Table 1Future research needs identified by review of the comparative effectiveness review

CategoryResearch Needs
Population
  • Studies with large sample sizes
  • Studies in population subgroups (e.g., non-White, children, older adults)
  • Studies in populations applicable to the U.S. healthcare system
  • Determination of the optimal candidates for treatment with breathing techniques (e.g., those without well-controlled asthma)
Intervention
  • Determination of optimal intensity and duration of treatment
  • Studies on expiratory muscle training and how this intervention differs from IMT
  • Studies on breathing physical therapy
  • Studies of other emerging breathing techniques and technologies
  • Studies of strategies to optimize benefits and minimize harms, such as additional lifestyle modifications and treatment components
  • Studies of breathing techniques with a component targeting autonomic arousal (e.g., relaxation)
  • Studies of breathing techniques with a component requiring the delay of reliever use medication
  • Replication of previous studies to establish effectiveness
  • Studies to determine theoretical basis of breathing techniques (i.e., nonhyperventilation reduction breathing techniques)
  • Standardized asthma and asthma-related terms to characterize interventions and explore effectiveness of specific elements of the intervention
  • Standardized interventions and level of detail reported (e.g., route, region, timing, etc.)
  • Interventions consistent with the standard of care in the United States by including asthma treatment with medications and education
Comparator
  • Head-to-head comparison trials (i.e., comparative effectiveness research such as IMT versus Buteyko breathing)
  • Intensity-matched control groups
Outcome
  • Standardized asthma outcome reporting including the requirement of reporting asthma symptoms
  • Additional evaluation of breathing techniques to determine their safety
  • Long-term evaluation of outcomes, including conducting an extended followup evaluation of previous studies

Abbreviation: IMT: inspiratory muscle training

From: Results

Cover of Future Research Needs for the Comparative Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises and/or Retraining Techniques in the Treatment of Asthma
Future Research Needs for the Comparative Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises and/or Retraining Techniques in the Treatment of Asthma [Internet].
Future Research Needs Papers, No. 18.
Patnode CD, Burda BU, Whitlock EP.

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