Aizpitarte Pegenaute E, Ag, Zugazagoitia Ciarrusta N, Margall Coscojuela MA, Asiain Erro MC. Pressure ulcers in intensive care: assessment of risk and prevention measures [Spanish] Enferm Intensiva. 2005;16(4):153–63. [PubMed: 16324543]
Andrews JBR. The prevention and treatment of pressure sores by use of pressure distributing mattresses. Decubitus. 1988;1(4):14–21. [PubMed: 3254240]
Bates-Jensen BM, Cadogan M, Osterweil D, Levy-Storms L, Jorge J, Al-Samarrai N, et al. The minimum data set pressure ulcer indicator: does it reflect differences in care processes related to pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in nursing homes? J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(9):1203–12. [PubMed: 12919231]
Beeckman D, Schoonhoven L, Boucque H, Van Maele G, Defloor T. Pressure ulcers: e-learning to improve classification by nurses and nursing students. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(13):1697–707. [PubMed: 18592624]
Benati G, Delvecchio S, Cilla D, Pedone V. Impact on pressure ulcer healing of an arginine-enriched nutritional solution in patients with severe cognitive impairment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2001;7:43–7. [PubMed: 11431045]
Bliss MR. Preventing pressure sores in elderly patients: a comparison of seven mattress overlays. Age Ageing. 1995;24(4):297–302. [PubMed: 7484486]
Bours GJJW, Halfens RJG, Candel MJJM, Grol RTPM, Abu-Saad HH. A pressure ulcer audit and feedback project across multi-hospital settings in the Netherlands. Int J Qual Health Care. 2004;16(3):211–8. [PubMed: 15150152]
Brown KL, Phillips TJ. Nutrition and wound healing. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28(4):432–9. [PubMed: 20620761]
Casimiro C, Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Usan L. Prevalence of decubitus ulcer and associated risk factors in an institutionalized Spanish elderly population. Nutrition. 2002;18(5):408–14. [PubMed: 11985946]
Castillo JLS, Roman VP. Study of the efficacy of using the water mattress for preventing pressure sores. Medula Espinal. 1996;2(2):104–7.
Celani MG, Spizzichino L, Ricci S, Zampolini M, Franceschini M. Spinal cord injury in Italy: a multicenter retrospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(5):589–96. [PubMed: 11346833]
Chaloner DM, Franks PJ. Validity of the Walsall Community Pressure Sore Risk Calculator. Br J Nurs. 1999;8(17):1142–4. 6. 8 passim. [PubMed: 10897696]
Charlier C. Prevalence, incidence and risk: a study of pressure ulcers at a rural base hospital. Primary Intention: Aust J Wound Manage. 2001;9(1):12.
Chernoff RS, Milton KY, Lipschitz DA. The effect of a very high-protein liquid formula on decubitus ulcers healing in long-term tube-fed institutionalized patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90:A-130.
Collins AS, Rodd R, McCoy A, Deitz G, Pruitt D, Garner M, et al. Stride right. Nurs Manage. 2002;33(9):33. [PubMed: 12352796]
Collins F. The contribution made by an armchair with integral pressure-reducing cushion in the prevention of pressure sore incidence in the elderly, acutely ill patient. J Tissue Viability. 1999;9(4):133–7. [PubMed: 10808843]
Cox KS, Holdredge T, Timms J. Prevention of pressure ulcers: a new approach. J S C Med Assoc. 1998;94(10):433–5. [PubMed: 9803041]
Dealey C. Risk assessment of pressure sores: a comparative study of Norton and Waterlow scores. Nurs Stand Spec Suppl. 1989;1(3):11–2. [PubMed: 2716916]
Economides NG, Skoutakis VA, Carter CA, Smith VH. Evaluation of the effectiveness of two support surfaces following myocutaneous flap surgery. Adv Wound Care. 1995;8(1):49–53. 1995. [PubMed: 7795873]
Forni C, Loro L, Tremosini M, Mini S, Pignotti E, Bigoni O, et al. Use of polyurethane foam inside plaster casts to prevent the onset of heel sores in the population at risk. A controlled clinical study. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(5/6):675–80. [PubMed: 21320196]
Frain R. Decreasing the incidence of heel pressure ulcers in long-term care by increasing awareness: results of a 1-year program. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2008;54(2):62–7. [PubMed: 18382044]
Frias Soriano L, Lage Vazquez MA, Maristany CP, Xandri Graupera JM, Wouters-Wesseling W, Wagenaar L. The effectiveness of oral nutritional supplementation in the healing of pressure ulcers. J Wound Care. 2004;13(8):319–22. [PubMed: 15469215]
Fromantin I, Falcou MC, Baffie A, Petot C, Mazerat R, Jaouen C, et al. Inception and validation of a pressure ulcer risk scale in oncology. J Wound Care. 2011;20(7):328, 30–4. [PubMed: 21841721]
Fuhrer MJ, Garber SL, Rintala DH, Clearman R, Hart KA. Pressure ulcers in community-resident persons with spinal cord injury: prevalence and risk factors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1993;74(11):1172–7. [PubMed: 8239957]
GI, Schoonhoven L, Mintjes JAJ, Borm GF, Hulscher MEJL, Defloor T, et al. Fewer adverse events as a result of the SAFE or SORRY? programme in hospitals and nursing homes. Part I: Primary outcome of a cluster randomised trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48(9):1040–8. [PubMed: 21419411]
GI, Schoonhoven L, Mintjes JAJ, Borm GF, Koopmans RTCM, van Achterberg T. The SAFE or SORRY? programme. Part II: Effect on preventive care. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48(9):1049–57. [PubMed: 21440891]
Garber SL, Rintala DH, Rossi CD, Hart KA, Fuhrer MJ. Reported pressure ulcer prevention and management techniques by persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77(8):744–9. [PubMed: 8702366]
Gawron CL. Risk factors for and prevalence of pressure ulcers among hospitalized patients. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1994;21(6):232–40. [PubMed: 7704130]
Gray D, Palk M. A clinical evaluation of the Transfoam mattress after 4 years. Br J Nurs. 2000;9(14):939–42. [PubMed: 11261030]
Gunes UY. A prospective study evaluating the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH Tool) to assess stage II, stage III, and stage IV pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2009;55(5):48–52. [PubMed: 19471048]
Gunningberg L, Lindholm C, Carlsson M, Sjoden PO. Implementation of risk assessment and classification of pressure ulcers as quality indicators for patients with hip fractures. J Clin Nurs. 1999;8(4):396–406. [PubMed: 10624256]
Hampton S, Collins F. Reducing pressure ulcer incidence in a long-term setting. Br J Nurs. 2005;14(15):S6–12. [PubMed: 16144070]
Hampton S. Can electric beds aid pressure sore prevention in hospitals? Br J Nurs. 1998;7(17):1010–7. [PubMed: 9830895]
Hanson DS, Langemo D, Olson B, Hunter S, Burd C. Decreasing the prevalence of pressure ulcers using agency standards. Home Healthc Nurse. 1996;14(7):525–31. [PubMed: 8717934]
Henoch I, Gustafsson M. Pressure ulcers in palliative care: development of a hospice pressure ulcer risk assessment scale. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2003;9(11):474–84. [PubMed: 14676724]
Hon J, Lagden K, McLaren A-M, O’Sullivan D, Orr L, Houghton PE, et al. A prospective, multicenter study to validate use of the PUSH in patients with diabetic, venous, and pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2010;56(2):26–36. [PubMed: 20200443]
Hughes AW. Prevention of pressure sores in patients with fractures of the femoral neck. Injury. 1986;17(1):19–22. [PubMed: 3770878]
Jackson M, McKenney T, Drumm J, Merrick B, LeMaster T, VanGilder C. Pressure Ulcer Prevention in High-Risk Postoperative Cardiovascular Patients. Crit Care Nurse. 2011;31(4):44–53. [PubMed: 21807683]
Jiricka MK, Ryan P, Carvalho MA, Bukvich J. Pressure ulcer risk factors in an ICU population. Am J Crit Care. 1995;4(5):361–7. [PubMed: 7489039]
Klingel R, Mumme C, Fassbender T, Himmelsbach F, Altes U, Lotz J, et al. Rheopheresis in patients with ischemic diabetic foot syndrome: results of an open label prospective pilot trial. Ther Apher Dial. 2003;7(4):444–55. [PubMed: 12887730]
Kloth LC, Berman JE, Dumit-Minkel S, Sutton CH, Papanek PE, Wurzel J. Effects of a normothermic dressing on pressure ulcer healing. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2000;13(2):69–74. [PubMed: 11074989]
Kordestani S, Shahrezaee M, Tahmasebi MN, Hajimahmodi H, Ghasemali DH, Abyaneh MS. A randomised controlled trial on the effectiveness of an advanced wound dressing used in Iran. J Wound Care. 2008;17(7):323–7. [PubMed: 18705234]
Kramer JD, Kearney M. Patient, wound, and treatment characteristics associated with healing in pressure ulcers. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2000;13(1):17–24. [PubMed: 11061706]
Kurita M, Ichioka S, Oshima Y, Harii K. Orthopaedic POSSUM scoring system: an assessment of the risk of debridement in patients with pressure sores. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2006;40(4):214–8. [PubMed: 16911994]
LaMantia JG, Hirschwald JF, Goodman CL, Wooden VM, Delisser O, Staas WE Jr. A program design to reduce chronic readmissions for pressure sores. Rehabil Nurs. 1987;12(2):22–5. 16. [PubMed: 3643616]
Land L, Evans D, Geary A, Taylor C. A clinical evaluation of an alternating-pressure mattress replacement system in hospital and residential care settings. J Tissue Viability. 2000;10(1):6–11. [PubMed: 10839090]
Leblebici B, Turhan N, Adam M, Akman MN. Clinical and epidemiologic evaluation of pressure ulcers in patients at a university hospital in Turkey. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007;34(4):407–11. [PubMed: 17667087]
LeVasseur SA, Helme RD. A double-blind clinical trial to compare the efficacy of an active based cream F14001 against a placebo non-active based cream for the treatment of pressure ulcers in a population of elderly subjects. J Adv Nurs. 1991;16(8):952–6.1. [PubMed: 1779084]
Maugham L, Cox R, Amsters D, Battistutta D. Reducing inpatient hospital usage for management of pressure sores after spinal cord lesions. Int J Rehabil Res. 2004;27(4):311–5. [PubMed: 15572996]
Maume S, Van De Looverbosch D, Heyman H, Romanelli M, Ciangherotti A, Charpin S. A study to compare a new self-adherent soft silicone dressing with a self-adherent polymer dressing in stage II pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2003;49(9):44–51. [PubMed: 14581709]
Mertens EI, Halfens RJG, Dietz E, Scheufele R, Dassen T. Pressure ulcer risk screening in hospitals and nursing homes with a general nursing assessment tool: evaluation of the care dependency scale. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008;14(6):1018–25.1. [PubMed: 18284515]
Mizuno Y. [Prevention and care of decubitus ulcer. Bed sores of aged, bedridden patients and regional nursing activities - an approach in prevention of decubitus ulcer]. Kango Gijutsu. 1977;23(8):78–84. [PubMed: 586331]
National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Support Surface Standards Initiative: Terms and Definitions Related to Support Surfaces. 2007.
Neander KD, Birkenfeld R. Alternating-pressure mattresses for the prevention of decubitus ulcers: a study of healthy subjects and patients. Intensive Care Nurs. 1990;6(2):67–73. [PubMed: 2380539]
Norris JR, Reynolds RE. The effect of oral zinc sulfate therapy on decubitus ulcers. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1971;19:793–7.
Peck A, Cohen CE, Mulvihill MN. Long-term enteral feeding of aged demented nursing home patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990;38(11):1195–8. [PubMed: 2123217]
Rich SE, Shardell M, Hawkes WG, Margolis DJ, Amr S, Miller R, et al. Pressure-redistributing support surface use and pressure ulcer incidence in elderly hip fracture patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59(6):1052–9.2. [PMC free article: PMC3601674] [PubMed: 21649630]
Rintala DH, Garber SL, Friedman JD, Holmes SA. Preventing recurrent pressure ulcers in veterans with spinal cord injury: impact of a structured education and follow-up intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(8):1429–41. [PubMed: 18674978]
Russell L, Reynolds TM, Carr J, Evans A, Holmes M. Randomised controlled trial of two pressure-relieving systems. J Wound Care. 2000;9(2):52–5. [PubMed: 11933280]
Russell L, Reynolds TM, Towns A, Worth W, Greenman A, Turner R. Randomized comparison trial of the RIK and the Nimbus 3 mattresses. Br J Nurs. 2003;12(4):254. [PubMed: 12671572]
Sanada H, Iizaka S, Matsui Y, Furue M, Tachibana T, Nakayama T, et al. Clinical wound assessment using DESIGN- R total score can predict pressure ulcer healing: Pooled analysis from two multicenter cohort studies. Wound Repair Regen. 2011;19(5):559–67. [PubMed: 22092794]
Spencer SA. Pressure relieving interventions for preventing and treating diabetic foot ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1) [PubMed: 10908550]
Srisupan V, Senaratana W, Picheansatian W, Chittreecheur J, Watanakool M, Chaisri P, et al. Reduction of the incidence of pressure sores by an education program on nursing care. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005;88 Suppl 10:S166–70. [PubMed: 16850664]
Stotts NA, Rodeheaver GT, Thomas DR, Frantz RA, Bartolucci AA, Sussman C, et al. An instrument to measure healing in pressure ulcers: development and validation of the pressure ulcer scale for healing (PUSH). J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(12):M795–9. [PubMed: 11723157]
Suriadi, Sanada H, Sugama J, Thigpen B, Kitagawa A, Kinosita S, et al. A new instrument for predicting pressure ulcer risk in an intensive care unit. J Tissue Viability. 2006;16(3):21–6. [PubMed: 16921993]
Suriadi, Sanada H, Sugama J, Thigpen B, Subuh M. Development of a new risk assessment scale for predicting pressure ulcers in an intensive care unit. Nurs Crit Care. 2008;13(1):34–43. [PubMed: 18226053]
Tannen A, Balzer K, Kottner J, Dassen T, Halfens R, Mertens E. Diagnostic accuracy of two pressure ulcer risk scales and a generic nursing assessment tool. A psychometric comparison. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(11-12):1510–8. [PubMed: 20579196]
Taylor TV, Rimmer S, Day B, Butcher J, Dymock IW. Ascorbic acid supplementation in the treatment of pressure-sores. Lancet. 1974;2(7880):544–6. [PubMed: 4140267]
ter Riet G, Kessels AG, Knipschild PG. Randomized clinical trial of ascorbic acid in the treatment of pressure ulcers. J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48(12):1453–60. [PubMed: 8543959]
Timmes JJ, Harper PJ, Rocko JM. Treating and preventing decubitus ulcers with a new flotation unit. Am Fam Physician. 1974;10(5):150–2. [PubMed: 4424683]
Van Rijswijk L. Pressure sores and pressure-decreasing mattresses: controlled clinical trial. The Lancet. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1994;40(6):12.
Vanderwee K, Grypdonck M, Defloor T. Non-blanchable erythema as an indicator for the need for pressure ulcer prevention: a randomized-controlled trial. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(2):325–35. [PubMed: 17239068]
Veitenhansl M, Hierl FX, Landgraf R. Pressure reduction through various premanufactured shoe models with insoles in diabetic foot syndrome to prevent ulceration: a prospective randomised study. Diabetologia. 2003;46(Suppl 2):6.
Verdu J. Can a decision tree help nurses to grade and treat pressure ulcers? J Wound Care. 2003;12(2):45–50. [PubMed: 12655966]
Wardman C. Norton v. Waterlow. Nurs Times. 1991;87(13):74, 6, 8. [PubMed: 2008374]
Yapucu Gunes U, Eser I. Effectiveness of a honey dressing for healing pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007;34(2):184–90. [PubMed: 17413836]
Anthony D, Barnes J, Unsworth J. An evaluation of current risk assessment scales for decubitus ulcer in general inpatients and wheelchair users. Clin Rehabil. 1998;12(2):136–42. [PubMed: 9619655]
Bates-Jensen BM, Alessi CA, Al-Samarrai NR, Schnelle JF. The effects of an exercise and incontinence intervention on skin health outcomes in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(3):348–55. [PubMed: 12588578]
Baumgarten M, Margolis D, Orwig D, Hawkes W, Rich S, Langenberg P, et al. Use of pressure-redistributing support surfaces among elderly hip fracture patients across the continuum of care: adherence to pressure ulcer prevention guidelines. Gerontologist. 2010;50(2):253–62. [PMC free article: PMC2838408] [PubMed: 19587108]
Beeckman D, Defloor T, Demarré L, Van Hecke A, Vanderwee K. Pressure ulcers: Development and psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention instrument (APuP). Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47(11):1432–41. [PubMed: 20466370]
Beeckman D, Vanderwee K, Demarre L, Paquay L, Van Hecke A, Defloor T. Pressure ulcer prevention: development and psychometric validation of a knowledge assessment instrument. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47(4):399–410. [PubMed: 19781701]
Bennett RG, Baran PJ, DeVone LV, Bacetti H, Kristo B, Tayback M, et al. Low airloss hydrotherapy versus standard care for incontinent hospitalized patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(5):569–76. [PubMed: 9588369]
Campbell KE, Woodbury MG, Houghton PE. Heel pressure ulcers in orthopedic patients: a prospective study of incidence and risk factors in an acute care hospital. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2010;56(2):44–54. [PubMed: 20200445]
Cereda E, Bertoli S, Vanotti A, Battezzati A. Estimated height from knee-height in Caucasian elderly: implications on nutritional status by mini nutritional assessment. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(1):16–22. [PubMed: 20082049]
Claudia G, Diane M, Daphney S, Daniele D. Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in a university hospital centre: a correlational study examining nurses’ knowledge and best practice. Int J Nurs Pract. 2010;16(2):183–7. [PubMed: 20487064]
Curry K, Casady L. The relationship between extended periods of immobility and decubitus ulcer formation in the acutely spinal cord-injured individual. J Neurosci Nurs. 1992;24(4):185–9. [PubMed: 1517663]
Danchaivijitr S, Suthisanon L, Jitreecheue L, Tantiwatanapaibool Y. Effects of education on the prevention of pressure sores. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995;78(Suppl 1):S1–6. [PubMed: 7666018]
Davalos A, Ricart W, Gonzalez-Huix F, Soler S, Marrugat J, Molins A, et al. Effect of malnutrition after acute stroke on clinical outcome. Stroke. 1996;27(6):1028–32. [PubMed: 8650709]
Drake DJ, Swanson M, Baker G, Pokorny M, Rose MA, Clark-Reed L, et al. The association of BMI and Braden total score on the occurrence of pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2010;37(4):367–71. [PubMed: 20644369]
Ewing MR, Garrow C, Pressley TA, Ashley C, Kinsella NM. Further experiences in the use of sheepskins as an aid in nursing. Med J Aust. 1964;2:139–41. [PubMed: 14176462]
Exton-Smith AN, Overstall PW, Wedgwood J, Wallace G. Use of the ‘air wave system’ to prevent pressure sores in hospital. Lancet. 1982;1(8284):1288–90. [PubMed: 6123027]
Green MF, Exton SAN, Helps EPW, et al. Prophylaxis of pressure sores using a new lotion. Modgeriatr. 1974;4(9)
Grubbs S, Ludwig M, McHale E, Meck J, Nayar E, Rice A, et al. The effect of high frequency ultrasound on the prevention of pressure ulcers in long-term care patients. Internet Journal of Academic Physician Assistants. 2009;7(1):3.
Henderson CT, Trumbore LS, Mobarhan S, Benya R, Miles TP. Prolonged tube feeding in long-term care: nutritional status and clinical outcomes. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11(3):309–25. [PubMed: 1619183]
Hommel A, Bjorkelund KB, Thorngren KG, Ulander K. Nutritional status among patients with hip fracture in relation to pressure ulcers. Clin Nutr. 2007;26(5):589–96. [PubMed: 17662510]
Kottner J, Dassen T, Lahmann N. Comparison of two skin examination methods for grade 1 pressure ulcers. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(17):2464–9. [PubMed: 19694878]
Kumar S, Fernando DJ, Veves A, Knowles EA, Young MJ, Boulton AJ. Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments: a simple, effective and inexpensive screening device for identifying diabetic patients at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1991;13(1–2):63–7. [PubMed: 1773715]
Lahmann NA, Tannen A, Dassen T, Kottner J. Friction and shear highly associated with pressure ulcers of residents in long-term care - Classification Tree Analysis (CHAID) of Braden items. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17(1):168–73. [PubMed: 20831665]
Lavery LA, Armstrong DG, Wunderlich RP, Tredwell J, Boulton AJM. Predictive value of foot pressure assessment as part of a population-based diabetes disease management program. Diabetes care. 2003;26(4):1069–73. [PubMed: 12663575]
Lepisto M, Lauri S, Eriksson E, Vahlberg T. Pressure ulcer patients in long-term care. A follow-up study. Rev Clin Gerontol. 2004;14(2):91–103.
Malbrain M, Hendriks B, Wijnands P, Denie D, Jans A, Vanpellicom J, et al. A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing reactive air and active alternating pressure mattresses in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers among medical ICU patients. J Tissue Viability. 2010;19(1):7–15. [PubMed: 20079647]
Matsuyama N, Takano K, Miura A, Yamamoto T, Mashiko T, Ohotani H. The effect of anti-platelet aggregation to prevent pressure ulcer development: a retrospective study of 132 elderly patients. Gerontology. 2000;46(6):311–7. [PubMed: 11044785]
McGinnis E, Stubbs N. Pressure-relieving devices for treating heel pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(8) [PubMed: 21901698]
Moody BL, Fanale JE, Thompson M, Vaillancourt D, Symonds G, Bonasoro C. Impact of staff education on pressure sore development in elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(10):2241–3. [PubMed: 3178381]
Mukamel DB, Glance LG, Li Y, Weimer DL, Spector WD, Zinn JS, et al. Does risk adjustment of the CMS quality measures for nursing homes matter? Med Care. 2008;46(5):532–41. [PMC free article: PMC2741305] [PubMed: 18438202]
Papanikolaou P, Clark M, Lyne PA. Improving the accuracy of pressure ulcer risk calculators: some preliminary evidence. Int J Nurs Stud. 2002;39(2):187–94. [PubMed: 11755449]
Perneger TV, Gaspoz JM, Rae AC, Borst F, Heliot C. Contribution of individual items to the performance of the Norton pressure ulcer prediction scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(10):1282–6. [PubMed: 9777913]
Poss J, Murphy KM, Woodbury MG, Orsted H, Stevenson K, Williams G, et al. Development of the interRAI Pressure Ulcer Risk Scale (PURS) for use in long-term care and home care settings. BMC geriatr. 2010;10:67. [PMC free article: PMC2955034] [PubMed: 20854670]
Price P, Bale S, Newcombe R, Harding K. Challenging the pressure sore paradigm. J Wound Care. 1999;8(4):187–90. [PubMed: 10455633]
Shahin ESM, Dassen T, Halfens RJG. Incidence, prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in intensive care patients: a longitudinal study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(4):413–21. [PubMed: 18394626]
Soderhamn U, Soderhamn O. Reliability and validity of the nutritional form for the elderly (NUFFE). J Adv Nurs. 2002;37(1):28–34. [PubMed: 11784395]
Summer WR, Curry P, Haponik EF, Nelson S, Elston R. Continuous mechanical turning of intensive care unit patients shortens length of stay in some diagnostic-related groups. J Crit Care. 1989;4(1):45–53.
Weng M. The effect of protective treatment in reducing pressure ulcers for non-invasive ventilation patients. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2008;24(5):295–9. [PubMed: 18242994]
White GW, Mathews RM, Fawcett SB. Reducing risk of pressure sores: effects of watch prompts and alarm avoidance on wheelchair push-ups. J Appl Behav Anal. 1989;22(3):287–95. [PMC free article: PMC1286180] [PubMed: 2793635]
Bots TC, Apotheker BF. The prevention of heel pressure ulcers using a hydropolymer dressing in surgical patients. J Wound Care. 2004;13(9):375–8. [PubMed: 15517747]
Clifford I, Candler S, Starling M. Twenty-four hour pressure area management: study report. Br J Nurs. 1995;4(22):1308, 10–4. [PubMed: 8696098]
Conwill J. Evaluation and cost analysis of a pressure reduction mattress. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1992;38(5):43–51. [PubMed: 1622538]
Ek AC. Prevention, treatment and healing of pressure sores in long-term care patients. Scand J Caring Sci. 1987;1(1):7–13. [PubMed: 3112893]
Harper PJ, Rocko JM, Timmes JJ. Experience with a flotation unit for prevention of decubitus ulcers. J Med Soc N J. 1975;72(10):824–6. [PubMed: 1058976]
Kofuji M, Teshima M, Nagano M, Sakurai C. Evaluation of the efficacy and necessary characteristics of decubitus ulcer-prevention measures using electronic nursing record. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2006;33(3S):S47-S.
Newman P, West J. Pressure sores--2 The value of the Norton score. Nurs Times. 1981;77(29) suppl 21:82–4. [PubMed: 6910662]
Pinzur MS, Schumacher D, Reddy N, Osterman H, Havey R, Patwardin A. Preventing heel ulcers: a comparison of prophylactic body-support systems. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1991;72(7):508–10. [PubMed: 2059125]
Powers GC, Zentner T, Nelson F, Bergstrom N. Validation of the mobility subscale of the Braden Scale for predicting pressure sore risk. Nursing Research. 2004;53(5):340–6. [PubMed: 15385871]
Schweinberger MH, Roukis TS. Effectiveness of instituting a specific bed protocol in reducing complications associated with bed rest. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2010;49(4):340–7. [PubMed: 20362472]
Akkuzu G, Arslantas S, Kosker SB, Sen S. Evaluation by patients and caregivers of the effectiveness of a brochure developed to prevent pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009;36(6):610–5. [PubMed: 19920741]
Allen V, Ryan DW, Murray A. Air-fluidized beds and their ability to distribute interface pressures generated between the subject and the bed surface. Physiol Meas. 1993;14(3):359–64. [PubMed: 8401275]
Amsler F, Willenberg T, Blattler W. In search of optimal compression therapy for venous leg ulcers: a meta-analysis of studies comparing diverse [corrected] bandages with specifically designed stockings. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50(3):668–74. [PubMed: 19595551]
Anders J, Heinemann A, Leffmann C, Leutenegger M, Profener F, von Renteln-Kruse W. Decubitus ulcers: pathophysiology and primary prevention. Dtsch. 2010;107(21):371–81. [PMC free article: PMC2883282] [PubMed: 20539816]
Andersen ES, Karlsmark T. Evaluation of four non-invasive methods for examination and characterization of pressure ulcers. Skin Res Technol. 2008;14(3):270–6. [PubMed: 19159371]
Apatsidis DP, Solomonidis SE, Michael SM. Pressure distribution at the seating interface of custom-molded wheelchair seats: effect of various materials. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(8):1151–6. [PubMed: 12161839]
Arnold N. Clinical study: the relationship between patient perceived risk and actual risk for the development of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1994;40(3):36–40. 2. 4-5 passim. [PubMed: 8043187]
Baker EA, Leaper DJ. Pressure-relieving properties of a intra-operative warming device. J Wound Care. 2003;12(4):156–60. [PubMed: 12715489]
Bale S, Price P, Crook H, Morgan T, Harding KG. Clinical evaluation of a new pressure-relieving mattress. J Wound Care. 1999;8(10):520–4. [PubMed: 10827658]
Barhyte DY, McCance L, Valenta A, VanTatenhove J, Walker MS, Bethea S. Selection of a standard hospital mattress: data-based decision making. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1995;22(6):267–70. [PubMed: 8704836]
Barnett RI, Shelton FEt. Measurement of support surface efficacy: pressure. Adv Wound Care. 1997;10(7):21–9. [PubMed: 9450403]
Bates-Jensen BM. Quality indicators for prevention and management of pressure ulcers in vulnerable elders. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(8 Pt 2):744–51. [PubMed: 11601958]
Beeckman D, Schoonhoven L, Fletcher J, Furtado K, Gunningberg L, Heyman H, et al. EPUAP classification system for pressure ulcers: European reliability study. J Adv Nurs. 2007;60(6):682–91. [PubMed: 18039255]
Berlowitz DR, Brandeis GH, Anderson JJ, Ash AS, Kader B, Morris JN, et al. Evaluation of a risk-adjustment model for pressure ulcer development using the Minimum Data Set. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001;49(7):872–6. [PubMed: 11527477]
Black JM, Cuddigan JE, Walko MA, Didier LA, Lander MJ, Kelpe MR. Medical device related pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients. Int Wound J. 2010;7(5):358–65. [PubMed: 20561094]
Bo M, Cacello E, Ghiggia F, Corsinovi L, Bosco F. Predictive factors of clinical outcome in older surgical patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2007;44(3):215–24.1. [PubMed: 16870278]
Bolton L, McNees P, van Rijswijk L, de Leon J, Lyder C, Kobza L, et al. Wound-Healing Outcomes Using Standardized Assessment and Care in Clinical Practice. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2004;31(2):65–71. [PubMed: 15209428]
Brienza DM, Karg PE, Brubaker CE. Seat cushion design for elderly wheelchair users based on minimization of soft tissue deformation using stiffness and pressure measurements. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1996;4(4):320–7. [PubMed: 8973958]
Brienza DM, Karg PE, Geyer MJ, Kelsey S, Trefler E. The relationship between pressure ulcer incidence and buttock-seat cushion interface pressure in at-risk elderly wheelchair users. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(4):529–33. [PubMed: 11295017]
Brienza DM, Karg PE. Seat cushion optimization: a comparison of interface pressure and tissue stiffness characteristics for spinal cord injured and elderly patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998;79(4):388–94. [PubMed: 9552103]
Buckland R. Evaluating two dynamic mattresses in a nursing home setting. Br J Nurs. 2007;16(11):S28–32. [PubMed: 17577192]
Cai S, Mukamel DB, Temkin-Greener H. Pressure ulcer prevalence among black and white nursing home residents in New York state: evidence of racial disparity? Med Care. 2010;48(3):233–9. [PMC free article: PMC3313600] [PubMed: 20182267]
Cakmak SK, Gul U, Ozer S, Yigit Z, Gonu M. Risk factors for pressure ulcers. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2009;22(9):412–5. [PubMed: 19713777]
Calaf Tost C, Alvarez Garcia P. [Lateralization as alternative to static prone decubitus in patients with ARDS]. Enferm Intensiva. 2006;17(1):12–8. [PubMed: 16527149]
Callaghan S, Trapp M. Evaluating two dressings for the prevention of nasal bridge pressure sores. Prof Nurse. 1998;13(6):361–4. [PubMed: 9534557]
Campbell KE. A new model to identify shared risk factors for pressure ulcers and frailty in older adults. Rehabil Nurs. 2009;34(6):242–7. [PubMed: 19927852]
Cardoso JRS, Blanes L, Calil JA, Chacon JMF, Ferreira LM. Prevalence of pressure ulcers in a Brazilian hospital: results of a cross-sectional study. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2010;56(10):52–7. [PubMed: 21030728]
Carter MW, Porell FW. Nursing home performance on select publicly reported quality indicators and resident risk of hospitalization: grappling with policy implications. J Aging Soc Policy. 2006;18(1):17–39. [PubMed: 16635979]
Carter MW, Porell FW. Vulnerable populations at risk of potentially avoidable hospitalizations: the case of nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2005;20(6):349–58. [PubMed: 16396440]
Cereda E, Pusani C, Limonta D, Vanotti A. The ability of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index to assess the nutritional status and predict the outcome of home-care resident elderly: a comparison with the Mini Nutritional Assessment. Br J Nutr. 2009;102(4):563–70. [PubMed: 19203422]
Chacon JMF, Blanes L, Hochman B, Ferreira LM. Prevalence of pressure ulcers among the elderly living in long-stay institutions in Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo Med J. 2009;127(4):211–5. [PubMed: 20011926]
Cho I, Noh M. Braden Scale: evaluation of clinical usefulness in an intensive care unit. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66(2):293–302. [PubMed: 20423412]
Clark M, Benbow M, Butcher M, Gebhardt K, Teasley G, Zoller J. Collecting pressure ulcer prevention and management outcomes: 2. Br J Nurs. 2002;11(5):310–4. [PubMed: 11904559]
Colin D, Chomard D, Bois C, Saumet JL, Desvaux B, Marie M. An evaluation of hyper-oxygenated fatty acid esters in pressure sore management. J Wound Care. 1998;7(2):71–2. [PubMed: 9543976]
Conine TA, Daechsel D, Choi AK, Lau MS. Costs and acceptability of two special overlays for the prevention of pressure sores. Rehabil Nurs. 1990;15(3):133–7. [PubMed: 2188312]
Cook M, Hale C, Watson B. Interrater reliability and the assessment of pressure-sore risk using an adapted Waterlow Scale. Clin Eff Nurs. 1999;3(2):66–74.
Craig LD, Nicholson S, Silverstone FA, Kennedy RD, Coble Voss A, Allison S. Use of a reduced-carbohydrate, modified-fat enteral formula for improving metabolic control and clinical outcomes in long-term care residents with type 2 diabetes: results of a pilot trial. Nutrition. 1998;14(6):529–34. [PubMed: 9646297]
De Keyser G, Dejaeger E, De Meyst H, Eders GC. Pressure-reducing effects of heel protectors. Adv Wound Care. 1994;7(4):30–2. [PubMed: 7827745]
Edlich RF, Mason SS, Vissers RJ, Gubler KD, Thacker JG, Pharr P, et al. Revolutionary advances in enhancing patient comfort on patients transported on a backboard. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(2):181–6. [PubMed: 20825784]
Ek A, Unosson M, Bjurulf P. The modified Norton scale and the nutritional state. Scand J Caring Sci. 1989;3(4):183–7. [PubMed: 2602728]
Fernandes LM, Caliri MHL. Using the Braden and Glasgow scales to predict pressure ulcer risk in patients hospitalized at intensive care units. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2008;16(6):973–8. [PubMed: 19229399]
Futamura M, Sugama J, Okuwa M, Sanada H, Tabata K. J Gerontol Nurs. 2008;34(12):20–6. [PubMed: 19113000]
Garber SL, Dyerly LR. Wheelchair cushions for persons with spinal cord injury: an update. Am J Occup Ther. 1991;45(6):550–4. [PubMed: 2063944]
Garber SL, Krouskop TA. Wheelchair cushion modification and its effect on pressure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1984;65(10):579–83. [PubMed: 6487060]
Garber SL. Wheelchair cushions for spinal cord-injured individuals. Am J Occup Ther. 1985;39(11):722–5. [PubMed: 4073194]
Gardiner L, Lampshire S, Biggins A, McMurray A, Noake N, van Zyl M, et al. Evidence-based best practice in maintaining skin integrity. Wound Practice & Research. 2008;16(2):5–15.
Gardner A, Dunk AM, Eggert M, Gardner G, Wellman D. Pressure injury: an exploration of the relationship between risk factors and interface pressure. Primary Intention: The Australian Journal of Wound Management. 2006;14(4):140–9.
Gardner A, Millar L, Legg S, Gomez Y, McGillion T, Mulcahy A. Pressure injury prevalence in a private health service: risks and recommendations. Wound Practice & Research. 2009;17(3):134.
Gentilello L, Thompson DA, Tonnesen AS, Hernandez D, Kapadia AS, Allen SJ, et al. Effect of a rotating bed on the incidence of pulmonary complications in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1988;16(8):783–6. [PubMed: 3396372]
George-Saintilus E, Tommasulo B, Cal CE, Hussain R, Mathew N, Dlugacz Y, et al. Pressure ulcer PUSH score and traditional nursing assessment in nursing home residents: do they correlate? J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2009;10(2):141–4. [PubMed: 19187884]
Gorecki C, Brown JM, Nelson EA, Briggs M, Schoonhoven L, Dealey C, et al. Impact of pressure ulcers on quality of life in older patients: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(7):1175–83. [PubMed: 19486198]
Gunningberg L, Lindholm C, Carlsson M, Sjoden PO. Reduced incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with hip fractures: a 2-year follow-up of quality indicators. Int J Qual Health Care. 2001;13(5):399–407. [PubMed: 11669568]
Gupta RC, Nathani D, Gupta KK. Modified water-air mattress in the management of bedsores. Indian J Med Res. 1979;70:289–98. [PubMed: 521098]
Hardin JB, Cronin SN, Cahill K. Comparison of the effectiveness of two pressure-relieving surfaces: low-air-loss versus static fluid. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2000;46(9):50–6. [PubMed: 11189541]
Hayes PA, Wolf ZR, McHugh MK. Effect of a teaching plan on a nursing staff’s knowledge of pressure ulcer risk, assessment, and treatment. J Nurs Staff Dev. 1994;10(4):207–13. [PubMed: 7807244]
Hoskins A. Alternating pressure mattresses were more cost effective than alternating pressure overlays for preventing pressure ulcers. Evid Based Nurs. 2007;10(1):23. [PubMed: 17218297]
Inman KJ, Dymock K, Fysh N, Robbins B, Rutledge FS, Sibbald WJ. Pressure ulcer prevention: a randomized controlled trial of 2 risk-directed strategies for patient surface assignment. Adv Wound Care. 1999;12(2):72–80.1. [PubMed: 10326359]
Ino S, Sato M, Hosono M, Nakajima S, Yamashita K, Izumi T. Preliminary design of a simple passive toe exercise apparatus with a flexible metal hydride actuator for pressure ulcer prevention. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:479–82. [PubMed: 21096304]
Jester J, Weaver V. A report of clinical investigation of various tissue support surfaces used for the prevention, early intervention and management of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1990;26:39–45. [PubMed: 2306326]
Johnson J. Pressure area risk assessment in a neurological setting. Br J Nurs. 1994;3(18):926–8. 30–1, 33–5. [PubMed: 7994143]
Kataria MS, Datta AK. Management of pressure areas in the elderly. Practitioner. 1982;226(1368):1174–7. [PubMed: 6180420]
Kavros SJ, Miller JL, Hanna SW. Treatment of ischemic wounds with noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound: the Mayo clinic experience, 2004–2006. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2007;20(4):221–6. [PubMed: 17415030]
Kelly J. Inter-rater reliability and Waterlow’s pressure ulcer risk assessment tool. Nurs Stand. 2005;19(32):86–7. 90–2. [PubMed: 15875591]
Kennedy P, Berry C, Coggrave M, Rose L, Hamilton L. The effect of a specialist seating assessment clinic on the skin management of individuals with spinal cord injury. J Tissue Viability. 2003;13(3):122–5. [PubMed: 12889399]
Kim J, Ho CH, Wang X, Bogie K. The use of sensory electrical stimulation for pressure ulcer prevention. Physiother Theory Pract. 2010;26(8):528–36. [PubMed: 20649492]
Klay M, Marfyak K. Use of a continence nurse specialist in an extended care facility. Urol Nurs. 2005;25(2):101–2. 7–8. [PubMed: 15900978]
Korniewicz DM, Siegel J, Fajardo V, El-Masri M. Evaluation of the incidence of pressure ulcers using hill-rom versacare surfaces. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2011;24(4):160–6. [PubMed: 21422840]
Kottner J, Dassen T. An interrater reliability study of the Braden scale in two nursing homes. Int J Nurs Stud. 2008;45(10):1501–11. [PubMed: 18395726]
Kottner J, Dassen T. Pressure ulcer risk assessment in critical care: interrater reliability and validity studies of the Braden and Waterlow scales and subjective ratings in two intensive care units. Int J Nurs Stud. 2010;47(6):671–7. [PubMed: 20003975]
Kottner J, Halfens R, Dassen T. An interrater reliability study of the assessment of pressure ulcer risk using the Braden scale and the classification of pressure ulcers in a home care setting. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(10):1307–12. [PubMed: 19406400]
Kuisma I, Tamelander G. Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate cream in the prevention of pressure sores--a double blind study. Ann Clin Res. 1987;19(6):374–7. [PubMed: 2967665]
Kwong EWY, Lau ATY, Lee RLP, Kwan RYC. A pressure ulcer prevention programme specially designed for nursing homes: does it work? J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(19/20):2777–86. [PubMed: 21854474]
Lavery LA, Peters EJG, Armstrong DG. What are the most effective interventions in preventing diabetic foot ulcers? Int Wound J. 2008;5(3):425–33. 18593392. [PubMed: 18593392]
Lavery LA, Vela SA, Fleischli JG, Armstrong DG, Lavery DC. Reducing plantar pressure in the neuropathic foot. A comparison of footwear. Diabetes care. 1997;20(11):1706–10. [PubMed: 9353613]
Lavery LA, Vela SA, Lavery DC, Quebedeaux TL. Reducing dynamic foot pressures in high-risk diabetic subjects with foot ulcerations. A comparison of treatments. Diabetes care. 1996;19(8):818–21. [PubMed: 8842597]
Lewin G, Carville K, Newall N, Phillipson M, Smith J, Prentice J. Determining the effectiveness of implementing the AWMA Guidelines for the Prediction and Prevention of Pressure Ulcers in Silver Chain, a large home care agency: stage 1: baseline measurement... Australian Wound Management Association. Primary Intention: The Australian Journal of Wound Management. 2003;11(2):57.
Lewin G, Carville K, Newall N, Phillipson M, Smith J, Prentice J. Skin safe. Implementing clinical guidelines to prevent pressure ulcers in home care clients. Primary Intention: The Australian Journal of Wound Management. 2007;15(1):4.
Lewko J, Demianiuk M, Krot E, Krajewska-Kulak E, Sierakowska M, Nyklewicz W, et al. Assessment of risk for pressure ulcers using the Norton scale in nursing practice. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 2005;50 Suppl 1:148–51. [PubMed: 16119651]
Lilly CM, Cody S, Zhao H, Landry K, Baker SP, McIlwaine J, et al. Hospital mortality, length of stay, and preventable complications among critically ill patients before and after tele-ICU reengineering of critical care processes. JAMA. 2011;305(21):2175–83. [PubMed: 21576622]
Lu YH. Cimetidine for preventing stress ulcer associated with cerebral hemorrhage resulting from high pressure. Chinese Crit Care Med. 1998;10(7):446.
Lyder CH, Grady J, Mathur D, Petrillo MK, Meehan TP. Preventing pressure ulcers in Connecticut hospitals by using the plan-do-study-act model of quality improvement. Jt Comm J Qual Saf. 2004;30(4):205–14. [PubMed: 15085786]
Lyman V. Successful heel pressure ulcer prevention program in a long-term care setting. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009;36(6):616–21. [PubMed: 19920742]
Lynch S, Vickery P. Steps to reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. Nursing. 2010;40(11):61–2. [PubMed: 20975436]
Magnan MA, Maklebust J. The effect of Web-based Braden Scale training on the reliability and precision of Braden Scale pressure ulcer risk assessments. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(2):199–208. discussion 9–12. [PubMed: 18344795]
Maida V, Lau F, Downing M, Yang J. Correlation between Braden Scale and Palliative Performance Scale in advanced illness. Int Wound J. 2008;5(4):585–90. [PubMed: 19012686]
Makhsous M, Rowles DM, Rymer WZ, Bankard J, Nam EK, Chen D, et al. Periodically relieving ischial sitting load to decrease the risk of pressure ulcers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(7):862–70. [PMC free article: PMC2861140] [PubMed: 17601466]
Margolis DJ, Knauss J, Bilker W. Hormone replacement therapy and prevention of pressure ulcers and venous leg ulcers. Lancet. 2002;359(9307):675–7. [PubMed: 11879867]
Matsui Y, Furue M, Sanada H, Tachibana T, Nakayama T, Sugama J, et al. Development of the DESIGN-R with an observational study: an absolute evaluation tool for monitoring pressure ulcer wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2011;19(3):309–15. [PubMed: 21539648]
Mazzocco R, Zampieron A. [Does the evaluation of the pressure ulcer risk increase better prevention?]. Prof Inferm. 2000;53(3):173–8. [PubMed: 12424818]
McElhinny ML, Hooper C. Reducing hospital-acquired heel ulcer rates in an acute care facility: an evaluation of a nurse-driven performance improvement project. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(1):79–83. [PubMed: 18199942]
Meffre R, Gehin C, Schmitt PM, De Oliveira F, Dittmar A. New methodology for preventing pressure ulcers using actimetry and autonomous nervous system recording. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:5563–6. [PubMed: 17946707]
Michael SM, Porter D, Pountney TE. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21(12):1063–74. [PMC free article: PMC2630001] [PubMed: 18042602]
Milne CT, Trigilia D, Houle TL, Delong S, Rosenblum D. Reducing pressure ulcer prevalence rates in the long-term acute care setting. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2009;55(4):50–9. [PubMed: 19387096]
Mita K, Akataki K, Itoh K, Yoshida M, Shinoda T, Ishida Y. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores. Front Med Biol Eng. 1997;8(3):221–30. [PubMed: 9444514]
Moody P, Gonzales I, Cureton VY. The effect of body position and mattress type on interface pressure in quadriplegic adults: a pilot study. Dermatol Nurs. 2004;16(6):507–12. [PubMed: 15690927]
Munoz Mella A, Ee, Groba Perez F, Moreiro Hermelo P. Impact of a patient safety strategy aimed at reducing pressure ulcers [Spanish] Metas de Enfermería. 2010;13(4):50–4.
Neander K, Birkenfeld R. The influence of various support systems for decubitus ulcer prevention on contact pressure and percutaneous oxygen pressure. Intensive Care Nurs. 1991;7(2):120–7. [PubMed: 2061586]
Neuman MD, Archan S, Karlawish JH, Schwartz JS, Fleisher LA. The relationship between short-term mortality and quality of care for hip fracture: a meta-analysis of clinical pathways for hip fracture. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009;57(11):2046–54. [PubMed: 19793159]
Pieper B, Sugrue M, Weiland M, Sprague K, Heimann C. Presence of pressure ulcer prevention methods used among patients considered at risk versus those considered not at risk. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1997;24(4):191–9. [PubMed: 9274277]
Ranawat VS, Dowell JK, Teare EL. Pressure sore prevention pads as an infective source in orthopaedic theatres. J Hosp Infect. 2004;56(4):318–20. [PubMed: 15066744]
Rithalia SVS. Assessment of pressure relief characteristics in alternating pressure air cushions. Int J Rehabil Res. 1997;20(2):205–8. [PubMed: 9226505]
Rithalia SVS. Comparison of performance characteristics of the Nimbus and Airwave mattresses. Int J Rehabil Res. 1995;18(2):182–5. [PubMed: 7665265]
Scire V, Leporati E, Teobaldi I, Nobili LA, Rizzo L, Piaggesi A. Effectiveness and safety of using Podikon digital silicone padding in the primary prevention of neuropathic lesions in the forefoot of diabetic patients. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2009;99(1):28–34. [PubMed: 19141719]
Sewchuk D, Padula C, Osborne E. Prevention and early detection of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Aorn J. 2006;84(1):75–96. [PubMed: 16881492]
Sharp C, Burr G, Broadbent M, Cummins M, Casey H, Merriman A. Clinical variance in assessing risk of pressure ulcer development. Br J Nurs. 2005;14(6):S4–12. [PubMed: 15902023]
Siegel RJ, Vistnes LM, Laub DR. Use of the water bed for prevention of pressure sores. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1973;51(1):31–7. [PubMed: 4687567]
Sprakes K, Tyrer J. Improving wound and pressure area care in a nursing home. Nurs Stand. 2010;25(10):43–9. [PubMed: 21155487]
Stausberg J, Lehmann N, Kroger K, Maier I, Niebel W. for the interdisciplinary decubitus p. Reliability and validity of pressure ulcer diagnosis and grading: an image-based survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44(8):1316–23. [PubMed: 16949079]
Sterner E, Lindholm C, Berg E, Stark A, Fossum B. Category I pressure ulcers: how reliable is clinical assessment? Orthop Nurs. 2011;30(3):194–205. quiz 6–7. [PubMed: 21597349]
Stotts NA, Hopf HW, Kayser-Jones J, Chertow GM, Cooper BA, Wu H. Increased fluid intake does not augment capacity to lay down new collagen in nursing home residents at risk for pressure ulcers: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2009;17(6):780–8. [PubMed: 19821962]
Thorne S, Sauve K, Yacoub C, Guitard P. Evaluating the pressure-reducing capabilities of the gel pad in supine. Am J Occup Ther. 2009;63(6):744–50. [PubMed: 20092110]
Tomonaga T, Krag MH, Novotny JE. Clinical, radiographic, and kinematic results from an adjustable four-pad halovest. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22(11):1199–208. [PubMed: 9201856]
Watkinson C. Inter-rater reliability of risk-assessment scales. Prof Nurse. 1996;11(11):751–2. 5–6. [PubMed: 8718321]
Whitney JD, Fellows BJ, Larson E. Do mattresses make a difference? J Gerontol Nurs. 1984;10(9):20–5. [PubMed: 6565735]
Whittemore R, Bautista C, Smith C, Bruttomesso K. Interface pressure measurements of support surfaces with subjects in the supine and 45-degree Fowler positions. J ET Nurs. 1993;20(3):111–5. [PubMed: 8347757]
Xakellis GC, Frantz RA, Arteaga M, Nguyen M, Lewis A. A comparison of patient risk for pressure ulcer development with nursing use of preventive interventions. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992;40(12):1250–4. [PubMed: 1447443]
Yuen HK, Garrett D. Comparison of three wheelchair cushions for effectiveness of pressure relief. Am J Occup Ther. 2001;55(4):470–5. [PubMed: 11723993]
Zernike W. Heel pressure relieving devices how effective are they? The Aust J Adv Nurs : a quarterly publication of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation. 1997;14(4):12–9. [PubMed: 9250038]
Zernike W. Preventing heel pressure sores: a comparison of heel pressure relieving devices. J Clin Nurs. 1994;3(6):375–80. [PubMed: 7858795]
Wrong Study Design for Key Question
Abel RL, Warren K, Bean G, Gabbard B, Lyder CH, Bing M, et al. Quality improvement in nursing homes in Texas: results from a pressure ulcer prevention project. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2005;6(3):181–8. [PubMed: 15894247]
Abu-Own A, Sommerville K, Scurr JH, Coleridge Smith PD. Effects of compression and type of bed surface on the microcirculation of the heel. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1995;9(3):327–34. [PubMed: 7620960]
Adejumo PO, Ingwu JA. Nurses’ use of water-filled gloves in preventing heel pressure ulcer in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Int Wound J. 2010;7(6):472–9. [PubMed: 21073682]
Adelson R, Hepburn K, Reed R, Dawson A. Effective dissemination of the AHCPR guideline: prevention and early management of pressure ulcers. Abstract Book/Association for Health Services Research. 1997;14:167–8.
Allegretti ALC. Factors associated with clinical decisions and pressure ulcer development in long term care residents: University of Pittsburgh. 2008.
Allman RM, Goode PS, Patrick MM, Burst N, Bartolucci AA. Pressure ulcer risk factors among hospitalized patients with activity limitation. JAMA. 1995;273(11):865–70. [PubMed: 7869557]
Anguera Saperas L, Colodrero Diaz E, Garcia Grau N, Zapata EM, Roca Biosca A, Velasco Guillen MC. Education as a key piece in the prevention and good course of pressure ulcers [Spanish] Enferm Intensiva. 2009;20(1):19–26. [PubMed: 19401089]
Anthony D, Reynolds T, Russell L. A regression analysis of the Waterlow score in pressure ulcer risk assessment. Clin Rehabil. 2003;17(2):216–23. [PubMed: 12625664]
Anthony D, Reynolds T, Russell L. An investigation into the use of serum albumin in pressure sore prediction. J Adv Nurs. 2000;32(2):359–65. [PubMed: 10964183]
Aoi N, Yoshimura K, Kadono T, Nakagami G, Iizuka S, Higashino T, et al. Ultrasound assessment of deep tissue injury in pressure ulcers: possible prediction of pressure ulcer progression. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;124(2):540–50. [PubMed: 19644272]
Aronovitch S, Millenbach L, Kelman GB, Wing P. Investigation of the Knoll Assessment Scale in a tertiary care facility. Decubitus. 1992;5(3):70–2. 4–6.1. [PubMed: 1596355]
Aronovitch SA. A retrospective study of the use of specialty beds in the medical and surgical intensive care units of a tertiary care facility. Decubitus. 1992;5(1):36–42. [PubMed: 1731820]
Aronovitch SA. The use of an assessment tool in managing placement on pressure relief surfaces. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1993;39(4):18, 20–3. 6-8 passim. [PubMed: 8363715]
Baggerly J, DiBlasi M. Pressure sores and pressure sore prevention in a rehabilitation setting: building information for improving outcomes and allocating resources. Rehabil Nurs. 1996;21(6):321–5. [PubMed: 9087103]
Baier RR, Gifford DR, Lyder CH, Schall MW, Funston-Dillon DL, Lewis JM, et al. Quality improvement for pressure ulcer care in the nursing home setting: the Northeast Pressure Ulcer Project. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2003;4(6):291–301. [PubMed: 14613595]
Baldelli P, Paciella M. Creation and implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention bundle improves patient outcomes. Am J Med Qual. 2008;23(2):136–42. [PubMed: 18326049]
Balzer K, Pohl C, Dassen T, Halfens R. The Norton, Waterlow, Braden, and Care Dependency Scales: comparing their validity when identifying patients’ pressure sore risk. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007;34(4):389–98. [PubMed: 17667085]
Bates-Jensen BM, Cadogan M, Jorge J, Schnelle JF. Standardized quality-assessment system to evaluate pressure ulcer care in the nursing home. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(9):1194–202. [PubMed: 12919230]
Baxter S. Assessing pressure ulcer risk in long-term care using the Waterlow scale. Nurs Older People. 2008;20(7):34–8. quiz 9. [PubMed: 18853549]
Beeckman D, Vanderwee K. Skin protection wheelchair cushions for older nursing home residents reduce 6-month incidence of ischial tuberosity pressure ulcers compared with segmented foam cushions. Evid Based Nurs. 2011;14(3):79–80. [PubMed: 21646383]
Beekman EP, Timmermans PP, Halfens RJ. [The Braden Scale--validity and reliability of a measuring tool for decubitus risk factors]. Verpleegkunde. 1996;11(4):205–14. [PubMed: 9516819]
Beghe C. Low Braden scale scores predicted the development of pressure ulcers in neurologic intensive and intermediate care units. ACP Journal Club. 2001;135(2):76.
Benoit RA Jr, Watts C. The effect of a pressure ulcer prevention program and the bowel management system in reducing pressure ulcer prevalence in an ICU setting. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007;34(2):163–75. quiz 76–7. [PubMed: 17413833]
Bergquist S, Frantz R. Braden scale: validity in community-based older adults receiving home health care. Appl Nur Res. 2001;14(1):36–43. [PubMed: 11172228]
Bergquist S. Subscales, subscores, or summative score: evaluating the contribution of Braden Scale items for predicting pressure ulcer risk in older adults receiving home health care. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2001;28(6):279–89. [PubMed: 11707760]
Bergstrom N, Braden B, Kemp M, Champagne M, Ruby E. Multi-site study of incidence of pressure ulcers and the relationship between risk level, demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and prescription of preventive interventions. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1996;44(1):22–30. [PubMed: 8537586]
Berlowitz DR, Young GJ, Brandeis GH, Kader B, Anderson JJ. Health care reorganization and quality of care: unintended effects on pressure ulcer prevention. Med Care. 2001;39(2):138–46. [PubMed: 11176551]
Blaylock B. A study of risk factors in patients placed on specialty beds. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1995;22(6):263–6. [PubMed: 8704835]
Boes C. [Reliability and validity of the Braden Scale for predicting pressure sore risk]. Pflege. 2000;13(6):397–402. [PubMed: 11221209]
Boettger JE. Effects of a pressure-reduction mattress and staff education on the incidence of nosocomial pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1997;24(1):19–25. [PubMed: 9204847]
Bogie KM, Reger SI, Levine SP, Sahgal V. Electrical stimulation for pressure sore prevention and wound healing. Assist Technol. 2000;12(1):50–66. [PubMed: 11067577]
Bogie KM, Wang X, Triolo RJ. Long-term prevention of pressure ulcers in high-risk patients: a single case study of the use of gluteal neuromuscular electric stimulation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(4):585–91. [PubMed: 16571402]
Boorman JG, Carr S, Kemble JV. A clinical evaluation of the air-fluidised bed in a general plastic surgery unit. Br J Plast Surg. 1981;34(2):165–8. [PubMed: 7236975]
Borlawsky T, Hripcsak G. Evaluation of an automated pressure ulcer risk assessment model. Home Health Care Manag Pract. 2007;19(4):272–84.
Bosch M, Trudy G, Wensing M, Akkermans R, Grol R. Organizational culture, team climate, and quality management in an important patient safety issue: nosocomial pressure ulcers. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2011;8(1):4–14. [PubMed: 20367807]
Bostrom J, Mechanic J, Lazar N, Michelson S, Grant L, Nomura L. Preventing skin breakdown: nursing practices, costs, and outcomes. Appl Nurs Res. 1996;9(4):184–8. [PubMed: 8961575]
Bourdel-Marchasson I, Dumas F, Pinganaud G, Emeriau JP, Decamps A. Audit of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in long-term enteral feeding in a nursing home. Int J Qual Health Care. 1997;9(4):297–302. [PubMed: 9304429]
Brennecke A, Boyce G, Pachella R, Polak J, Saggu K. Administrative support as a key intervention to decrease the number of hospital acquired pressure ulcers... Scientific and clinical abstracts from the 40th Annual Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Annual Conference. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(3S):S31–2.
Breslow RA, Hallfrisch J, Goldberg AP. Malnutrition in tubefed nursing home patients with pressure sores. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1991;15(6):663–8. [PubMed: 1766057]
Brindle CT. Outliers to the Braden Scale: identifying high-risk ICU patients and the results of prophylactic dressing use. World Council of Enterostomal Therapists Journal. 2010;30(1):11–8.
Buckland R. A product evaluation of the trio dynamic therapy mattress. Br J Community Nurs. 2008;13(9):S33–4. S6, S8. [PubMed: 19024041]
Campbell KE, Woodbury MG, Houghton PE. Implementation of best practice in the prevention of heel pressure ulcers in the acute orthopedic population. Int Wound J. 2010;7(1):28–40. [PubMed: 20409248]
Capon A, Pavoni N, Mastromattei A, Di Lallo D. Pressure ulcer risk in long-term units: prevalence and associated factors. J Adv Nurs. 2007;58(3):263–72. [PubMed: 17474915]
Carlson EV, Kemp MG, Shott S. Predicting the risk of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. Am J Crit Care. 1999;8(4):262–9. [PubMed: 10392227]
Catz A, Philo O, Gilad N, Barel O, Geva T. Feasibility study of a novel approach to sore prevention in patients with spinal cord lesions: the computerized dynamic control Matrix 200 system. Clin Rehabil. 1999;13(1):44–7.1. [PubMed: 10327096]
Cereda E, Pusani C, Limonta D, Vanotti A. The association of Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and total lymphocyte count with short-term nutrition-related complications in institutionalised elderly. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27(3):406–13. [PubMed: 18838529]
Chaiken N. Reduction of Sacral Pressure Ulcers in the Intensive Care Unit Using a Silicone Border Foam Dressing. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012;39(2):143–5. [PubMed: 22415124]
Chalian AA, Kagan SH. Backside first in head and neck surgery?: preventing pressure ulcers in extended length surgeries. Head Neck. 2001;23(1):25–8. [PubMed: 11190854]
Chaloner D, Cave J. Should weaker study designs ever be preferred over randomised controlled trials. J Tissue Viability. 2000;10(3 su):7–9.1. [PubMed: 11299576]
Cho I, Park HA, Chung E. Exploring practice variation in preventive pressure-ulcer care using data from a clinical data repository. Int J Med Inform. 2011;80(1):47–55. [PubMed: 21130682]
Clark M, Hiskett G, Russell L. Evidence-based practice and support surfaces: are we throwing the baby out with the bath water? J Wound Care. 2005;14(10):455–8. [PubMed: 16304920]
Clever K, Smith G, Bowser C, Monroe K. Evaluating the efficacy of a uniquely delivered skin protectant and its effect on the formation of sacral/buttock pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2002;48(12):60–7.1. [PubMed: 12490754]
Cole L, Nesbitt C. A three year multiphase pressure ulcer prevalence/incidence study in a regional referral hospital. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004;50(11):32–40. [PubMed: 15545696]
Colin D, Chomard D, Bois C, Saumet JL. [Effectiveness of Sanyrene in preventing decubiti, monitoring with transcutaneous oximetry]. Soins. 1997;620:31–4. [PubMed: 9479206]
Collins F, Hampton S. Use of Pressurease and Airform mattresses in pressure ulcer care. Br J Nurs. 2000;9(19):2104–8. [PubMed: 11868189]
Collins F. Vicair Academy Mattress in the prevention of pressure damage. Br J Nurs. 2002;11(10):715–8. [PubMed: 12048459]
Cubbin B, Jackson C. Trial of a pressure area risk calculator for intensive therapy patients. Intensive Care Nurs. 1991;7(1):40–4. [PubMed: 2019734]
de Laat EH, Pickkers P, Schoonhoven L, Verbeek AL, Feuth T, van Achterberg T. Guideline implementation results in a decrease of pressure ulcer incidence in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(3):815–20. [PubMed: 17255865]
De Laat EH, Schoonhoven L, Pickkers P, Verbeek AL, Van Achterberg T. Implementation of a new policy results in a decrease of pressure ulcer frequency. Int J Qual Health Care. 2006;18(2):107–12.1. [PubMed: 16282333]
de Souza DMST, Santos VLCdG, Iri HK, Sadasue Oguri MY. Predictive validity of the Braden Scale for Pressure Ulcer Risk in elderly residents of long-term care facilities. Geriatr Nurs. 2010;31(2):95–104. [PubMed: 20381710]
Dealey C. Pressure sores and incontinence: a study evaluating the use of topical agents in skin care. J Wound Care. 1995;4(3):103–5. [PubMed: 7600345]
Dunford C. Infection control. A clinical evaluation of the Nimbus Dynamic Flotation System. Nursing News (DENOSA). 1997;21–22(12–1):34–7.
Edwards M. Pressure sore risk: validating an assessment tool. Br J Community Nurs. 1996;1(5):282.
Ek AC. Prediction of pressure sore development. Scand J Caring Sci. 1987;1(2):77–84.3. [PubMed: 3134685]
Fisher AR, Wells G, Harrison MB. Factors associated with pressure ulcers in adults in acute care hospitals. Holist Nurs Pract. 2004;18(5):242–53. [PubMed: 15497604]
Flynn D, Williams S. Barrier creams for skin breakdown. Nursing & Residential Care. 2011;13(11):553.
Fontaine R. Investigating the efficacy of a nonpowered pressure-reducing therapeutic mattress: a retrospective multi-site study. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2000;46(9):34–43. [PubMed: 11189539]
Frantz RA, Xakellis GC Jr, Harvey PC, Lewis AR. Implementing an incontinence management protocol in long-term care. Clinical outcomes and costs. J Gerontol Nurs. 2003;29(8):46–53. [PubMed: 13677160]
Fritsch DE, Coffee TL, Yowler CJ. Characteristics of burn patients developing pressure ulcers. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2001;22(4):293–9. discussion 2. [PubMed: 11482690]
Fuentelsaz Gallego C. Validation of the EMINA scale: tool for the evaluation of risk of developing pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients [Spanish] Enferm Clin. 2001;11(3):97–103.
Garber SL, Rintala DH, Hart KA, Fuhrer MJ. Pressure ulcer risk in spinal cord injury: predictors of ulcer status over 3 years. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000;81(4):465–71. [PubMed: 10768537]
Gebhardt K. Tissue viability. Preventing pressure sores in orthopaedics. Nurs Stand. 1992;6(23) suppl 4:6. [PubMed: 1312337]
Goldstone LA, Goldstone J. The Norton score: an early warning of pressure sores? J Adv Nurs. 1982;7(5):419–26. [PubMed: 6924669]
Gould D, Goldstone L, Kelly D, Gammon J. Examining the validity of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales: a replication study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004;41(3):331–9. [PubMed: 14967190]
Gould D, Kelly D, Goldstone L, Gammon J. Examining the validity of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales: developing and using illustrated patient simulations to collect the data. J Clin Nurs. 2001;10(5):697–706. [PubMed: 11822520]
Gray DG, Cooper PJ, Campbell M. A study of the performance of a pressure reducing foam mattress after three years of use. J Tissue Viability. 1998;8(3):9–13. [PubMed: 10480960]
Gray-Siracusa K, Schrier L. Use of an intervention bundle to eliminate pressure ulcers in critical care. J Nurs Care Qual. 2011;26(3):216–25. [PubMed: 21278597]
Gunnarsson A-K, Lonn K, Gunningberg L. Does nutritional intervention for patients with hip fractures reduce postoperative complications and improve rehabilitation? J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(9):1325–33. [PubMed: 19207806]
Gunningberg L. Are patients with or at risk of pressure ulcers allocated appropriate prevention measures? Int J Nurs Pract. 2005;11(2):58–67.1. [PubMed: 15752320]
Gunningberg L. Pressure ulcer prevention: evaluation of an education programme for Swedish nurses. J Wound Care. 2004;13(3):85–9. [PubMed: 15045800]
Gunningberg L. Risk, prevalence and prevention of pressure ulcers in three Swedish healthcare settings. J Wound Care. 2004;13(7):286–90. [PubMed: 15977770]
Haalboom JR, den Boer J, Buskens E. Risk-assessment tools in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1999;45(2):20–6. 8, 30–4. [PubMed: 10223012]
Hampton S. Evaluation of the new Cairwave Therapy System in one hospital trust. Br J Nurs. 1997;6(3):13–26. 167–70. [PubMed: 9104123]
Hanson DS, Langemo D, Olson B, Hunter S, Burd C. Evaluation of pressure ulcer prevalence rates for hospice patients post-implementation of pressure ulcer protocols. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 1994;11(6):14–9. [PubMed: 7893563]
Hawkins JE. The effectiveness of pressure-reducing table pads as an intervention to reduce the risk of intraoperatively acquired pressure sores. Mil Med. 1997;162(11):759–61.9. [PubMed: 9358724]
Heyneman A, Vanderwee K, Grypdonck M, Defloor T. Effectiveness of two cushions in the prevention of heel pressure ulcers. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs / Sigma Theta Tau International. Honor Society of Nursing. 2009;6(2):114–20. [PubMed: 19422672]
Horn SD, Bender SA, Ferguson ML, Smout RJ, Bergstrom N, Taler G, et al. The National Pressure Ulcer Long-Term Care Study: pressure ulcer development in long-term care residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(3):359–67.1. [PubMed: 14962149]
Hoskins A. Similar proportions of patients developed pressure ulcers on alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure mattresses. Evid Based Nurs. 2007;10(1):22–3. [PubMed: 17218296]
Houwing R, Rozendaal M, Wouters-Wesseling W, Buskens E, Keller P, Haalboom J. Pressure ulcer risk in hip fracture patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 2004;75(4):390–3. [PubMed: 15370580]
Hunt J. Application of a pressure area risk calculator in an intensive care unit. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 1993;9(4):226–31. [PubMed: 8274831]
Hunter S, Anderson J, Hanson D, Thompson P, Langemo D, Klug MG. Clinical trial of a prevention and treatment protocol for skin breakdown in two nursing homes. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2003;30(5):250–8. [PubMed: 14560283]
Hunter SM, Langemo DK, Olson B, Hanson D, Cathcart-Silberberg T, Burd C, et al. The effectiveness of skin care protocols for pressure ulcers. Rehabil Nurs. 1995;20(5):250–5. [PubMed: 7569301]
Jackson J, Carlson M, Rubayi S, Scott MD, Atkins MS, Blanche EI, et al. Qualitative study of principles pertaining to lifestyle and pressure ulcer risk in adults with spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil. 2010;32(7):567–78. [PubMed: 20136475]
Johnson J, Peterson D, Campbell B, Richardson R, Rutledge D. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence--evaluating low-air-loss beds. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2011;38(1):55–60. [PubMed: 21233664]
Judy D, Brooks B, Fennie K, Lyder C, Burton C. Improving the Detection of Pressure Ulcers Using the TMI ImageMed System. Advances in Skin & Wound Care. 2011;24(1):18–24. [PubMed: 21173587]
Knowles C, Horsey I. Clinical evaluation of an electronic pressure-relieving mattress. Br J Nurs. 1999;8(20):1392–5. [PubMed: 10887824]
Kosiak M. An effective method of preventing decubital ulcers. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1966;47(11):724–9. [PubMed: 5926403]
Krasner D. Minimizing factors that impair wound healing: a nursing approach. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1995;41(1):22–6. 8, 30. quiz 1–2. [PubMed: 7779231]
Kynes PM, Neese DT. The effects of ET nursing assessment on the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. J Enterostomal Ther. 1987;14(4):148–51. [PubMed: 3648066]
Lahmann NA, Halfens RJG, Dassen T. Impact of prevention structures and processes on pressure ulcer prevalence in nursing homes and acute-care hospitals. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010;16(1):50–6. [PubMed: 20367815]
Lepisto M, Eriksson E, Hietanen H, Lepisto J, Lauri S. Developing a pressure ulcer risk assessment scale for patients in long-term care. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2006;52(2):34–46. [PubMed: 16464993]
Lizi D. Setting the standard for pressure sore prevention on a trauma orthopaedic ward. Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing. 2000;4(1):22–5.
Lockyer-Stevens N. Successful use of the Norton score in pressure sore prevention. Prof Nurse. 1995;10(8):488. [PubMed: 7761488]
Lyder CH, Shannon R, Empleo-Frazier O, McGeHee D, White C. A comprehensive program to prevent pressure ulcers in long-term care: exploring costs and outcomes. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2002;48(4):52–62.1. [PubMed: 11993061]
Lynn J, West J, Hausmann S, Gifford D, Nelson R, McGann P, et al. Collaborative clinical quality improvement for pressure ulcers in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(10):1663–9. [PubMed: 17714457]
MacFarlane A, Sayer S. Two clinical evaluations of the Repose system. Wounds UK. 2006;2(3):14–25.
Maklebust J, Brunckhorst L, Cracchiolo-Caraway A, Ducharme MA, Dundon R, Panfilli R, et al. Pressure ulcer incidence in high-risk patients managed on a special three-layered air cushion. Decubitus. 1988;1(4):30–40. [PubMed: 3075926]
Marchand AC, Lidowski H. Reassessment of the use of genuine sheepskin for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. Decubitus. 1993;6(1):44–7. [PubMed: 8427643]
Mastrangelo D, Farina E, Gallicchio V, De Anna D, Bresadola F. Observational study of the use of antidecubitus mattress covers in the prevention and care of pressure ulcers. Acta Vulnologica. 2010;8(2):87–92.
McCormack HC. A pressure sore risk scale for use with older people. Prof Nurse. 1996;11(10):673–4. 6. [PubMed: 8718376]
McInerney JA. Reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence through a focused prevention program. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2008;21(2):75–8. [PubMed: 18349734]
Metersky ML, Hunt DR, Kliman R, Wang Y, Curry M, Verzier N, et al. Racial Disparities in the Frequency of Patient Safety Events: Results From the National Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System. Med Care. 2011;49(5):504–10. [PubMed: 21494115]
Meyers TR. Preventing heel pressure ulcers and plantar flexion contractures in high-risk sedated patients. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2010;37(4):372–8. [PubMed: 20571472]
Mistiaen PJ, Jolley DJ, McGowan S, Hickey MB, Spreeuwenberg P, Francke AL. A multilevel analysis of three randomised controlled trials of the Australian Medical Sheepskin in the prevention of sacral pressure ulcers. Med J Aust. 2010;193(11–12):638–41. [PubMed: 21143048]
Moreau-Gaudry A, Prince A, Demongeot J, Payan Y. A new health strategy to prevent pressure ulcer formation in paraplegics using computer and sensory substitution via the tongue. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;124:926–31. [PubMed: 17108630]
Morris C, Pritchard B. Performance indicators--a quest to improve patient care. Br J Nurs. 2007;16(20):S34–7. [PubMed: 18073696]
Moura, Moreira MP, Caetano JA. Evaluating risk of pressure ulcer in critical patients [Portuguese] Revista Enfermagem UERJ. 2011;19(1):58–63.
Mudzi W, Stewart A, Eales C. Spinal cord injured patients’ knowledge of pressure sores. South African Journal of Physiotherapy. 2001;57(4):9–13.
Munro CA. The development of a pressure ulcer risk-assessment scale for perioperative patients. Aorn J. 2010;92(3):272–87. [PubMed: 20816101]
Myers AH, Palmer MH, Engel BT, Warrenfeltz DJ, Parker JA. Mobility in older patients with hip fractures: examining prefracture status, complications, and outcomes at discharge from the acute-care hospital. J Orthop Trauma. 1996;10(2):99–107. [PubMed: 8932668]
Naber JL, Perlow M. Pressure ulcers and the home health aide: evaluation of an educational program. Home Healthc Nurse. 2008;26(5):269–72. [PubMed: 18469598]
Newton H, Dean J. Monitoring the effectiveness of the Talley Quattro Acute mattress replacement system. Wounds UK. 2008;4(2):63.
Nicosia G, Gliatta AE, Woodbury MG, Houghton PE. The effect of pressure-relieving surfaces on the prevention of heel ulcers in a variety of settings: a meta-analysis. Int Wound J. 2007;4(3):197–207. [PubMed: 17924876]
Nonnemacher M, Stausberg J, Bartoszek G, Lottko B, Neuhaeuser M, Maier I. Predicting pressure ulcer risk: a multifactorial approach to assess risk factors in a large university hospital population. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(1):99–107. [PubMed: 19120735]
Nwadinigwe CU, Anyaehie UE, Onyegbule EC. The impact of water mattresses on incidence of PUs in patients with spinal cord injuries in Nigeria. J Wound Care. 2012;21(4):184, 6–9. [PubMed: 22584677]
Ooka M, Kemp MG, McMyn R, Shott S. Evaluation of three types of support surfaces for preventing pressure ulcers in patients in a surgical intensive care unit. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1995;22(6):271–9. [PubMed: 8704837]
Orsted HL, Rosenthal S, Woodbury MG. Pressure ulcer awareness and prevention program: a quality improvement program through the Canadian Association of Wound Care. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009;36(2):178–83. [PubMed: 19287266]
Padula CA, Osborne E, Williams J. Prevention and early detection of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(1):65–75. discussion 6–8. [PubMed: 18199940]
Pancorbo Hidalgo PL, Garcia Fernandez FP. Risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers among hospitalized elderly patients [Spanish] Gerokomos. 2001;12(4):175–84.
Papanikolaou P, Lyne PA, Lycett EJ. Pressure ulcer risk assessment: application of logistic analysis. J Adv Nurs. 2003;44(2):128–36. [PubMed: 14521680]
Paquay L, Verstraete S, Wouters R, Buntinx F, Vanderwee K, Defloor T, et al. Implementation of a guideline for pressure ulcer prevention in home care: pretest-post-test study. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(13-14):1803–11. [PubMed: 20920008]
Pase MN. Pressure relief devices, risk factors, and development of pressure ulcers in elderly patients with limited mobility. Adv Wound Care. 1994;7(2):38–42. [PubMed: 7812582]
Peich S, Calderon-Margalit R. Reduction of nosocomial pressure ulcers in patients with hip fractures: a quality improvement program. Int J Health Care Qual Assur Inc Leadersh Health Serv. 2004;17(2–3):75–80. [PubMed: 15301263]
Pemberton V, Turner V, VanGilder C. The effect of using a low-air-loss surface on the skin integrity of obese patients: results of a pilot study. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2009;55(2):44–8. [PubMed: 19246784]
Perneger TV, Heliot C, Rae AC, Borst F, Gaspoz JM. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers: risk factors and use of preventive devices. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(17):1940–5. [PubMed: 9759692]
Pham B, Teague L, Mahoney J, Goodman L, Paulden M, Poss J, et al. Support surfaces for intraoperative prevention of pressure ulcers in patients undergoing surgery: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Surgery. 2011;150(1):122–32. [PubMed: 21683861]
Phillips VL, Temkin A, Vesmarovich S, Burns R, Idleman L. Using telehealth interventions to prevent pressure ulcers in newly injured spinal cord injury patients post-discharge. Results from a pilot study. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 1999;15(4):749–55. [PubMed: 10645116]
Pokorny ME, Koldjeski D, Swanson M. Skin care intervention for patients having cardiac surgery. Am J Crit Care. 2003;12(6):535–44. [PubMed: 14619359]
Prebio M, Katz-Papatheophilou E, Heindl W, Gelbmann H, Burghuber OC. [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005;117(3):98–105.1. [PubMed: 15773424]
Rafter L. Evaluation of patient outcomes: pressure ulcer prevention mattresses. Br J Nurs. 2011;20(11):S32, S4–8. [PubMed: 21727848]
Raghavan P, Raza WA, Ahmed YS, Chamberlain MA. Prevalence of pressure sores in a community sample of spinal injury patients. Clin Rehabil. 2003;17(8):879–84. [PubMed: 14682560]
Ramon Canton C, Salvador Guadayol C, Torra i Bou JE. [Pressure sores: evaluation of the systematic use of special surfaces for managing pressure sores in the intensive care unit of the Tarrasa Hospital, Spain]. Enferm Intensiva. 2000;11(3):118–26. [PubMed: 11272994]
Rasero L, Fabbri C, Cantasano L, Lotti T, Pucci T, Veratti M, et al. [Prevention of pressure ulcers: retrospective study regarding the effectiveness of an alternate pressure device]. 2007;60(4):237–41. [PubMed: 18289496]
Rastinehad D. Effectiveness of a pressure ulcer prevention programme in an at-risk oncology population. World Council of Enterostomal Therapists Journal. 2008;28(3):12–6.
Regan MB, Byers PH, Mayrovitz HN. Efficacy of a comprehensive pressure ulcer prevention program in an extended care facility. Adv Wound Care. 1995;8(3):49, 51–2, 4–5. [PubMed: 7795880]
Reus U, Huber H, Heine U. Nursing care assessment and decubitus ulcer. A data evaluation of nursing care in the MDK-WL. Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2005;38(3):210–7. [PubMed: 15965796]
Reynolds TM, Stokes A, Russell L. Assessment of a prognostic biochemical indicator of nutrition and inflammation for identification of pressure ulcer risk. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59(3):308–10. [PMC free article: PMC1860338] [PubMed: 16505284]
Rich SE, Margolis D, Shardell M, Hawkes WG, Miller RR, Amr S, et al. Frequent manual repositioning and incidence of pressure ulcers among bed-bound elderly hip fracture patients. Wound Repair Regen. 2011;19(1):10–8. [PMC free article: PMC3059225] [PubMed: 21134034]
Richardson GM, Gardner S, Frantz RA. Nursing assessment: impact on type and cost of interventions to prevent pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1998;25(6):273–80. [PubMed: 9919142]
Rimmer C. Establishing the cost of comfort: effectiveness of mattresses in pressure sore prevention. Prof Nurse. 1992;7810(12):2, 4–5. [PubMed: 1513835]
Roberson S, Ayello EA, Levine J. Clarification of pressure ulcer staging in long-term care under MDS 2.0. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2010;23(5):206–10. [PubMed: 20407294]
Roca Biosca A, Velasco Guillen MC, Anguera Saperas L, Garcia Grau N. Impact of an educational programme on pressure ulcers in an intensive care service. Metas de Enfermería. 2010;13(2):25–31.
Rochon PA, Beaudet MP, McGlinchey-Berroth R, Morrow LA, Ahlquist MM, Young RR, et al. Risk assessment for pressure ulcers: an adaptation of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel risk factors to spinal cord injured patients. J Am Paraplegia Soc. 1993;16(3):169–77. [PubMed: 8366340]
Rodriguez GP, Garber SL. Prospective study of pressure ulcer risk in spinal cord injury patients. Paraplegia. 1994;32(3):150–8. [PubMed: 8008417]
Rodriguez Torres MC, Garcia Fernandez FP, Plaza Jurado F, Maldonado FC, Martinez Martos C, Noguera Gutierrez A, et al. Validation of the EMINA pressure risk assessment [Spanish] Gerokomos. 2005;16(3):174–82.
Rosen J, Mittal V, Degenholtz H, Castle N, Mulsant BH, Hulland S, et al. Ability, incentives, and management feedback: organizational change to reduce pressure ulcers in a nursing home. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2006;7(3):141–6.16. [PubMed: 16503306]
Rosen J, Mittal V, Degenholtz H, Castle N, Mulsant BH, Nace D, et al. Pressure ulcer prevention in black and white nursing home residents: A QI initiative of enhanced ability, incentives, and management feedback. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2006;19(5):262–8. [PubMed: 16732072]
Rudman D, Slater EJ, Richardson TJ, Mattson DE. The occurrence of pressure ulcers in three nursing homes. J Gen Intern Med. 1993;8(12):653–8. [PubMed: 8120680]
Sacharok C, Drew J. Use of a total quality management model to reduce pressure ulcer prevalence in the acute care setting. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1998;25(2):88–92. [PubMed: 9592471]
Sakai K, Sanada H, Matsui N, Nakagami G, Sugama J, Komiyama C, et al. Continuous monitoring of interface pressure distribution in intensive care patients for pressure ulcer prevention. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65(4):809–17. [PubMed: 19228239]
Saladin LK, Krause JS. Pressure ulcer prevalence and barriers to treatment after spinal cord injury: comparisons of four groups based on race-ethnicity. NeuroRehabilitation. 2009;24(1):57–66.1. [PubMed: 19208958]
Salomé GM. Occurrence of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit [Portuguese] Saude Coletiva. 2010;7(42):183–8.
Salzberg CA, Byrne DW, Cayten CG, Kabir R, van Niewerburgh P, Viehbeck M, et al. Predicting and preventing pressure ulcers in adults with paralysis. Adv Wound Care. 1998;11(5):237–46. [PubMed: 10326341]
Salzberg CA, Byrne DW, Cayten CG, van Niewerburgh P, Murphy JG, Viehbeck M. A new pressure ulcer risk assessment scale for individuals with spinal cord injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;75(2):96–104. [PubMed: 8630201]
Salzberg CA, Byrne DW, Kabir R, van Niewerburg P, Cayten CG. Predicting pressure ulcers during initial hospitalization for acute spinal cord injury. Wounds. 1999;11(2):45–57.
Sansom W, Flynn K. Risk assessment and anatomical foam heel dressings in emergency department contribute to reduced development of pressure ulcers. Primary Intention: The Australian Journal of Wound Management. 2007;15(3):114.
Santamaria N, Carville K, Prentice J, Ellis I, Ellis T, Lewin G, et al. Pressure ulcer prevalence and its relationship to comorbidity in nursing home residents: results from phase 1 of the PRIME Trial. Primary Intention: The Australian Journal of Wound Management. 2005;13(3):107.
Santamaria N, Carville K, Prentice J, Ellis I, Ellis T, Lewin G, et al. Reducing pressure ulcer prevalence in residential aged care: results from phase II of the PRIME trial. Wound Repair Regen. 2009;17(1):12.
Schoonhoven L, Bousema MT, Buskens E. The prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients in The Netherlands: a prospective inception cohort study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44(6):927–35. [PubMed: 16620820]
Schoonhoven L, Grobbee DE, Bousema MT, Buskens E. pre Psg. Predicting pressure ulcers: cases missed using a new clinical prediction rule. J Adv Nurs. 2005;49(1):16–22. [PubMed: 15610377]
Schoonhoven L, Grobbee DE, Donders ART, Algra A, Grypdonck MH, Bousema MT, et al. Prediction of pressure ulcer development in hospitalized patients: a tool for risk assessment. Qual Saf Health Care. 2006;15(1):65–70. [PMC free article: PMC2563999] [PubMed: 16456213]
Schue RM, Langemo DK. Pressure ulcer prevalence and incidence and a modification of the Braden Scale for a rehabilitation unit. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1998;25(1):36–43. [PubMed: 9481286]
Schue RM, Langemo DK. Prevalence, incidence, and prediction of pressure ulcers on a rehabilitation unit... including commentary by Whitney JD. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1999;26(3):121–9. [PubMed: 10711121]
Sebern MD. Cost and efficacy of pressure ulcer management in a metropolitan visiting nurse association. Decubitus. 1989;2(3):58–9. [PubMed: 2775474]
Segovia Gomez T, Bermejo Martinez M, Molina Silva R, Rueda Lopez J, Je Study of different variables related to nutritional status and presence of pressure ulcers among patients over 65 years at risk of developing pressure ulcers admitted to an internal medicine nursing unit [Spanish] 2001;12(3):121–31.
Shannon RJ, Coombs M, Chakravarthy D. Reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers with a silicone-based dermal nourishing emollient-associated skincare regimen. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2009;22(10):461–7. [PubMed: 20026921]
Shukla VK, Shukla D, Singh A, Tripathi AK, Jaiswal S, Basu S. Risk assessment for pressure ulcer: a hospital-based study. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(4):407–11. [PubMed: 18635991]
Smith AM, Malone JA. Preventing pressure ulcers in institutionalized elders: assessing the effects of small, unscheduled shifts in body position. Decubitus. 1990;3(4):20–4. [PubMed: 2242233]
Stephen-Haynes J, Callaghan R. Clinical outcomes using a low friction and shear garment in the care home setting. Wounds UK. 2011;7(4):76–84.
Stephen-Haynes J. Achieving effective outcomes: monitoring the effectiveness of the Softform Premier Active[™] mattress. Br J Community Nurs. 2010;15:S48–54. [PubMed: 20852536]
Still JM, Wilson J, Rinker C, Law E, Craft-Coffman B. A retrospective study to determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in burn patients using an alternating pressure mattress. Burns. 2003;29(5):505–7. [PubMed: 12880737]
Stordeur S, Laurent S, D’Hoore W. The importance of repeated risk assessment for pressure sores in cardiovascular surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1998;39(3):343–9. [PubMed: 9678558]
Stotts NA, Gunningberg L. How to try this: predicting pressure ulcer risk. Using the Braden scale with hospitalized older adults: the evidence supports it. Am J Nurs. 2007;107(11):40–8. quiz 8–9. [PubMed: 18075340]
Tannen A, Dassen T, Halfens R. Differences in prevalence of pressure ulcers between the Netherlands and Germany--associations between risk, prevention and occurrence of pressure ulcers in hospitals and nursing homes. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(9):1237–44. [PubMed: 18416798]
Tazi O, Debure C. Preventing high-risk diabetic foot ulceration by a new method of custom-made shoes in high-risk patients. Prospective study. J Mal Vasc. 2008;33(4-5):191–5. [PubMed: 19036540]
Timmerman T, Teare G, Walling E, Delaney C, Gander L. Evaluating the implementation and outcomes of the Saskatchewan pressure ulcer guidelines in long-term care facilities. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2007;53(2):28–43. [PubMed: 17293628]
Tolmie EP, Smith LN. A study of the prevention and management of pressure sores. Clin Eff Nurs. 2002;6(3–4):111–20.
Uzun O, Aylaz R, Karadag E. Prospective study: reducing pressure ulcers in intensive care units at a Turkish medical center. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009;36(4):404–11. [PubMed: 19609161]
VanEtten NK, Sexton P, Smith R. Development and implementation of a skin care program. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1990;27:40–54. [PubMed: 2322381]
Vap PW, Dunaye T. Pressure ulcer risk assessment in long-term care nursing. J Gerontol Nurs. 2000;26(6):37–45. [PubMed: 11249268]
Vati J, Chopra S, Walia I. Nurses’ role in the management and prevention of pressure ulcers--a study. Nurs J India. 2004;95(5):111–2. [PubMed: 15553883]
Walsh JS, Plonczynski DJ. Evaluation of a protocol for prevention of facility-acquired heel pressure ulcers. Journal of wound, ostomy, and continence nursing : official publication of The Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society. 2007;34(2):178–83. [PubMed: 17413835]
Walsh NS, Blanck AW, Smith L, Cross M, Andersson L, Polito C. Use of a Sacral Silicone Border Foam Dressing as One Component of a Pressure Ulcer Prevention Program in an Intensive Care Unit Setting. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012;39(2):146–9. [PubMed: 22415125]
Warner DJ. A clinical comparison of two pressure-reducing surfaces in the management of pressure ulcers. Decubitus. 1992;5(3):62–4. 52–5, 8–60, 2–4. [PubMed: 1596352]
Warren JB, Yoder LH, Young-McCaughan S. Development of a decision tree for support surfaces: a tool for nursing. Medsurg Nurs. 1999;8(4):239. [PubMed: 10661160]
Watkinson C. Developing a pressure sore risk assessment scale... Watkinson scale. Prof Nurse. 1997;12(5):341. [PubMed: 9128687]
Wellard S, Lo SK. Comparing Norton, Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales for pressure ulcers in spinal cord injuries. Contemp Nurse. 2000;9(2):155–60. [PubMed: 11855004]
Weststrate JT, Bruining HA. Pressure sores in an intensive care unit and related variables: a descriptive study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 1996;12(5):280–4. [PubMed: 8938082]
Wilborn D, Halfens R, Dassen T. Pressure ulcer: Prevention protocols and prevalence. J Eval Clin Pract. 2006;12(6):630–8. [PubMed: 17100862]
Wipke-Tevis DD, Williams DA, Rantz MJ, Popejoy LL, Madsen RW, Petroski GF, et al. Nursing home quality and pressure ulcer prevention and management practices. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004;52(4):583–8. [PubMed: 15066075]
Wu T, Wang S-T, Lin P-C, Liu C-L, Chao Y-FC. Effects of using a high-density foam pad versus a viscoelastic polymer pad on the incidence of pressure ulcer development during spinal surgery. Biol Res Nurs. 2011;13(4):419–24. [PubMed: 21196422]
Young ZF, Evans A, Davis J. Nosocomial pressure ulcer prevention: a successful project. J Nurs Adm. 2003;33(7-8):380–3. [PubMed: 12909788]
Wrong Publication Type
The Geriatric Incidence and Prevention of Pressure Sores study, a study to reduce the risk. Rev Infirm. 2004;(Spec No:7) [PubMed: 15566257]
[Minor simulation, big effect. Beds with microstimulation systems to support decubitus ulcer prevention]. Pflege Zeitschrift. 2006;59(9):589. [PubMed: 17009804]
[Prevention of decubitus ulcers. A long awaited study on risk reduction]. Rev Infirm. 2004;(101):21. [PubMed: 15984745]
Improve pressure ulcer risk assessment to improve care. Hospital Home Health. 2009;26(12):133–5.
Ariyan S, Chicarilli ZN. A suspensory jacket permitting long-term sitting in paraplegic patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1987;79(2):284–8. [PubMed: 3809277]
Aronovitch SA. A comparative, randomized, controlled study to determine safety and efficacy of preventive pressure ulcer systems: preliminary analysis. Adv Wound Care. 1998;11(3 Suppl):15–6. [PubMed: 9729956]
Ayello EA. Predicting pressure ulcer sore risk. J Gerontol Nurs. 1999;25(10):7–9. [PubMed: 10776147]
Ballard K. Pressure-relief mattresses and patient comfort. Prof Nurse. 1997;13(1):27–32. [PubMed: 9393050]
Blanco Blanco J, Ballester Torralba J, Rueda Lopez J, Torra i, Bou JE. Comparative study of the use of a heel protecting bandage and a special hydrocellular dressing in the prevention of pressure ulcers in elderly patients; 12th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2002.
Blaylock B. Air support therapy: ethical considerations. J ET Nurs. 1992;19(5):171–3.1. [PubMed: 1420530]
Bliss MR. Randomised controlled trial of seven pressure relieving mattress overlays for preventing pressure sores in elderly patients; Conference of the Tissue Viability Society; 1994.
Bolton L. Which pressure ulcer risk assessment scales are valid for use in the clinical setting? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007;34(4):368–81. [PubMed: 17667083]
Braden BJ, Bergstrom N. Clinical utility of the Braden scale for Predicting Pressure Sore Risk. Decubitus. 1989;2(3):44–6. 50–1. [PubMed: 2775473]
Brown J, McElvenny D, Nixon J, Bainbridge J, Mason S. Some practical issues in the design, monitoring and analysis of a sequential randomized trial in pressure sore prevention. Statistics in medicine. 2000;19(24):3389–400. [PubMed: 11122503]
Brown SJ. The Braden Scale. A review of the research evidence. Orthop Nurs. 2004;23(1):30–8. [PubMed: 14999950]
Calianno C. Assessing and preventing pressure ulcers. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2000;13(5):244–6. [PubMed: 11075024]
Cereda E, Caccialanza R, Pedrolli C. Perioperative oral nutritional support in surgical hip fracture patients: suggestions for the prevention of pressure ulcers. Clin Nutr. 2011;30(3):397. author reply 8. [PubMed: 21095628]
Cheesman K, Makinde S, Bird G. Pressure ulcers in parturients. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2010;19(1):121–2. [PubMed: 19945272]
Chong CP, Savige JA, Lim WK. Medical problems in hip fracture patients. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2010;130(11):1355–61. [PubMed: 20049603]
Cobb GA, Yoder LH, Warren JB. Pressure ulcers: patient outcomes on a KinAir bed or EHOB waffle mattress. TriService Nursing Research Program. 1997.
Colin D, Bohbot S, Chomard D, Saumet JL. An evaluation of hyperoxygenated fatty acid esters solution in the prevention of pressure ulcers. World Council of Enterostomal Therapists Journal. 2007;27(3):36.
Collins F. Preventing pressure sores in the seated patient. Nurs Stand. 1999;13(42):50–4. [PubMed: 10524110]
Comfort EH. Reducing pressure ulcer incidence through Braden Scale risk assessment and support surface use. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2008;21(7):330–4. [PubMed: 18600075]
Compton F, Strauss M, Hortig T, Frey J, Hoffmann F, Zidek W, et al. [Validity of the Waterlow scale for pressure ulcer risk assessment in the intensive care unit: a prospective analysis of 698 patients]. Pflege. 2008;21(1):37–48. [PubMed: 18478685]
Dealey C. A prevention and management aid: evaluation of the Nimbus II mattress. Prof Nurse. 1994;9(12):798–804. [PubMed: 7938061]
Demarré L, Beeckman D, Defloor T. Pressure ulcers: knowledge and attitudes of nurses in Belgian nursing homes. Fourth European Nursing Congress. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19:42.
Demarre L, Vanderwee K, Beeckman D, Defloor T. Pressure ulcer prevention: randomized controlled trail comparing the effect of a standard alternating pressure air mattress and a alternating low pressure air mattress with gradual inflation and deflation. EWMA Journal. 2010;48;10(2):44.
Demarré L, Vanderwee K, Beeckman D, Defloor T. The effectiveness of a multistage low pressure air mattress in pressure ulcer prevention: an RCT... Fourth European Nursing Congress. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19:41.
Dunlop V. Preliminary results of a randomized, controlled study of a pressure ulcer prevention system. Adv Wound Care. 1998;11(3 Suppl):14. [PubMed: 9729955]
Edwards M. The rationale for the use of risk calculators in pressure sore prevention, and the evidence of the reliability and validity of published scales. J Adv Nurs. 1994;20(2):288–96. [PubMed: 7930147]
Eusanio PL. Monitoring skin care eliminates decubitus ulcers. Am Health Care Assoc J. 1976;2(6):50–1. [PubMed: 1049595]
Fawcett LM, Miller WC. Identifying the seating needs of residents in LTC settings. Long-Term Care Interface. 2005;6(3):29.
Fife C, Otto G, Capsuto EG, Brandt K, Lyssy K, Murphy K, et al. Incidence of pressure ulcers in a neurologic intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2001;29(2):283–90. [PubMed: 11246307]
Gallart E, Riera MA, Marin G, Gomez J, Gallart MA, Llaurad M. Prevention of pressure sores in patients with poor perfusion tissue: A pilot study comparing oil vs milk hyperoxygenated fatty acids. Intensive Care Medicine. 2010;36(Supplement 2):S306.
Garcia Fernandez FP, Pancorbo Hidalgo PL, Rodriguez Torres MC. Utility and cost-effectiveness of air suspension bed in the prevention of pressure ulcers [Spanish] Gerokomos. 2004;15(3):162–7.
Gebhardt K. A randomized trial of alternating pressure (AP) and constant low pressure (CLP) supports for the prevention of pressure sores. J Tissue Viability. 1994;4(3):93.
Gebhardt K. Preventing pressure sores. Elder Care. 1994;6(2):23–8. [PubMed: 7920471]
Gebhardt K. Pressure ulcer prevention. Part 2. Patient assessment. Nurs Times. 2002;98(12):39–42. [PubMed: 11933783]
Gebhardt KBMR. A controlled study to compare the efficacy, practicability and cost of pressure relieving supports to prevent and heal pressure sores; 2nd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1992.
Gehin C, Brusseau E, Meffre R, Schmitt PM, Deprez JF, Dittmar A. Which techniques to improve the early detection and prevention of pressure ulcers? Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2006;1:6057–60. [PubMed: 17946739]
Ger R, Evans JT. The prevention of pressure ulcers. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1994;93(4):891–2. [PubMed: 8134455]
Gibbons W, Shanks HT, Kleinhelter P, Jones P. Eliminating facility-acquired pressure ulcers at Ascension Health. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2006;32(9):488–96. [PubMed: 17987872]
Gledhill L, Hampton S. The Hampton-Gledhill 2-stage pressure risk-assessment system. Br J Nurs. 2005;14(11):S28–34. [PubMed: 15976609]
Gold MF, Shuxteau J. Teamwork achieves lower pressure ulcer, pain levels: new processes target indicators. Provider. 2005;31(6):22.
Goodman L. A skin care program with depth: a transferable model for skin care that works in the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Canadian Nursing Home. 2003;14(5):14–22.
Gordon MD, Gottschlich MM, Helvig EI, Marvin JA, Richard RL. Review of evidenced-based practice for the prevention of pressure sores in burn patients. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2004;25(5):388–410. [PubMed: 15353931]
Gosnell DJ. Assessment and evaluation of pressure sores. Nurs Clin North Am. 1987;22(2):399–416. [PubMed: 3646668]
Gosnell DJ. Pressure sore risk assessment: a critique. Part I. The Gosnell scale. Decubitus. 1989;2(3):32–8. [PubMed: 2775472]
Gosnell DJ. Gosnell pressure sore risk assessment instrument revision. J Enterostomal Ther. 1989;16(6):272. [PubMed: 2584529]
Gould D, James T, Tarpey A, Kelly D, Pattison D, Fox C. Intervention studies to reduce the prevalence and incidence of pressure sores: a literature review. J Clin Nurs. 2000;9(2):163–77. [PubMed: 11111606]
Gouveia J. Can it be possible to prevent pressure ulcers improving care during the bath and other personal care. EWMA Journal. 2008;8(2 (Supp)):131.
Granick MS. Use of wound care team decreases prevalence of pressure ulcers. Am Fam Physician. 1997;55(4):1337.
Guttman L. Drug-based prevention of pressure sores. Lancet. 1976;2(7989):801. [PubMed: 61470]
Hagisawa S, Ferguson-Pell M. Evidence supporting the use of two-hourly turning for pressure ulcer prevention. J Tissue Viability. 2008;17(3):76–81.1. [PubMed: 18722313]
Haglund K. Tool outperforms judgment in assessing pressure ulcers. Caring for the Ages. 2008;9(5):3.
Han J, Li G, Wang A. Control study on pressure sore prevention for patients accepting posterior spinal surgery [Chinese] Chinese Nursing Research. 2011;25(2A):308–10.
Harrison MB, Wells G. Braden Risk-assessment scale for pressure ulcers. Nursing Research. 1999;48(5):240–1. [PubMed: 10494907]
Healey F. Risk assessment tools in the prevention of pressure ulcers. J Tissue Viability. 2000;10(1):34–5. [PubMed: 10839095]
Hill-Brown S. Reduction of pressure ulcer incidence in the home healthcare setting: a pressure-relief seating cushion project to reduce the number of community-acquired pressure ulcers. Home Healthc Nurse. 2011;29(9):575–9. [PubMed: 21956013]
Holm B, Mesch L, Ove H. Importance of nutrition for elderly persons with pressure ulcers or a vulnerability for pressure ulcers: a systematic literature review. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2007;25(1):77–84.
Hungerford K. A specially designed foam mattress replacement reduced pressure ulcers in nursing home residents. Evid Based Nurs. 1998;1(2):51.
Imanishi K, Morita K, Matsuoka M, Hayashi H, Furukawa S, Terashita F, et al. Prevention of postoperative pressure ulcers by a polyurethane film patch. J Dermatol. 2006;33(3):236–7. [PubMed: 16620238]
Jackson C. The revised Jackson/Cubbin Pressure Area Risk Calculator. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 1999;15(3):169–75. [PubMed: 10595057]
James D, Flavin S, Shapcott N, Laing H. PUPIS (Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Intervention Service). J Tissue Viability. 2009;18(4):121–2.
James H. Pressure sore prevention in acutely ill patients. Prof Nurse. 1997;12(6 Suppl):S8–10.9. [PubMed: 9128642]
James H. Preventing pressure sores in patients’ homes. Prof Nurse. 1997;12(6 Suppl):S12–4. [PubMed: 9128643]
Jastremski CA. Pressure relief bedding to prevent pressure ulcer development in critical care. J Crit Care. 2002;17(2):122–5. [PubMed: 12096375]
Jones J. Evaluation of pressure ulcer prevention devices: a critical review of the literature. J Wound Care. 2005;14(9):422–5. [PubMed: 16240621]
Junkin J, Gray M. Are pressure redistribution surfaces or heel protection devices effective for preventing heel pressure ulcers? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009;36(6):602–8. [PubMed: 19920740]
Kartes SK. A team approach for risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of pressure ulcers in nursing home patients. J Nurs Care Qual. 1996;10(3):34–45. [PubMed: 8634469]
Keith J, Janke J, Kinley D, Thompson M, Gunter S. Pressure ulcer protocol implementation outcomes. Commun Nurs Res. 2005;38:319.
Kemp MG, Krouskop TA. Pressure ulcers: reducing incidence and severity by managing pressure. J Gerontol Nurs. 1994;20(9):27–34. 52. [PubMed: 7930395]
Kirkland LR. Preventing shear-induced decubitus ulcers. Consultant. 1997;37(2):272.
Kottner J, Raeder K, Halfens R, Dassen T. A systematic review of interrater reliability of pressure ulcer classification systems. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(3):315–36. [PubMed: 19191981]
Kuramoto S. [Prediction and prevention of pressure ulcers in elderly people]. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. 2010;47(2):131–3. [PubMed: 20472974]
Landi F, Sgadari A, Bernabei R. Pressure ulcers. Ann Intern Med. 1996;125422(5):8702101. [PubMed: 8702101]
Langemo DK. Risk assessment tools for pressure ulcers. Adv Wound Care. 1999;12(1):42–4. [PubMed: 10326356]
Langer G, Schlomer G. [Nutrition as intervention in prevention and treatment of decubitus ulcer: outcomes research]. Pflege Zeitschrift. 2005;58(6):368–73. [PubMed: 16013289]
Large J. A cost-effective pressure damage prevention strategy. Nursing & Residential Care. 2011;13(5):236. [PubMed: 21471901]
Laurent S, editor. Effectiveness of pressure decresing mattresses in cardiovascular surgery patients: a controlled clinical trial; Third European Conference for Nurse Managers; 1998.
Levine JM, Totolos E. A quality-oriented approach to pressure ulcer management in a nursing facility. Gerontologist. 1994;34(3):413–7. [PubMed: 8076886]
Levine SP, Finestone HM, Kett RL, Chizinsky KC, Carlson GA. XVII. Wound and fracture healing. A. Pressure sores: Electrical muscle stimulation for the prevention of pressure sores. J Rehabil Res Dev. 1991;28(1):475–6.
Lloys A, Madrid C, Sola M, Segura M, Tarres E, Mas A. [The use of water to seal facial mask for non invasive ventilation reduces the incidence of pressure ulcers]. Enfermeria intensiva / Sociedad Espanola de Enfermeria Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias. 2003;14(1):3–6. [PubMed: 12681111]
Lopez JR, Perejamo Montserrat A, Verdu Soriano J, Torra IbJE, Segovia Gomez T. Randomised Double Blind Clinical Trial on the Effectiveness in Pressure Ulcer Prevention of a Mixture Solution Composed of Hyper-Oxygenated Fatty Acids and Medicinal Plant Extracts; 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting; 2004.
Lothian P. Wound care: identifying and protecting patients who may get pressure sores. Nurs Stand. 1989;4(4):26–9. [PubMed: 2511474]
Lowthian P. Preventing pressure sores in elderly patients: a comparison of seven mattress overlays. Age Ageing. 1996;25(4):334. [PubMed: 8992888]
Lyder C. The use of technology for improved pressure ulcer prevention. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2007;53(4):14–6. [PubMed: 17514834]
Lyne P, Papanikolaou P, Lycett E. Pressure-sore risk assessment: preliminary report of a study using multivariate methods to define and weight risk factors. Clin Eff Nurs. 1999;3(3):136–8.
MacDonald K. The reliability of pressure sore risk-assessment tools. Prof Nurse. 1995;11(3):169–70. 72. [PubMed: 8552688]
Martin NK. A successful pressure ulcer prevention and treatment program by wound, ostomy and continence nurses (WOCN)... Scientific and clinical abstracts from the 40th Annual Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Annual Conference. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(3S):S46-S.
Matuo CM, Santos VLC, Serpa LF. Predictive validity of Braden Scale for hospitalized patients... Scientific and clinical abstracts from the 40th Annual Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Annual Conference. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(3S):S64–5.
Maylor M, Roberts A. A comparison of three risk assessment scales. Prof Nurse. 1999;14(9):629–32. [PubMed: 10427299]
McFeeley P, Tyrrell N, Wright C. Pressure ulcer benchmark study. Provider. 2003;29(7):45–8.1. [PubMed: 12866431]
McInnes E, Jammali-Blasi A, Bell-Syer S, Dumville JC, Cullum N. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;4:CD001735. [PubMed: 21491384]
McIsaac C. Managing wound care outcomes. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2005;51(4):54. [PubMed: 16089060]
Meaume S, Colin D, Barrois B, Bohbot S, Allaert F-A. [Value of corpitolinol 60 in geriatric decubitus prevention protocols. (GIPPS study)]. Soins; La Revue de Reference Infirmiere. 2006;(704):19–22. [PubMed: 16704002]
Mistiaen P, Francke A, Achterberg W, Ament A, Halfens R, Huizinga J, et al. Australian Medical Sheepskin is effective for the prevention of pressure ulcers. Tijdschrift Voor Ouderengeneeskunde. 2009;5:186–90.
Moore EHZ, Cowman S. Risk assessment tools for the prevention of pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(8) [PubMed: 18646157]
Moore EHZ, Cowman S. Repositioning for treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(2) [PubMed: 19370658]
Moore Z. Improving pressure ulcer prevention through education. Nurs Stand. 2001;16(6):64–8. 70. [PubMed: 11977729]
Moore ZCS. A multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of repositioning for the prevention of pressure ulcers. EWMA Journal. 2009;319(2):36.
Moreno-Pina JP, Richart-Martinez M, Guirao-Goris JA, Duarte-Climents G. [Analysis of risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer]. Enferm Clin. 2007;17(4):186–97. [PubMed: 17915121]
Neander KD, Birkenfeld R, Flohr HJ, Geldmacher V. [What is the effect of the “freezing and blowing” method on the blood supply of the skin as a prevention of decubitus ulcers. Results of the work project of the work group Nursing Research, Gottingen supported by the Agnes Karll-Foundation for Nursing Research]. Krankenpflege (Frankf). 1989;43(10):506–8. 33. [PubMed: 2509787]
Neander KD. Dermatologic agents for preventing decubitus ulcer: effectiveness could not be verified by the study. Pflege Zeitschrift. 2001;54(4):261–3. [PubMed: 12025069]
Newton M. Integrated care pathway: the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. J Tissue Viability. 2003;13(3):126–9. [PubMed: 12889400]
Nix D, Apold J, Borchert K, Carteaux A, Haugen V, Julie K, et al. Preventing Pressure Ulcers in Minnesota- the Safe Skin* Call-to-Action: 2354. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(3):S46–S7.
Nogami R. The effectiveness of pressure ulcer prevention measures at Saishunso National Hospital: A comparative study. IRYO - Japanese Journal of National Medical Services. 2003;57(9):563–6.
Oliveir RA, Alves FR, Iwanoto VE, Martinez MC, Rozanszy VR, Leao ER, et al. Management of a protocol for the prevention of pressure ulcers in a private hospital Sao Paulo-Brazil. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2011;38(3S):S64-S.
O’Tuathail C, Taqi R. Evaluation of three commonly used pressure ulcer risk assessment scales. Br J Nurs. 2011;20(6):S27–8. S30, S2–4. Passim. [PubMed: 21471902]
Pancorbo-Hidalgo PL, Garcia-Fernandez FP, Soldevilla-Agreda JJ, Martinez-Cuervo F. Pressure ulcers risk assessment: clinical practice in Spain and a meta-analysis of scales effectiveness [Spanish] Gerokomos. 2008;19(2):40–54.
Papanikolaou P, Lyne P, Anthony D. Risk assessment scales for pressure ulcers: a methodological review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2007;44(2):285–96. [PubMed: 17141782]
Pope C. The act of pressure ulcer prevention. Assessing body systems on admission is critical. Mater Manag Health Care. 2008;17(10):18–22. [PubMed: 19025168]
Purvis K, Pearman A. How the use of electric profiling beds can reduce the prevalence of pressure ulcers. Prof Nurse. 2005;20(8):46–8. [PubMed: 15819319]
Rader J, Jones D, Miller L. The importance of individualized wheelchair seating for frail older adults. J Gerontol Nurs. 2000;26(11):24–32. quiz 46–7. [PubMed: 11883618]
Rashotte J, Thomas M. Advocating for evidence-based practice at the critical care bedside: the pressure ulcer prevention study. Dynamics. 2008;19(2):31–2.
Reddy MP. Decubitus ulcers: principles of prevention and management. Geriatrics. 1983;38(7):55–6. 9–61. [PubMed: 6852539]
Reed JW. Pressure ulcers in the elderly: prevention and treatment utilizing the team approach. Md State Med J. 1981;30(11):45–50. [PubMed: 7339290]
Reid C, editor. Reducing Incidence of Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Cord Injury Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients 2010. Treatment search overlap.
Reuschenbach B, Mahler C. Clinical relevance of pressure ulcer risk assessment scales. The perspectives of nurses in practice... Fourth European Nursing Congress. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19:68.
Reut NI, Kan VI. [Prophylaxis of bedsores in spinal patients with the aid of multiple skeletal traction]. Ortop Travmatol Protez. 1974;0(9):75–7. [PubMed: 4423400]
Rieger U, Scheufler O, Schmid D, Zweifel-Schlatter M, Kalbermatten D, Pierer G. [Six treatment principles of the basle pressure sore concept]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2007;39(3):206–14. [PubMed: 17602385]
Roberts C, Lister P. Turn baby turn: Impact of a pressure area care team and risk assessment tool. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011;12(3):A136–A7.
Rochet J-M, El Frigi S. [Better performing pressure-relieving supports to prevent decubitus ulcers]. Soins; La Revue de Reference Infirmiere. 2004;687 Suppl:S17–9. [PubMed: 15384755]
Santy JE, Butler MK, Whyman JD. A comparison study of 6 types of hospital mattresses to determine which most effectively reduces the incidence of pressure sores in elderly patients with hip fractures in a District General Hospital: report to Northern & Yorkshire Regional Health Authority.: Northern & Yorkshire Regional Health Authority. 1994.
Scanlon E, Stubbs N. Pressure ulcer risk assessment in patients with darkly pigmented skin. Prof Nurse. 2004;19(6):339–41. [PubMed: 14983607]
Schlomer G, Meyer G. [Wound management--1: Decubitus ulcer risk: how precise are established scales?]. Pflege Zeitschrift. 2003;56(2):134–7. [PubMed: 12673874]
Schoonhoven L. A comparison of the predictive values of four risk assessment scales. J Wound Care. 2005:8–9.
Schultz AA. Study results: prediction and prevention of pressure ulcers in surgical patients. Adv Wound Care. 1998;11(3 Suppl):11. [PubMed: 9729952]
Scott E. The prevention of post-operative pressure ulcers through the maintenance of normothermia during surgery; 9th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1999.
Scott-Williams SLAC. Perioperative pressure ulcer assessment and prevention efficacy study of a multilayered pad for the operating room. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2006;52(4):110–1.
Serpa LF, Santos VLC, Perez GRP, Cavicchioli MGS, Hermida MM. Braden and waterlow scales for predicting pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients... Scientific and clinical abstracts from the 40th Annual Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Annual Conference. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(3S):S72–3.
Shikoshi K, Ueno Y, Kumagai Y. [Nutrition assessment for pressure sores--importance of trace element]. Rinsho Byori. 2003 Suppl 127:92–8. [PubMed: 14653221]
Smith I. Waterlow/Norton scoring system: a ward view smith. Care Science and Practice. 1989;7(4):93–5.
Speelberg B, Rutjes J. Relation between pressure ulcers and FiO2 compared to the use of therapeutic ICU beds in ventilated patients. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(12):A457.
Starling M. Pressure sore prevention--project improves practice. Nurs Times. 1990;86(6):40–1. [PubMed: 2304866]
Takala J, Soini HO, Soppi E, Kataja M, Olkkonen K. [Can risk factors for pressure sores be decreased with a special mattress?]. Duodecim; laaketieteellinen aikakauskirja. 1994;110(4):407–14. [PubMed: 7555831]
Thompson PA. Journal outreach. Pressure ulcers... commentary on Goodridge DM, Sloan JA, LeDoyen YM, McKenzie J, Knight WE, Gayari M. Risk-assessment scores, prevention strategies, and the incidence of pressure ulcers among the elderly in four Canadian health care facilities. CAN J NURS RESEARCH 1998; 30(20:23–44. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2000;13(1):44–5. [PubMed: 9807287]
Torra i Bou J, Segovia Gomez T, Verdu Soriano J, Nolasco Bonmati A, Rueda Lopez J, Arboix i Perejamo M. Efficiency of a hyperoxygenated fatty acid compound in the prevention of pressure ulcers [Spanish] Gerokomos. 2005;16(4):229–36.
van Marum RJ, Germs P, Ribbe MW. [Norton’s decubitus risk score in a nursing home]. Tijdschrift voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie. 1992;23(2):48–53. [PubMed: 1589901]
van Rijswijk L. Ingredient-based wound dressing classification: a paradigm that is passe and in need of replacement. J Wound Care. 2006;15(1):11–4. [PubMed: 16669298]
Veitenhansl M, Stegner K, Hierl FX, Dieterle C, Feldmeier H, Gutt B, et al. Special pre-manufactured footwear with insoles can prevent ulceration in diabetic patients with diabetic foot syndrome by pressure reduction. a prospective randomised study. Diabetologia. 2004;47(Suppl 1):1.
Wall J. Preventing pressure sores among wheelchair users. Prof Nurse. 2000;15(5):321–4. [PubMed: 10986957]
Waters N. Predicting pressure ulcer risk. Nurs Times. 2003;99(13):63–5. [PubMed: 12715564]
Witkowski JA, Parish LC. Drawsheets for prevention of decubitus ulcer. N Engl J Med. 1981;305(26):1594. [PubMed: 7312005]
Woodbury MG, Houghton PE, Campbell KE, Keast DH. Pressure ulcer assessment instruments: a critical appraisal. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1999;45(5):42–5. 8–50, 3–5. [PubMed: 10647473]
Unable To Retrieve
Smith I. Waterlow/Norton scoring system: a ward view smith. Care Science and Practice. 1989;7:93–95.
Systematic Reviews Not Used, but Included Studies Checked for Inclusion
Cullum N, McInnes E, Bell-Syer SE, Legood R. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD001735. [PubMed: 15266452]
Kottner J, Dassen T, Tannen A. Inter- and intrarater reliability of the Waterlow pressure sore risk scale: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46(3):369–79. [PubMed: 18986650]
Krapfl LA, Gray M. Does Regular Repositioning Prevent Pressure Ulcers? J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008;35(6):571–7. [PubMed: 19018196]
Langer G, Knerr A, Kuss O, Behrens J, Schlömer Gabriele J. Nutritional interventions for preventing and treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4) Available from: http://www
.mrw.interscience .wiley.com/cochrane /clsysrev/articles/CD003216/frame .html. [PubMed: 14583961]
Langer G, Knerr A, Kuss O, Behrens J, Schlomer GJ. Nutritional interventions for preventing and treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1) [PubMed: 14583961]
Pancorbo-Hidalgo P, Garcia-Fernandez F, Lopez-Medina I, et al. Risk assessment scales for pressure ulcer prevention: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs. 2006;(54):94–110. [PubMed: 16553695]
Reddy M, Gill S, Rochon P. Preventing pressure ulcers: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006;296(8):974–84. [PubMed: 16926357]
Stratton RJ, Ek A-C, Engfer M, Moore Z, Rigby P, Wolfe R, et al. Enteral nutritional support in prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Res Rev. 2005;4(3):422–50. [PubMed: 16081325]
Trumner A, Panfil E. Wound care teams for preventing and treating pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(4)
Risk Factor Only
Barateau M, Corompt A, Soulan J, Bourdel-Marchasson I. Multicenter nurse study assessing the interest of a nutritional support in the prevention of bedsores in high-risk elderly [French] Rech Soins Infirm. 1998;(55):42–9. [PubMed: 10661294]
Breslow RA, Bergstrom N. Nutritional prediction of pressure ulcers. J Am Diet Assoc. 1994;94(11):1301–4. [PubMed: 7963176]
Chacon JMF, Nagaoka C, Blanes L, Ferreira LM. Pressure ulcer risk factors among the elderly living in long-term institutions. Wounds. 2010;22(4):106–13.
Conzut L, Bin A, Toneatto M, Quattrin R. The surveillance system of decubital lesions of the University Polyclinic in Udine: results of an incidence study. Assist Inferm Ric. 2002;21(1):17–21. [PubMed: 11998340]
de Araújo CRD, de Lucena STM, Santos IBC, Soares MJG. Nursing and use of the Braden Scale for pressure ulcers. Revista Enfermagem UERJ. 2010;18(3):359–64.
Nixon J, Brown J, McElvenny D, Mason S, Bond S. Prognostic factors associated with pressure sore development in the immediate post-operative period. Int J Nurs Stud. 2000;37(4):279–89. [PubMed: 10760535]
Olson B, Langemo D, Burd C, Hanson D, Hunter S, Cathcart-Silberberg T. Pressure ulcer incidence in an acute care setting. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 1996;23(1):15–22. [PubMed: 8704844]
Pieper B, Weiland M. Pressure ulcer prevention within 72 hours of admission in a rehabilitation setting. Ostomy Wound Manage. 1997;43(8):14–8. [PubMed: 9385175]
Reed RL, Hepburn K, Adelson R, Center B, McKnight P. Low serum albumin levels, confusion, and fecal incontinence: are these risk factors for pressure ulcers in mobility-impaired hospitalized adults? Gerontology. 2003;49(4):255–9. [PubMed: 12792162]
Reifsnyder J, Magee HS. Development of pressure ulcers in patients receiving home hospice care. Wounds. 2005;17(4):74–9.
Rogan J. Pressure ulcer risk during the perioperative period focusing on surgery duration and hypothermia. Wounds UK. 2007;3(4):66–74.
Rosenberg CJ. Assessment. New checklist for pressure ulcer prevention. J Gerontol Nurs. 2002;28(8):7–12. [PubMed: 12219555]
Saito E, Shirato M, Kanagawa K, Sagawa Y, Nakamura M. Incidence proportion estimation, prevalence and effective visiting nurse care of pressure ulcers. Nippon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 1999;46(12):1084–93. [PubMed: 10658473]
Sayar S, Turgut S, Dogan H, Ekici A, Yurtsever S, Demirkan F, et al. Incidence of pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients at risk according to the Waterlow scale and factors influencing the development of pressure ulcers. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(5):765–74. [PubMed: 19077014]
Schuurman J-P, Schoonhoven L, Keller BPJA, van Ramshorst B. Do pressure ulcers influence length of hospital stay in surgical cardiothoracic patients? A prospective evaluation. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(17):2456–63. [PubMed: 19220621]
Swanson MS, Rose MA, Baker G, Drake DJ, Engelke M, Pokorny M, et al. Braden subscales and their relationship to the prevalence of pressure ulcers in hospitalized obese patients. Bariatr Nurs Surg Patient Care. 2011;6(1):21–3.
Whitaker IY, Cremasco MF, Wenzel F, Cohrs F, Zanei SSV. Factors associated with early development of pressure ulcer in ICU. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:S308.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), Rockville (MD)
Chou R, Dana T, Bougatsos C, et al. Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment and Prevention: Comparative Effectiveness [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 May. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 87.) Appendix D, Excluded Studies List.