Table DSummary of evidence and strength of evidence for the effect of early interventions in various subgroups

Subgroup; Intervention; PopulationOutcomeResultsSOE
Demographic groups: sex; CBT, CISD; Crime victims17,29Incidence of PTSDNo evidenceInsufficient
PTSD symptom severityThe effect of CBT or CISD did not differ between men and women; 2 trials (N=234), consistent findingsLow
Type of trauma; PE, Mixed civilian trauma18Incidence of PTSDInconclusive, single trial (N=137)Insufficient
PTSD symptom severityInconclusive, single trial (N=137)Insufficient
Psychiatric diagnosis: previous depression; Debriefing; Crime victims17Incidence of PTSDNo evidenceInsufficient
PTSD symptom severityInconclusive, single trial (N=157)Insufficient
History of child abusea; psychoeducation vs. debriefing combined with psychoeducation; Crime victims17Incidence of PTSDNo evidenceInsufficient
PTSD symptom severityInconclusive, single trial (N=157)Insufficient
Severity of baseline distressa; Debriefing, self-help workbook; Crime victims, women with breast cancer12,21Incidence of PTSDNo evidenceInsufficient
PTSD symptom severityInconsistent findings, 2 trials (N=285); 1 trial reported that debriefing increased PTSD symptoms among those with high baseline PTSD arousal symptoms; and 1 trial reported that a self-help workbook decreased PTSD symptoms to a greater extent in those with high baseline PTSD symptom severityInsufficient
Severity of combat exposurea; UK military service members28Incidence of PTSDNo evidenceInsufficient
PTSD symptom severityInconclusive, single trial (n=2,443)Insufficient

CBT = cognitive behavioral therapy; CISD = critical incident stress debriefing; N = entire sample; n = subset of sample; PE = prolonged exposure therapy; PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder; SOE = strength of evidence; UK = United Kingdom

a

Personal risk factor for PTSD.

Personal risk factor for PTSD.

From: Executive Summary

Cover of Interventions for the Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults After Exposure to Psychological Trauma
Interventions for the Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults After Exposure to Psychological Trauma [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 109.
Gartlehner G, Forneris CA, Brownley KA, et al.

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