10839090]

  • Leblebici B, Turhan N, Adam M, Akman MN. Clinical and epidemiologic evaluation of pressure ulcers in patients at a university hospital in Turkey. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007;34(4):407–11. [PubMed: 17667087]

  • LeVasseur SA, Helme RD. A double-blind clinical trial to compare the efficacy of an active based cream F14001 against a placebo non-active based cream for the treatment of pressure ulcers in a population of elderly subjects. J Adv Nurs. 1991;16(8):952–6.1. [PubMed: 1779084]

  • Maugham L, Cox R, Amsters D, Battistutta D. Reducing inpatient hospital usage for management of pressure sores after spinal cord lesions. Int J Rehabil Res. 2004;27(4):311–5. [PubMed: 15572996]

  • Maume S, Van De Looverbosch D, Heyman H, Romanelli M, Ciangherotti A, Charpin S. A study to compare a new self-adherent soft silicone dressing with a self-adherent polymer dressing in stage II pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2003;49(9):44–51. [PubMed: 14581709]

  • Mertens EI, Halfens RJG, Dietz E, Scheufele R, Dassen T. Pressure ulcer risk screening in hospitals and nursing homes with a general nursing assessment tool: evaluation of the care dependency scale. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008;14(6):1018–25.1. [PubMed: 18284515]

  • Mizuno Y. [Prevention and care of decubitus ulcer. Bed sores of aged, bedridden patients and regional nursing activities - an approach in prevention of decubitus ulcer]. Kango Gijutsu. 1977;23(8):78–84. [PubMed: 586331]

  • National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Support Surface Standards Initiative: Terms and Definitions Related to Support Surfaces. 2007.

  • Neander KD, Birkenfeld R. Alternating-pressure mattresses for the prevention of decubitus ulcers: a study of healthy subjects and patients. Intensive Care Nurs. 1990;6(2):67–73. [PubMed: 2380539]

  • Norris JR, Reynolds RE. The effect of oral zinc sulfate therapy on decubitus ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1971;19:793–7.

  • Peck A, Cohen CE, Mulvihill MN. Long-term enteral feeding of aged demented nursing home patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990;38(11):1195–8. [PubMed: 2123217]

  • Rich SE, Shardell M, Hawkes WG, Margolis DJ, Amr S, Miller R, et al. Pressure-redistributing support surface use and pressure ulcer incidence in elderly hip fracture patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(6):1052–9.2. [PMC free article: PMC3601674] [PubMed: 21649630]

  • Rintala DH, Garber SL, Friedman JD, Holmes SA. Preventing recurrent pressure ulcers in veterans with spinal cord injury: impact of a structured education and follow-up intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(8):1429–41. [PubMed: 18674978]

  • Russell L, Reynolds TM, Carr J, Evans A, Holmes M. Randomised controlled trial of two pressure-relieving systems. J Wound Care. 2000;9(2):52–5. [PubMed: 11933280]

  • Russell L, Reynolds TM, Towns A, Worth W, Greenman A, Turner R. Randomized comparison trial of the RIK and the Nimbus 3 mattresses. Br J Nurs. 2003;12(4):254. [PubMed: 12671572]

  • Sanada H, Iizaka S, Matsui Y, Furue M, Tachibana T, Nakayama T, et al. Clinical wound assessment using DESIGN- R total score can predict pressure ulcer healing: Pooled analysis from two multicenter cohort studies. Wound Repair Regen. 2011;19(5):559–67. [PubMed: 22092794]

  • Spencer SA. Pressure relieving interventions for preventing and treating diabetic foot ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1) [PubMed: 10908550]

  • Srisupan V, Senaratana W, Picheansatian W, Chittreecheur J, Watanakool M, Chaisri P, et al. Reduction of the incidence of pressure sores by an education program on nursing care. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88 Suppl 10:S166–70. [PubMed: 16850664]

  • Stotts NA, Rodeheaver GT, Thomas DR, Frantz RA, Bartolucci AA, Sussman C, et al. An instrument to measure healing in pressure ulcers: development and validation of the pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH). J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(12):M795–9. [PubMed: 11723157]

  • Suriadi, Sanada H, Sugama J, Thigpen B, Kitagawa A, Kinosita S, et al. A new instrument for predicting pressure ulcer risk in an intensive care unit. J Tissue Viability. 2006;16(3):21–6. [PubMed: 16921993]

  • Suriadi, Sanada H, Sugama J, Thigpen B, Subuh M. Development of a new risk assessment scale for predicting pressure ulcers in an intensive care unit. Nurs Crit Care. 2008;13(1):34–43. [PubMed: 18226053]

  • Tannen A, Balzer K, Kottner J, Dassen T, Halfens R, Mertens E. Diagnostic accuracy of two pressure ulcer risk scales and a generic nursing assessment tool. A psychometric comparison. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(11-12):1510–8. [PubMed: 20579196]

  • Taylor TV, Rimmer S, Day B, Butcher J, Dymock IW. Ascorbic acid supplementation in the treatment of pressure-sores. Lancet. 1974;2(7880):544–6. [PubMed: 4140267]

  • ter Riet G, Kessels AG, Knipschild PG. Randomized clinical trial of ascorbic acid in the treatment of pressure ulcers. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48(12):1453–60. [PubMed: 8543959]

  • Timmes JJ, Harper PJ, Rocko JM. Treating and preventing decubitus ulcers with a new flotation unit. Am Fam Physician. 1974;10(5):150–2. [PubMed: 4424683]

  • Van Rijswijk L. Pressure sores and pressure-decreasing mattresses: controlled clinical trial. The Lancet. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1994;40(6):12.

  • Vanderwee K, Grypdonck M, Defloor T. Non-blanchable erythema as an indicator for the need for pressure ulcer prevention: a randomized-controlled trial. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(2):325–35. [PubMed: 17239068]

  • Veitenhansl M, Hierl FX, Landgraf R. Pressure reduction through various premanufactured shoe models with insoles in diabetic foot syndrome to prevent ulceration: a prospective randomised study. Diabetologia. 2003;46(Suppl 2):6.

  • Verdu J. Can a decision tree help nurses to grade and treat pressure ulcers? J Wound Care. 2003;12(2):45–50. [PubMed: 12655966]

  • Wardman C. Norton v. Waterlow. Nurs Times. 1991;87(13):74, 6, 8. [PubMed: 2008374]

  • Yapucu Gunes U, Eser I. Effectiveness of a honey dressing for healing pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007;34(2):184–90. [PubMed: 17413836]

Wrong Intervention

  • Anthony D, Barnes J, Unsworth J. An evaluation of current risk assessment scales for decubitus ulcer in general inpatients and wheelchair users. Clin Rehabil. 1998;12(2):136–42. [PubMed: 9619655]

  • Bates-Jensen BM, Alessi CA, Al-Samarrai NR, Schnelle JF. The effects of an exercise and incontinence intervention on skin health outcomes in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(3):348–55. [PubMed: 12588578]

  • Baumgarten M, Margolis D, Orwig D, Hawkes W, Rich S, Langenberg P, et al. Use of pressure-redistributing support surfaces among elderly hip fracture patients across the continuum of care: adherence to pressure ulcer prevention guidelines. Gerontologist. 2010;50(2):253–62. [PMC free article: PMC2838408] [PubMed: 19587108]

  • Beeckman D, Defloor T, Demarré L, Van Hecke A, Vanderwee K. Pressure ulcers: Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP). Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47(11):1432–41. [PubMed: 20466370]

  • Beeckman D, Vanderwee K, Demarre L, Paquay L, Van Hecke A, Defloor T. Pressure ulcer prevention: development and psychometric validation of a knowledge assessment instrument. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47(4):399–410. [PubMed: 19781701]

  • Bennett RG, Baran PJ, DeVone LV, Bacetti H, Kristo B, Tayback M, et al. Low airloss hydrotherapy versus standard care for incontinent hospitalized patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(5):569–76. [PubMed: 9588369]

  • Campbell KE, Woodbury MG, Houghton PE. Heel pressure ulcers in orthopedic patients: a prospective study of incidence and risk factors in an acute care hospital. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2010;56(2):44–54. [PubMed: 20200445]

  • Cereda E, Bertoli S, Vanotti A, Battezzati A. Estimated height from knee-height in Caucasian elderly: implications on nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(1):16–22. [PubMed: 20082049]

  • Claudia G, Diane M, Daphney S, Daniele D. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in a university hospital centre: a correlational study examining nurses’ knowledge and best practice. Int J Nurs Pract. 2010;16(2):183–7. [PubMed: 20487064]

  • Curry K, Casady L. The relationship between extended periods of immobility and decubitus ulcer formation in the acutely spinal cord-injured individual. J Neurosci Nurs. 1992;24(4):185–9. [PubMed: 1517663]

  • Danchaivijitr S, Suthisanon L, Jitreecheue L, Tantiwatanapaibool Y. Effects of education on the prevention of pressure sores. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78(Suppl 1):S1–6. [PubMed: 7666018]

  • Davalos A, Ricart W, Gonzalez-Huix F, Soler S, Marrugat J, Molins A, et al. Effect of malnutrition after acute stroke on clinical outcome. Stroke. 1996;27(6):1028–32. [PubMed: 8650709]

  • Drake DJ, Swanson M, Baker G, Pokorny M, Rose MA, Clark-Reed L, et al. The association of BMI and Braden total score on the occurrence of pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2010;37(4):367–71. [PubMed: 20644369]

  • Ewing MR, Garrow C, Pressley TA, Ashley C, Kinsella NM. Further experiences in the use of sheepskins as an aid in nursing. Med J Aust. 1964;2:139–41. [PubMed: 14176462]

  • Exton-Smith AN, Overstall PW, Wedgwood J, Wallace G. Use of the ‘air wave system’ to prevent pressure sores in hospital. Lancet. 1982;1(8284):1288–90. [PubMed: 6123027]

  • Green MF, Exton SAN, Helps EPW, et al. Prophylaxis of pressure sores using a new lotion. Modgeriatr. 1974;4(9)

  • Grubbs S, Ludwig M, McHale E, Meck J, Nayar E, Rice A, et al. The effect of high frequency ultrasound on the prevention of pressure ulcers in long-term care patients. Internet Journal of Academic Physician Assistants. 2009;7(1):3.

  • Henderson CT, Trumbore LS, Mobarhan S, Benya R, Miles TP. Prolonged tube feeding in long-term care: nutritional status and clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11(3):309–25. [PubMed: 1619183]

  • Hommel A, Bjorkelund KB, Thorngren KG, Ulander K. Nutritional status among patients with hip fracture in relation to pressure ulcers. Clin Nutr. 2007;26(5):589–96. [PubMed: 17662510]

  • Kottner J, Dassen T, Lahmann N. Comparison of two skin examination methods for grade 1 pressure ulcers. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(17):2464–9. [PubMed: 19694878]

  • Kumar S, Fernando DJ, Veves A, Knowles EA, Young MJ, Boulton AJ. Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments: a simple, effective and inexpensive screening device for identifying diabetic patients at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1991;13(1–2):63–7. [PubMed: 1773715]

  • Lahmann NA, Tannen A, Dassen T, Kottner J. Friction and shear highly associated with pressure ulcers of residents in long-term care - Classification Tree Analysis (CHAID) of Braden items. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17(1):168–73. [PubMed: 20831665]

  • Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Wunderlich RP, Tredwell J, Boulton AJM. Predictive value of foot pressure assessment as part of a population-based diabetes disease management program. Diabetes care. 2003;26(4):1069–73. [PubMed: 12663575]

  • Lepisto M, Lauri S, Eriksson E, Vahlberg T. Pressure ulcer patients in long-term care. A follow-up study. Rev Clin Gerontol. 2004;14(2):91–103.

  • Malbrain M, Hendriks B, Wijnands P, Denie D, Jans A, Vanpellicom J, et al. A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing reactive air and active alternating pressure mattresses in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers among medical ICU patients. J Tissue Viability. 2010;19(1):7–15. [PubMed: 20079647]

  • Matsuyama N, Takano K, Miura A, Yamamoto T, Mashiko T, Ohotani H. The effect of anti-platelet aggregation to prevent pressure ulcer development: a retrospective study of 132 elderly patients. Gerontology. 2000;46(6):311–7. [PubMed: 11044785]

  • McGinnis E, Stubbs N. Pressure-relieving devices for treating heel pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(8) [PubMed: 21901698]

  • Moody BL, Fanale JE, Thompson M, Vaillancourt D, Symonds G, Bonasoro C. Impact of staff education on pressure sore development in elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(10):2241–3. [PubMed: 3178381]

  • Mukamel DB, Glance LG, Li Y, Weimer DL, Spector WD, Zinn JS, et al. Does risk adjustment of the CMS quality measures for nursing homes matter? Med Care. 2008;46(5):532–41. [PMC free article: PMC2741305] [PubMed: 18438202]

  • Papanikolaou P, Clark M, Lyne PA. Improving the accuracy of pressure ulcer risk calculators: some preliminary evidence. Int J Nurs Stud. 2002;39(2):187–94. [PubMed: 11755449]

  • Perneger TV, Gaspoz JM, Rae AC, Borst F, Heliot C. Contribution of individual items to the performance of the Norton pressure ulcer prediction scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(10):1282–6. [PubMed: 9777913]

  • Poss J, Murphy KM, Woodbury MG, Orsted H, Stevenson K, Williams G, et al. Development of the interRAI Pressure Ulcer Risk Scale (PURS) for use in long-term care and home care settings. BMC geriatr. 2010;10:67. [PMC free article: PMC2955034] [PubMed: 20854670]

  • Price P, Bale S, Newcombe R, Harding K. Challenging the pressure sore paradigm. J Wound Care. 1999;8(4):187–90. [PubMed: 10455633]

  • Shahin ESM, Dassen T, Halfens RJG. Incidence, prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in intensive care patients: a longitudinal study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(4):413–21. [PubMed: 18394626]

  • Soderhamn U, Soderhamn O. Reliability and validity of the nutritional form for the elderly (NUFFE). J Adv Nurs. 2002;37(1):28–34. [PubMed: 11784395]

  • Summer WR, Curry P, Haponik EF, Nelson S, Elston R. Continuous mechanical turning of intensive care unit patients shortens length of stay in some diagnostic-related groups. J Crit Care. 1989;4(1):45–53.

  • Weng M. The effect of protective treatment in reducing pressure ulcers for non-invasive ventilation patients. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2008;24(5):295–9. [PubMed: 18242994]

  • White GW, Mathews RM, Fawcett SB. Reducing risk of pressure sores: effects of watch prompts and alarm avoidance on wheelchair push-ups. J Appl Behav Anal. 1989;22(3):287–95. [PMC free article: PMC1286180] [PubMed: 2793635]

Wrong Comparator

  • Bots TC, Apotheker BF. The prevention of heel pressure ulcers using a hydropolymer dressing in surgical patients. J Wound Care. 2004;13(9):375–8. [PubMed: 15517747]

  • Clifford I, Candler S, Starling M. Twenty-four hour pressure area management: study report. Br J Nurs. 1995;4(22):1308, 10–4. [PubMed: 8696098]

  • Conwill J. Evaluation and cost analysis of a pressure reduction mattress. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1992;38(5):43–51. [PubMed: 1622538]

  • Ek AC. Prevention, treatment and healing of pressure sores in long-term care patients. Scand J Caring Sci. 1987;1(1):7–13. [PubMed: 3112893]

  • Harper PJ, Rocko JM, Timmes JJ. Experience with a flotation unit for prevention of decubitus ulcers. J Med Soc N J. 1975;72(10):824–6. [PubMed: 1058976]

  • Kofuji M, Teshima M, Nagano M, Sakurai C. Evaluation of the efficacy and necessary characteristics of decubitus ulcer-prevention measures using electronic nursing record. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2006;33(3S):S47-S.

  • Newman P, West J. Pressure sores--2 The value of the Norton score. Nurs Times. 1981;77(29) suppl 21:82–4. [PubMed: 6910662]

  • Pinzur MS, Schumacher D, Reddy N, Osterman H, Havey R, Patwardin A. Preventing heel ulcers: a comparison of prophylactic body-support systems. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991;72(7):508–10. [PubMed: 2059125]

  • Powers GC, Zentner T, Nelson F, Bergstrom N. Validation of the mobility subscale of the Braden Scale for predicting pressure sore risk. Nursing Research. 2004;53(5):340–6. [PubMed: 15385871]

  • Schweinberger MH, Roukis TS. Effectiveness of instituting a specific bed protocol in reducing complications associated with bed rest. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2010;49(4):340–7. [PubMed: 20362472]

Wrong Outcome

  • Akkuzu G, Arslantas S, Kosker SB, Sen S. Evaluation by patients and caregivers of the effectiveness of a brochure developed to prevent pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009;36(6):610–5. [PubMed: 19920741]

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Wrong Study Design for Key Question

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Wrong Publication Type

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Unable To Retrieve

  • Smith I. Waterlow/Norton scoring system: a ward view smith. Care Science and Practice. 1989;7:93–95.

Systematic Reviews Not Used, but Included Studies Checked for Inclusion

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  • Langer G, Knerr A, Kuss O, Behrens J, Schlomer GJ. Nutritional interventions for preventing and treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1) [PubMed: 14583961]

  • Pancorbo-Hidalgo P, Garcia-Fernandez F, Lopez-Medina I, et al. Risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs. 2006;(54):94–110. [PubMed: 16553695]

  • Reddy M, Gill S, Rochon P. Preventing pressure ulcers: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006;296(8):974–84. [PubMed: 16926357]

  • Stratton RJ, Ek A-C, Engfer M, Moore Z, Rigby P, Wolfe R, et al. Enteral nutritional support in prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. 2005;4(3):422–50. [PubMed: 16081325]

  • Trumner A, Panfil E. Wound care teams for preventing and treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(4)

Risk Factor Only

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