Table 16Characteristics of CBT-mixed intervention trials excluded from main analyses because of high risk of bias

StudyArm (N)Duration (Followup)Population Trauma TypeBaseline PTSD SeverityaMean Age (Y)% F% Non-whiteRisk of Bias
Beck et al., 2009105CBT-M (17)
MCC (16)
14 weeks (3 months)Male and female
MVA
57.3 to 57.8438211High
Power et al., 2002106EMDR (39)
CBT-Mb (Exp+CR) (37)
WL (29)
10 weeksMale and female
Mixed
IES
32.6 to 35.1
3942NRHigh
Difede et al., 2007107CBT-M (15)
TAU (16)
12 weeks (12 to 13 weeks)Disaster workers
World Trade Center attack
50.5 to 51.746323High
Ulmer et al., 2011108CBT-M (12)
UC (9)
6 biweekly sessions, over 12 weeksMale and female
Recently deployed veterans
PCL-M
63.1 to 63.4
4631.866.6High
Beidel et al., 2011102CBT-M (18)
Exp (17)
17 weeksMale
Combat
84.9 to 90.65900High
Devilly et al., 1999109CBT-M (15)
EMDR (17)
9 sessionsc (2 weeks and 3 months)Male and female
Mixed
IES
48.4 to 54.1
3965NRHigh
Echeburua et al., 199683CBT-M (10)
CBT Cope (10)
5 weeks (1, 3, 6, and 12 months)Female
Sexual assault
NR22100NRHigh
Echeburu et al., 199784CBT-M (10)
Relax (10)
6 weeks (1, 3, 6, and 12 months)Female
Sexual abuse/assault
NR20100NRHigh
Lee et al., 2002110EMDR (12)
CBT-Mb (SIT+PE) (12)
7 weeks (3 months)Male and female
Mixed
IES
55.3
3546NRHigh
Paunovic et al., 2001104Exp (10)
CBT-M (10)
16 to 20 weeks (6 months)Male and female
Refugees
95.1 to 98.43815NRHigh

CBT Cope = cognitive behavioral therapy-coping skills; CBT-M = cognitive behavioral therapy-mixed; CR = cognitive restructuring; EMDR = eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; exp = exposure therapy; IES = Impact of Event Scale; MCC = minimum contact comparison group; NR = not reported; PCL-M = PTSD Checklist-Military Version; PE = prolonged exposure; relax = relaxation; SIT = stress inoculation training; TAU = treatment as usual; UC = usual care; WL = waitlist; y = year

a

Data reported are mean CAPS or range of mean CAPS scores across groups unless another instrument is specified.

b

The information provided after CBT-M indicates the content of the mixed intervention (see abbreviations below).

c

Number of treatment sessions is reported when duration of treatment was not specified.

From: Results

Cover of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 92.
Jonas DE, Cusack K, Forneris CA, et al.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.