Table BStrength-of-evidence domains for associations with patient characteristics and risk of postpartum depression

Risk FactorNumber of Studies (Subjects)Domains Pertaining to SOESOE and Magnitude of Effect (95% CI)
Risk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecision
Maternal DemographicsAge3 (5,578)MediumInconsistentDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Education2 (4,757)MediumInconsistentDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Income1 (4,245)MediumNADirectImpreciseInsufficient
Employment status (unemployed vs. employed)1 (363)HighNADirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression in unemployed mothers OR, 2.8 (1.1–4.9)
Obstetric HistoryParity2 (4,998)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Preterm/low birthweight infant2 (4,711)MediumConsistentDirectPreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Smoking2 (4,998)MediumInconsistentDirectImpreciseInsufficient
Alcohol use1 (4,348)MediumNADirectImpreciseInsufficient
General Medical HistoryPoor health status/chronic illness2 (4,993)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Obesity1 (598)MediumNADirectImpreciseInsufficient
Psychiatric HistoryHistory of perinatal depression2 (1,082)HighConsistentDirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
History of depression5 (2,057)MediumConsistentDirectPreciseModerate SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
History of premenstrual dysphoric disorder1 (210)MediumNADirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Any psychiatric diagnosis2 (1,075)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Anxiety2 (1,305)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Personality (vulnerable/neuroticism)2 (685)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Relationship/Social SupportMarital status (single/no relationship)3 (5,803)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseLow SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Poor relationship quality5 (6,101)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseModerate SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression
Poor social support4 (1,830)MediumConsistentDirectImpreciseModerate SOE for increased risk of postpartum depression

CI = confidence interval; NA = not applicable; OR = odds ratio; SOE = strength of evidence

From: Executive Summary

Cover of Efficacy and Safety of Screening for Postpartum Depression
Efficacy and Safety of Screening for Postpartum Depression [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 106.
Myers ER, Aubuchon-Endsley N, Bastian LA, et al.

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