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Table A-1Outcome measures and instruments

Abbreviated NameComplete NameDescriptionRange/Meaning of Possible ScoresImprovement Indicated by
BDIBeck Depression Inventory21-item measure used to assess depression. Self-report or verbally administered by a trained professional administrator. Administration time approximately 5 minutes.0 to 63Decrease
CAPSClinician-Administered PTSD ScaleCurrent version includes a 30-item structured interview administered by a trained professional. Corresponds to the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD symptoms, impact on functioning, response validity, lifetime diagnosis, and overall PTSD severity. Time frame for assessment includes past week, month, or worst month since trauma. Administration time approximately 45 to 60 minutes. In the past there were different versions corresponding to different time periods. CAPS-1 (later renamed CAPS-DX) assessed current and lifetime PTSD diagnosis. The CAPS-2 (later renamed CAPS-SX) assessed the severity of symptoms over the past one week. These two versions were later combined into the current version, which can be used to assess either symptoms or diagnoses.0 to136Decrease
DTSDavidson Trauma Scale17-item self-report measure that assesses the 17 DSM-IV symptoms of PTSD. Each item corresponds to a DSM-IV symptom of PTSD, and each symptom is rated in terms of frequency and severity. Scores can be calculated for each of the 3 PTSD symtpom clusters (B,C, and D). Administation time approximately 10 minutes.0 to 136Decrease
GAFGlobal Assessment of FunctioningClinician administered scale used to assess the social, occupational, and psychological functioning of adults.0 to 100Increase
HADSHospital Anxiety and Depression Scale14-item self-report measure developed to assess anxiety and depression in non-psychiatric populations. Meant to differentiate symptoms of depression with those of anxiety. Administration time 5 minutes.0 to 42Decrease
HAM-A or HASHamilton Anxiety Scale14-item clinician administered measure used to assess the severity of anxiety symptoms. Administration time 10 to 15 minutes.0 to 56Decrease
HAM-DHamilton Depression Scale17 or 21 item (depending on version) clinician administered scale used to measure the severity of depressive symptoms. Administration time 15 to 20 minutes.0 to 54 (17 item)Decrease
IESImpact of Event Scale15-item self-reported measure used to assess the frequency with which experiences of “intrusions,” “avoidance,” and emotional numbing related to stressful events occurred in the last week. A total distress score is calculated by summing all 15 item responses.0 to 75Decrease
IES-RImpact of Events Scale-Revised22-item self-report measure that assesses subjective distress caused by traumatic events. Contains 7 items more than the IES regarding hyperaraousal symptoms of PTSD. Items correspond directly to 14 of the 17 DSM-IV symptoms of PTSD. Subscales can be computed for Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal.0 to 88Decrease
MADRSMontgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale10-item clinician rated measure that assesses the severity of depression. Administration time approximately 15 minutes.0 to 60Decrease
MISS or M-PTSDMississippi Scale for Combat-related PTSD35-item self-report questionnaire used to assess DSM-III combat-related PTSD and related features (depression, suicidality, and substance abuse). Administration time approximately 10 to 15minutes.35 to 175Decrease
MPSS-SRModified PTSD Symptom Scale17-item self-report measure that assesses the 17 DSM-III-R symptoms of PTSD. Measure is a modification of the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS). Major modifications are that items are not keyed to any particular traumatic event and that the MPSS-SR includes severity ratings in addition to the original measure’s frequency ratings for each item. It can be used to make a preliminary determination of the diagnosis of PTSD using either DSM-III-R criteria or a frequency, severity, or total score cutoff scores. It can be scored as a continuous measure of PTSD symptom severity.0 to 68 (intensity)
0 to 51 (frequency)
PTDS or PDSPosttraumatic Diagnostic Scale49- item self report measure for severity of PTSD symptoms related to a single identified traumatic event.
Assesses all DSM-IV criteria (A-F) in the past month (time frame can be adjusted). Four sections include: trauma checklist, description of post traumatic event, assessment of 17 PTSD symptoms, and interference of symptoms. Total severity score reflecting frequency of 17 PTSD symptoms.
0 to 51Decrease
PCLPTSD Checklist17-item self-report measure of the 17 DSM-IV symptoms of PTSD. Has been used to screen individuals for PTSD, diagnose PTSD, and monitor symptom change during and after treatment. There are three versions of the PCL: PCL-M (military), PCL-C (civilian), and PCL-S (specific). Administration time approximately 5 to10 minutes.17 to 85Decrease
PTSD-IPTSD InterviewStructured clinical interview.
Patients given a copy of scale to read along with interviewer and asked to give subjective ratings for each symptom.
PSS-IPTSD Symptom Scale Interview17-item semistructured interview that assesses the presence and severity of DSM-IV PTSD symptoms related to a single identified traumatic event in individuals with a known trauma history. Each item is assessed with a brief, single question.
Interviewees are asked about symptoms they have experienced in the past 2 weeks. Administration time approximately 20 minutes.
0 to 51Decrease
PSS-SRPTSD Symptom Scale Self-report Version17-item self-report scale used to diagnose PTSD according to DSM-III-R criteria. Assesses the severity of PTSD symptoms (consists of the same 17 items as the PSS-I).0 to 51Decrease
Q-LES-Q-SFQuality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form16-item self-report questionnaire that assesses overall enjoyment and satisfaction with physical health, mood, work, household and leisure activities, social and family relationships, daily functioning, sexual life, economic status, overall well-being and medications.14 to 70Increase
SF-3636-Item Short Form Health Survey36-item scale of patient health status. Administratin time less than 15 minutes0 to 100 (mean)Increase
SI-PTSD or SIPStructured Interview for PTSDAssesses the 17 PTSD symptoms as well as survival and behavioral guilt. For each item, the interviewer assigns a severity rating that reflects both frequency and intensity.
Responses can be used to make a determination about whether client’s symptoms meet DSM criteria B, C, and D for PTSD. Administration time approximately 20 to 30 minutes.
0 to 68Decrease
SCIDStructured Clinical Interview PTSD ModuleSemistructured interview used to assess the prevalence, absence, and subthreshold presence of PTSD used across trauma populations.
Consists of separate modules corresponding to categories of diagnoses. Administration time 25 minutes.
Not quantitatively scoredDecrease
SCL-90-RSymptom Checklist- 90-Revised90-item self-report questionnaire used to assess a broad range of psychological problems, symptoms of psychopathology, patient progress, and treatment outcomes. Administration time approximately 12 to15 minutes.0 to 360Decrease
SDSSheehan Disability Scale5-item self-report measure developed to assess functional impairment in work/school, social and family life.0 to 30Decrease
SF-12Medical Outcome Study Self-Report Form12-item self-report measure of overall health status. Administratin time less than 15 minutes.0 to 100Increase
SPRINTShort PTSD Rating Interview8-item self-report measure that assesses the core symptoms of PTSD (intrusion, avoidance, numbing, arousal), somatic malaise, stress vulnerability, and role and social functional impairment.0 to 32Decrease
STAIState-Trait Anxiety Inventory20-item self-report measure that assesses state and trait anxiety. Administration time approximately 10 to 20 minutes.20 to 80Decrease
TOP-8Treatment-outcome post-traumatic stress disorder scale8-item measure based on all three symptom clusters of post-traumatic stress disorder.0 to 32Decrease
WASWork and Social Adjustment Scale5-item measure of general social impairment.0 to 40Decrease

From: Appendix A, Outcome Measures and Instruments

Cover of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 92.
Jonas DE, Cusack K, Forneris CA, et al.

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