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Harris B, Andrews PJD, Murray GD, et al. Systematic Review of Head Cooling in Adults After Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke. Southampton (UK): NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre (UK); 2012 Nov. (Health Technology Assessment, No. 16.45.)

Cover of Systematic Review of Head Cooling in Adults After Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke

Systematic Review of Head Cooling in Adults After Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke.

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Appendix 3Search strategies

Major international medical bibliographic databases

MEDLINE 1950 to 12 March 2011 (last update)

Summary of search terms

  • 1–8 = cooling/cooling therapies
  • 10–15 = head/brain
  • 18 = cooling/cooling therapies AND head/brain limited to human
  • 19–23 = stroke
  • 24–29 = traumatic brain injury
  • 30–32 = cardiac arrest
  • 33–42 = neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy
  • 45–47 = citations indexed as neither human nor animal

Running the search to line 18, i.e. cooling/cooling therapies AND head/brain limited to human in MEDLINE 1950 to March Week 3 2010 produced 17,088 results. This was judged too many to manage, so the search was made more specific by including selection terms for stroke, TBI, cardiac arrest and neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.

During the process of developing and refining the MEDLINE search terms, it became apparent that there were some studies that were not indexed as either human or animal, although some were in fact human. Therefore, the final version of the search terms included a strategy to capture these ‘not human not animal’ studies in order that human studies that were not indexed as ‘human’ did not get missed.

Search terms

  1. hypothermia/ or hypothermia, induced/ or cryotherapy/
  2. cold temperature / or ice/ or refrigeration/ or extreme cold/ or fever/th
  3. (hypotherm$ or normotherm$).tw.
  4. ((low or lower or reduc$) adj5 temperature $).tw.
  5. (cool$ or cold or chill$ or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems).tw.
  6. (fan or fans or fanned or fanning).tw.
  7. (cryother$ or cryogen$ or cryotreat$).tw.
  8. (ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat$ or froz$ or freez$).tw.
  9. or/1–8
  10. exp brain/ or exp head/ or exp skull/
  11. (head or crani$ or skull or scalp or face).tw.
  12. (brain or intracranial or cerebral or cerebrocranial or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemispher$).tw.
  13. (neck or pharyn$ or nasopharyn$ or naso-pharyn$ or airway$).tw.
  14. (intra-nasal or intranasal or nasal or transnasal or trans-nasal or nose or nostril$ or nasooral or nasooral or oro-nasal or oronasal).tw.
  15. (hat or helmet or cap or hood or collar).tw.
  16. or/10–15
  17. 9 and 16
  18. limit 17 to humans
  19. cerebrovascular disorders/ or exp basal ganglia cerebrovascular disease/ or exp brain ischemia/ or exp carotid artery diseases/ or exp cerebrovascular trauma/ or exp intracranial arterial diseases/ or exp “intracranial embolism and thrombosis”/ or exp intracranial hemorrhages/ or stroke/ or exp brain infarction/ or vasospasm, intracranial/ or vertebral artery dissection/
  20. (stroke or poststroke or post-stroke or cerebrovasc$ or brain vasc$ or cerebral vasc$ or cva$ or apoplex$ or SAH).tw.
  21. ((brain$ or cerebr$ or cerebell$ or cortical or vertebrobasilar or hemispher$ or intracran$ or intracerebral or infratentorial or supratentorial or MCA or anterior circulation or posterior circulation or basal ganglia) adj5 (isch?emi$ or infarct$ or thrombo$ or emboli$ or occlus$ or hypox$ or vasospasm)).tw.
  22. ((brain$ or cerebr$ or cerebell$ or intracerebral or intracran$ or parenchymal or intraventricular or infratentorial or supratentorial or basal gangli$ or subarachnoid) adj5 (haemorrhage$ or hemorrhage$ or haematoma$ or hematoma$ or bleed$)).tw.
  23. or/19–22
  24. craniocerebral trauma/ or brain injuries/ or exp brain concussion/ or exp brain hemorrhage, traumatic/ or diffuse axonal injury/ or epilepsy, post-traumatic/
  25. coma, post-head injury/ or exp head injuries, closed/ or head injuries, penetrating/ or exp intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic/ or exp skull fractures/ or brain edema/
  26. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or capitis or brain$ or forebrain$ or skull$ or hemispher$ or intra-cran$ or inter-cran$) adj5 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$ or contusion$)).tw.
  27. ((brain or cerebral or intracranial) adj5 (edema or oedema or swell$)).tw.
  28. (TBI or diffuse axonal injur$).tw.
  29. or/24–28
  30. heart arrest/ or exp heart failure/ or exp cardiopulmonary resuscitation/ or resuscitation/ or heart massage/
  31. ((cardiac or heart or cardiopulmonary or cardio pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary or circulat$) adj5 (arrest or resuscita$ or massage or life support or reanimat$)).tw.
  32. 30 or 31
  33. Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/
  34. ((brain or cerebral or global) adj (hypox$ or anox$) adj (ischaemi$ or ischemi$)).tw.
  35. ((hypox$ or anox$) adj (ischaemi$ or ischemi$) adj encephalopath$).tw.
  36. hypoxia, brain/ or asphyxia neonatorum/
  37. ((birth or newborn or encephalopath$) adj5 (asphyxia$ or respiratory failure)).tw.
  38. or/33–37
  39. Exp infant, newborn/
  40. (birth or infant$ or neonat$ or newborn$ or new born$ or perinatal or peri-natal or baby or babies).tw.
  41. 39 or 40
  42. 38 and 41
  43. 23 or 29 or 32 or 42
  44. 18 and 43
  45. 17 and (23 or 29 or 32 or 42) [ = everything including human]
  46. 45 NOT 44
  47. 46 NOT (humans/ or animals/)

OLDMEDLINE 1948–65

Search date: 4 April 2010.

Search terms

  1. hypothermia/ or hypothermia, induced/ or cryotherapy/
  2. cold temperature / or ice/ or refrigeration/ or extreme cold/ or fever/th
  3. (hypotherm$ or normotherm$).tw.
  4. ((low or lower or reduc$) adj5 temperature $).tw.
  5. (cool$ or cold or chill$ or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems).tw.
  6. (fan or fans or fanned or fanning).tw.
  7. (cryother$ or cryogen$ or cryotreat$).tw.
  8. (ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat$ or froz$ or freez$).tw.
  9. or/1–8
  10. exp brain/ or exp head/ or exp skull/
  11. (head or crani$ or skull or scalp or face).tw.
  12. (brain or intracranial or cerebral or cerebrocranial or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemispher$).tw.
  13. (neck or pharyn$ or nasopharyn$ or naso-pharyn$ or airway$).tw.
  14. (intra-nasal or intranasal or nasal or transnasal or trans-nasal or nose or nostril$ or nasooral or nasooral or oro-nasal or oronasal).tw.
  15. (hat or helmet or cap or hood or collar).tw.
  16. or/10–15
  17. 9 and 16

EMBASE 1980 to 2011 week 10

Last update: 12 March 2011.

The same issue with studies not indexed as either human or animal occurred in EMBASE as in MEDLINE and lines 48–53 in the search were added to capture these.

Search terms

  1. hypothermia/ or induced hypothermia/ or profound induced hypothermia/ or chill/ or shivering/ or cryotherapy/ or low temperature / or low temperature procedures/
  2. cold/ or cold air/ or cold exposure/ or cold treatment/ or cooling/ or cooling water/ or ice/ or freezing/ or fever/th
  3. (hypotherm$ or normotherm$).tw.
  4. ((low or lower or reduc$) adj5 temperature $).tw.
  5. (cool$ or cold or chill$ or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems).tw.
  6. (fan or fans or fanned or fanning).tw.
  7. (cryother$ or cryogen$ or cryotreat$).tw.
  8. (ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat$ or froz$ or freez$).tw.
  9. or/1–8
  10. exp brain/ or exp head/ or exp skull/ or exp neck/ or exp pharynx/
  11. (head or cranium or crani$ or skull or scalp or face).tw.
  12. (brain or intracranial or cerebral or cerebrocranial or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemispher$).tw.
  13. (neck or pharyn$ or nasopharyn$ or naso-pharyn$ or airway$).tw.
  14. (intra-nasal or intranasal or nasal or transnasal or trans-nasal or nose or nostril$ or nasooral or nasooral or oro-nasal or oronasal).tw.
  15. helmet/ or (hat or helmet or cap or hood or collar).tw.
  16. or/10–15
  17. 9 and 16
  18. limit 17 to human
  19. cerebrovascular disease/ or basal ganglion hemorrhage/ or brain hematoma/ or brain hemorrhage/ or brain infarction/ or brain ischemia/ or carotid artery disease/ or cerebral artery disease/ or cerebrovascular accident/ or intracranial aneurysm/ or occlusive cerebrovascular disease/ or stroke/ or stroke patient/ or stroke unit/
  20. (stroke or poststroke or post-stroke or cerebrovasc$ or brain vasc$ or cerebral vasc$ or cva$ or apoplex$ or SAH).tw.
  21. ((brain$ or cerebr$ or cerebell$ or cortical or vertebrobasilar or hemispher$ or intracran$ or intracerebral or infratentorial or supratentorial or MCA or anterior circulation or posterior circulation or basal ganglia) adj5 (isch?emi$ or infarct$ or thrombo$ or emboli$ or occlus$ or hypox$ or vasospasm)).tw.
  22. ((brain$ or cerebr$ or cerebell$ or intracerebral or intracran$ or parenchymal or intraventricular or infratentorial or supratentorial or basal gangli$ or subarachnoid) adj5 (haemorrhage$ or hemorrhage$ or haematoma$ or hematoma$ or bleed$)).tw.
  23. or/19–22
  24. head injury/ or brain injury/ or traumatic brain injury/ or skull injury/ or brain concussion/ or brain contusion/ or brain damage/ or brain stem injury/ or cerebellum injury/ or diffuse axonal injury/
  25. exp skull fracture/ or postconcussion syndrome/ or traumatic epilepsy/ or coma/ or exp skull fracture/ or brain edema/
  26. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or capitis or brain$ or forebrain$ or skull$ or hemispher$ or intra-cran$ or inter-cran$) adj5 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$ or contusion$)).tw.
  27. ((brain or cerebral or intracranial) adj5 (edema or oedema or swell$)).tw.
  28. (TBI or diffuse axonal injur$).tw.
  29. or/24–28
  30. exp heart failure/ or heart arrest/ or resuscitation/ or heart massage/
  31. ((cardiac or heart or cardiopulmonary or cardio pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary or circulat$) adj5 (arrest or resuscita$ or massage or life support or reanimat$)).tw.
  32. 30 or 31
  33. brain ischemia/ or brain hypoxia/
  34. ((brain or cerebral or global) adj (hypox$ or anox$) adj (ischaemi$ or ischemi$)).tw.
  35. ((hypox$ or anox$) adj (ischaemi$ or ischemi$) adj encephalopath$).tw.
  36. (encephalopath$ adj5 (asphyxia$ or respiratory failure)).tw.
  37. 33 or 34 or 35 or 36
  38. exp newborn/
  39. (birth or infant$ or neonat$ or newborn$ or new born$ or perinatal or peri-natal or baby or babies).tw.
  40. 38 or 39
  41. 37 and 40
  42. newborn hypoxia/
  43. ((birth or newborn or new born or neonat$) adj5 (asphyxia$ or hypoxia or respiratory failure)).tw.
  44. 42 or 43
  45. 41 or 44
  46. 23 or 29 or 32 or 45
  47. 18 and 46
  48. 17 and 46 [main search not restricted to human]
  49. limit 48 to human
  50. limit 48 to animals
  51. limit 48 to animal studies
  52. 49 or 50 or 51
  53. 48 not 52

EMBASE Classic 1947–79

Search date: 13 May 2010.

During development of these search terms it was found necessary to add a strategy to increase removal of animal studies (line 49).

Search terms

  1. hypothermia/ or induced hypothermia/ or profound induced hypothermia/ or chill/ or shivering/ or cryotherapy/ or low temperature / or low temperature procedure/
  2. cold/ or cold air/ or cold exposure/ or cold treatment/ or cooling/ or cooling water/ or ice/ or freezing/ or fever/th
  3. (hypotherm$ or normotherm$).tw.
  4. ((low or lower or reduc$) adj5 temperature $).tw.
  5. (cool$ or cold or chill$ or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems).tw.
  6. (fan or fans or fanned or fanning).tw.
  7. (cryother$ or cryogen$ or cryotreat$).tw.
  8. (ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat$ or froz$ or freez$).tw.
  9. or/1–8
  10. exp brain/ or exp head/ or exp skull/ or exp neck/ or exp pharynx/
  11. (head or cranium or cranial or skull or scalp or face).tw.
  12. (brain or intracranial or cerebral or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemispher$).tw.
  13. (neck or pharyn$ or nasopharyn$ or naso-pharyn$ or airway$).tw.
  14. (intra-nasal or intranasal or nasal or transnasal or trans-nasal or nose or nostril$ or nasooral or nasooral or oro-nasal or oronasal).tw.
  15. helmet/ or (hat or helmet or cap or hood or collar).tw.
  16. or/10–15
  17. 9 and 16
  18. limit 17 to human
  19. cerebrovascular disease/ or basal ganglion hemorrhage/ or brain hematoma/ or brain hemorrhage/ or brain infarction/ or brain ischemia/ or carotid artery disease/ or cerebral artery disease/ or cerebrovascular accident/ or intracranial aneurysm/ or occlusive cerebrovascular disease/ or stroke/ or stroke patient/ or stroke unit/
  20. (stroke or poststroke or post-stroke or cerebrovasc$ or brain vasc$ or cerebral vasc$ or cva$ or apoplex$ or SAH).tw.
  21. ((brain$ or cerebr$ or cerebell$ or cortical or vertebrobasilar or hemispher$ or intracran$ or intracerebral or infratentorial or supratentorial or MCA or anterior circulation or posterior circulation or basal ganglia) adj5 (isch?emi$ or infarct$ or thrombo$ or emboli$ or occlus$ or hypox$ or vasospasm)).tw.
  22. ((brain$ or cerebr$ or cerebell$ or intracerebral or intracran$ or parenchymal or intraventricular or infratentorial or supratentorial or basal gangli$ or subarachnoid) adj5 (haemorrhage$ or hemorrhage$ or haematoma$ or hematoma$ or bleed$)).tw.
  23. or/19–22
  24. head injury/ or brain injury/ or traumatic brain injury/ or skull injury/ or brain concussion/ or brain contusion/ or brain damage/ or brain stem injury/ or cerebellum injury/ or diffuse axonal injury/
  25. exp skull fracture/ or postconcussion syndrome/ or traumatic epilepsy/ or coma/ or exp skull fracture/ or brain edema/
  26. ((head or crani$ or cerebr$ or capitis or brain$ or forebrain$ or skull$ or hemispher$ or intra-cran$ or inter-cran$) adj5 (injur$ or trauma$ or damag$ or wound$ or fracture$ or contusion$)).tw.
  27. ((brain or cerebral or intracranial) adj5 (edema or oedema or swell$)).tw.
  28. (TBI or diffuse axonal injur$).tw.
  29. or/24–28
  30. exp heart failure/ or heart arrest/ or resuscitation/ or heart massage/
  31. ((cardiac or heart or cardiopulmonary or cardio pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary or circulat$) adj5 (arrest or resuscita$ or massage or life support or reanimat$)).tw.
  32. 30 or 31
  33. brain ischemia/ or brain hypoxia/
  34. ((brain or cerebral or global) adj (hypox$ or anox$) adj (ischaemi$ or ischemi$)).tw.
  35. ((hypox$ or anox$) adj (ischaemi$ or ischemi$) adj encephalopath$).tw.
  36. (encephalopath$ adj5 (asphyxia$ or respiratory failure)).tw.
  37. 33 or 34 or 35 or 36
  38. exp newborn/
  39. (birth or infant$ or neonat$ or newborn$ or new born$ or perinatal or peri-natal or baby or babies).tw.
  40. 38 or 39
  41. 37 and 40
  42. newborn hypoxia/
  43. ((birth or newborn or new born or neonat$) adj5 (asphyxia$ or hypoxia or respiratory failure)).tw.
  44. 42 or 43
  45. 41 or 44
  46. 23 or 29 or 32 or 45
  47. 18 and 46
  48. 17 and 46
  49. (rat or rats or cat or cats or dog or dogs or gerbil or gerbils or rabbit or rabbits or baboon or baboons).ti.
  50. 48 not 49

Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Healthcare (CINAHL) 1937 to 6 April 2010

This search was conducted through EBSCO therefore no disease terms were included because these make the search too complex for EBSCO.

Search terms

S18.

S10 and S17

S17.

S11 or S12 or S13 or S14 or S15 or S16

S16.

TI ((hat or helmet or cap or hood or collar)) or AB ((hat or helmet or cap or hood or collar))

S15.

TI ((intra-nasal or intranasal or nasal or transnasal or trans-nasal or nose or nostril* or naso-oral or nasooral or oro-nasal or oronasal) ) or AB ( (intra-nasal or intranasal or nasal or transnasal or trans-nasal or nose or nostril* or naso-oral or nasooral or oro-nasal or oronasal))

S14.

TI ((neck or pharyn* or nasopharyn* or naso-pharyn* or airway*)) or AB ((neck or pharyn* or nasopharyn* or naso-pharyn* or airway*))

S13.

TI ((brain or intracranial or cerebral or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemispher*)) or AB ((brain or intracranial or cerebral or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemispher*))

S12.

TI ((head or cranium or cranial or skull or scalp or face)) or AB ((head or cranium or cranial or skull or scalp or face))

S11.

(MH “Brain+”) or (MH “Head+”) or (MH “Skull+”)

S10.

(S1 or S2 or S3 or S4 or S5 or S6 or S7 or S8 or S9)

S9.

TI ((hypotherm* or normotherm*)) or AB ( (hypotherm* or normotherm*))

S8.

TI ((ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat* or froz* or freez*)) or AB ((ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat* or froz* or freez*))

S7.

TI ((cryother* or cryogen* or cryotreat*)) or AB ((cryother* or cryogen* or cryotreat*))

S6.

TI ((fan or fans or fanned or fanning)) or AB ((fan or fans or fanned or fanning))

S5.

TI ((cool* or cold or chill* or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems)) or AB ((cool* or cold or chill* or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems))

S4.

TI ((low* N5 temperature *) or (reduc* N5 temperature *)) or AB ((low* N5 temperature *) or (reduc* N5 temperature *))

S3.

(MH “Shivering”)

S2.

(MH “Cryotherapy”) or (MH “Cold+”) or (MH “Ice”) or (MH “Refrigeration”) or (MH “Fever/TH”)

S1.

(MH “Hypothermia”) or (MH “Hypothermia (NANDA)”) or (MH “Hypothermia (Saba CCC)”) or (MH “Hypothermia, Induced”)

British Nursing Index (BNI) and BNI Archive 1985 to May 2010 (last update)

Search terms

  1. hypothermia/
  2. (hypotherm$ or normotherm$).tw.
  3. ((low or lower or reduc$) adj5 temperature $).tw.
  4. (cool$ or cold or chill$ or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems).tw.
  5. (fan or fans or fanned or fanning).tw.
  6. (cryother$ or cryogen$ or cryotreat$).tw.
  7. (ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat$ or froz$ or freez$).tw.
  8. or/1–7

During the development process this search was run with the addition of head terms but in the end the search with hypothermia/cooling terms alone (as above) was used for the review because there was some concern that relevant papers were being missed when head terms were added. However, when the two sets of results were compared it turned out that no trials were missed by including head terms, i.e. the search was sufficiently sensitive, therefore in future both sets of terms could be used, as follows, which will increase specificity:

  1. hypothermia/
  2. (hypotherm$ or normotherm$).tw.
  3. ((low or lower or reduc$) adj5 temperature $).tw.
  4. (cool$ or cold or chill$ or RapidCool or QuickCool or Rhinochill or Benechill or CoolSystems).tw.
  5. (fan or fans or fanned or fanning).tw.
  6. (cryother$ or cryogen$ or cryotreat$).tw.
  7. (ice or icy or iced or ice-pack or icepack or refrigerat$ or froz$ or freez$).tw.
  8. or/1–7
  9. (head or cranium or cranial or skull or scalp or face).tw.
  10. (brain or intracranial or cerebral or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemispher$).tw.
  11. (neck or pharyn$ or nasopharyn$ or naso-pharyn$ or airway$).tw.
  12. (intra-nasal or intranasal or nasal or transnasal or trans-nasal or nose or nostril$ or nasooral or nasooral or oro-nasal or oronasal).tw.
  13. (hat or helmet or cap or hood or collar).tw.
  14. or/9–13
  15. 8 and 14 (set downloaded)
  16. 8 not 15 (set downloaded)

Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) 1990 to 19 July 2010

After some initial investigation the search was confined to conference proceedings and did not include science citations, as these were likely to be found on other databases.

Search terms

Topic (i.e. title, abstract, keywords, authors’ keywords), selected for each search line

Timespan all years

brain same hypotherm* or brain same cool*

Or

head same hypotherm* or head same cool*

Refine by subject area – the following subject areas were included (the number of results in each area are shown, which facilitates the decision on what to include):

  • Clinical neurology
  • Surgery
  • Critical care medicine
  • Neurosciences
  • Cardiac & cardiovascular systems
  • Respiratory system
  • Thermodynamics
  • Engineering, electrical & electronic
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Multidisciplinary sciences
  • Anesthesiology
  • Engineering, biomedical
  • Physiology
  • Medicine, research & experimental
  • Medicine, general & internal
  • Neuroimaging
  • Engineering, multidisciplinary

Zetoc Conference Proceedings

Last update: 8 August 2010.

Search limited to conference proceedings because Journals are covered by MEDLINE and other databases searched.

Searched separately for the following terms in ‘all fields’: brain hypotherm*, head hypotherm*, brain cool*, head cool*

ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)

Last update: 25 March 2011.

Search terms: brain OR head AND cooling OR hypothermia in title

The Cochrane Library

Last update: CENTRAL, DARE, HTA, NHS EED 2011 Issue 1.

Last update: CDSR 2011 Issue 3.

Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR)

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)

Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database

NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED)

Search terms for CENTRAL (search terms for CDSR, DARE, HTA, EED based on CENTRAL search terms):

#1.

MeSH descriptor hypothermia this term only

#2.

MeSH descriptor hypothermia, induced this term only

#3.

MeSH descriptor cryotherapy this term only

#4.

MeSH descriptor Cold Temperature this term only

#5.

MeSH descriptor Ice this term only

#6.

MeSH descriptor Refrigeration this term only

#7.

MeSH descriptor Extreme Cold this term only

#8.

MeSH descriptor Fever this term only with qualifiers: TH

#9.

MeSH descriptor Shivering this term only

#10.

(low* in Title, Abstract or Keywords near/6 temperature * in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#11.

(reduc* in Title, Abstract or Keywords near/6 temperature * in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#12.

(hypotherm* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or normotherm* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#13.

(cool* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cold in Title, Abstract or Keywords or chill* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or RapidCool in Title, Abstract or Keywords or QuickCool in Title, Abstract or Keywords or Rhinochill in Title, Abstract or Keywords or Benechill in Title, Abstract or Keywords or CoolSystems in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#14.

(fan in Title, Abstract or Keywords or fans in Title, Abstract or Keywords or fanned in Title, Abstract or Keywords or fanning in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#15.

(cryother* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cryogen* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cryotreat* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#16.

(ice in Title, Abstract or Keywords or icy in Title, Abstract or Keywords or iced in Title, Abstract or Keywords or ice-pack in Title, Abstract or Keywords or icepack in Title, Abstract or Keywords or refrigerat* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or froz* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or freez* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#17.

(#1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7 or #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 or #12 or #13 or #14 or #15 or #16)

#18.

MeSH descriptor Brain explode all trees

#19.

MeSH descriptor Head explode all trees

#20.

MeSH descriptor Skull explode all trees

#21.

(head in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cranium in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cranial in Title, Abstract or Keywords or skull in Title, Abstract or Keywords or scalp in Title, Abstract or Keywords or face in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#22.

(brain in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intracranial in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebral in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cortex in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cortical in Title, Abstract or Keywords or forebrain in Title, Abstract or Keywords or hemispher* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#23.

(neck in Title, Abstract or Keywords or pharyn* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or nasopharyn* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or naso-pharyn* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or airway* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#24.

(intra-nasal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intranasal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or nasal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or transnasal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or trans-nasal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or nose in Title, Abstract or Keywords or nostril* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or naso-oral in Title, Abstract or Keywords or nasooral in Title, Abstract or Keywords or oro-nasal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or oronasal in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#25.

(hat in Title, Abstract or Keywords or helmet in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cap in Title, Abstract or Keywords or hood in Title, Abstract or Keywords or collar in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#26.

(#18 or #19 or #20 or #21 or #22 or #23 or #24 or #25)

#27.

(#17 and #26)

#28.

MeSH descriptor cerebrovascular disorders explode all trees

#29.

(stroke in Title, Abstract or Keywords or poststroke in Title, Abstract or Keywords or post-stroke in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebrovasc* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “brain vasc*” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “cerebral vasc*” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cva* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or apoplex* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or SAH in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#30.

(brain* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebr* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebell* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cortical in Title, Abstract or Keywords or vertebrobasilar in Title, Abstract or Keywords or hemispher* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intracran* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intracerebral in Title, Abstract or Keywords or infratentorial in Title, Abstract or Keywords or supratentorial in Title, Abstract or Keywords or MCA in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “anterior circulation” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “posterior circulation” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “basal ganglia” in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#31.

(isch* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or infarct* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or thrombo* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or emboli* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or occlus* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or hypox* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or vasospasm in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#32.

(#31 and #31)

#33.

(brain* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebr* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebell* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intracerebral in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intracran* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or parenchymal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intraventricular in Title, Abstract or Keywords or infratentorial in Title, Abstract or Keywords or supratentorial in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “basal gangli*” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or subarachnoid in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#34.

(haemorrhage* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or hemorrhage* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or haematoma* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or hematoma* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or bleed* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#35.

(#33 and #34)

#36.

(#28 or #29 or #32 or #35)

#37.

MeSH descriptor Craniocerebral Trauma this term only

#38.

MeSH descriptor Brain Injuries this term only

#39.

MeSH descriptor brain concussion explode all trees

#40.

MeSH descriptor Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic explode all trees

#41.

MeSH descriptor Diffuse Axonal Injury this term only

#42.

MeSH descriptor Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic this term only

#43.

MeSH descriptor Coma, Post-Head Injury this term only

#44.

MeSH descriptor Head Injuries, Closed explode all trees

#45.

MeSH descriptor Head Injuries, Penetrating this term only

#46.

MeSH descriptor Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic explode all trees

#47.

MeSH descriptor skull fractures explode all trees

#48.

MeSH descriptor brain edema this term only

#49.

(head in Title, Abstract or Keywords or crani* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebr* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or capitis in Title, Abstract or Keywords or brain* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or forebrain* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or skull* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or hemispher* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intra-cran* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or inter-cran* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#50.

(injur* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or trauma* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or damag* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or wound* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or fracture* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or contusion* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#51.

(#49 and #50)

#52.

(brain in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebral in Title, Abstract or Keywords or intracranial in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#53.

(edema in Title, Abstract or Keywords or oedema in Title, Abstract or Keywords or swell* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#54.

(#52 and #53)

#55.

(TBI in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “diffuse axonal injur*” in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#56.

(#37 or #38 or #39 or #40 or #41 or #42 or #43 or #44 or #45 or #46 or #47 or #48 or #51 or #54 or #55)

#57.

MeSH descriptor Heart Arrest this term only

#58.

MeSH descriptor Heart Failure explode all trees

#59.

MeSH descriptor Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation explode all trees

#60.

MeSH descriptor Resuscitation this term only

#61.

MeSH descriptor Heart Massage this term only

#62.

(cardiac in Title, Abstract or Keywords or heart in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cardiopulmonary in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “cardio pulmonary” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cardio-pulmonary in Title, Abstract or Keywords or circulat* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#63.

(arrest in Title, Abstract or Keywords or resuscita* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or massage in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “life support” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or reanimat* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#64.

(#62 and #63)

#65.

(#57 or #58 or #59 or #60 or #61 or #64)

#66.

MeSH descriptor Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain this term only

#67.

MeSH descriptor Hypoxia, Brain this term only

#68.

MeSH descriptor Asphyxia Neonatorum this term only

#69.

(brain in Title, Abstract or Keywords or cerebral in Title, Abstract or Keywords or global in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#70.

(hypox* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or anox* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#71.

(ischaemi* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or ischemi* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#72.

(#69 and #70 and #71)

#73.

(hypox* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or anox* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#74.

(ischaemi* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or ischemi* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#75.

encephalopath* in Title, Abstract or Keywords

#76.

(#73 and #74 and #75)

#77.

(birth in Title, Abstract or Keywords or newborn in Title, Abstract or Keywords or encephalopath* in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#78.

(asphyxia* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “respiratory failure” in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#79.

(#77 and #78)

#80.

(#66 or #67 or #68 or #72 or #76 or #79)

#81.

MeSH descriptor Infant, Newborn explode all trees

#82.

(birth in Title, Abstract or Keywords or infant* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or neonat* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or newborn* in Title, Abstract or Keywords or “new born*” in Title, Abstract or Keywords or perinatal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or peri-natal in Title, Abstract or Keywords or baby in Title, Abstract or Keywords or babies in Title, Abstract or Keywords)

#83.

(#81 or #82)

#84.

(#80 and #83)

#85.

(#36 or #56 or #65 or #84)

#86.

(#27 and #85)

Cochrane specialised trials registers

Cochrane Injuries Group

Search date: 14 June 2010.

Search terms: (head or brain or intracranial or cerebral or cerebrocranial or cortex or cortical or forebrain or hemisphere*) and ((Hypotherm* or normotherm* or cryother* or cryogen* or cryotreat*) or ((low or lower* or reduc*) and temperature *))

Cochrane Stroke Group

Search date: 5 May 2010.

Search codes: Search method:1; Stage: Not specified; Condition: Not specified; Intervention type: OTHER; Intervention code: hypothermia

Other trial registers

Last update: 6 March 2011 all registers.

Search terms: hypothermia and cooling (cool* where truncation was allowed); both terms were searched for separately if OR was not an option.

Ongoing trials were only included as relevant if in stroke or TBI. Trials in cardiac arrest and neonatal HIE which had not completed were excluded.

  • World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTR) – this includes:

    Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

    Chinese Clinical Trial Registry

    Clinical Trials Registry – India

    Clinical Research Information Service - Republic of Korea

    German Clinical Trials Register

    Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials

    Japan Primary Registries Network

    Pan African Clinical Trial Registry

    Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry

    The Netherlands National Trial Register.

    [Note: Each of the databases in WHO ICTR was searched individually because Brenda Thomas (Trials Search Co-ordinator Cochrane Stroke Group) had found that when the whole WHO ICTR was searched there were fewer results than when each element was searched individually.]

  • Current Controlled Trials: the meta-register of controlled trials and International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) register
  • ClinicalTrials.gov
  • National Research Register archive
  • Stroke Trials Registry.

Country-specific databases

Informit Health Collection

As of 1 January 2010 this replaced and includes the Australasian Medical Index

Last update: 6 February 2011.

Search terms: hypothermia OR cool* in title with no limits.

China Academic Journals (CAJ) Medicine and public health (hygiene) database in China Academic Journals

This forms part of the China National Knowledge Database (CNKI). CNKI is considered the Chinese equivalent of PubMed and China Academic Journals (CAJ) is the most comprehensive, full-text database of Chinese journals in the world, starting from 1915.

Last update: 14 January 2011.

Search terms – these were devised to work with head-cooling terms which are compatible with translation from Chinese (including Google Translate):

In title (matching = precise) for:

  • brain cooling or head cooling
  • brain hypothermia or head hypothermia
  • local hypothermia or local cooling
  • focal hypothermia or focal cooling
  • selective hypothermia or selective cooling
  • focal moderate hypothermia or focal moderate hypothermia
  • cerebral hypothermia or cerebral cooling
  • cerebral cryotherapy or brain cryotherapy or head cryotherapy
  • local cryotherapy or focal cryotherapy or selective cryotherapy.

Japan Science and Technology Agency

J-EAST (updating of this database ceased in 2007) through Science Links Japan

Last update: 16 August 2010.

Search terms – four separate searches using respectively: brain cooling, head cooling, brain hypothermia, head hypothermia in title or keywords, no language or date limits.

J-STAGE (Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, Electronic)

Last update: 5 February 2011.

Search included journals, proceedings, reports and JST reports. Subject areas: ‘clinical medicine’ and ‘general medicine, social medicine and nursing sciences’. Search terms: head OR brain AND cooling OR hypothermia, no language or date limits.

journal@rchive

Last update: 4 February 2011.

Search terms: brain or head AND cooling or hypothermia in title, no language or date limits.

Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (LILACS)

Last update: 5 February 2011.

Search terms: hypothermia OR cooling AND brain OR head in title.

Russian Academy of Sciences Bibliographies (coverage 1992 to present)

Accessed through University of Edinburgh portal.

Last update: 25 March 2011.

Search terms: hypothermia or cooling in keywords.

Web search engines

Scirus

www.scirus.com/

Last update: 7 March 2011.

Search terms: hypothermia or cooling in title; subject area: medicine; limited to humans; limited to therapeutic hypothermia (the most relevant of the available options). (Note: human filter let through a number of animal studies.)

Google Scholar

http://scholar.google.co.uk/

Last update: 26 March 2011.

Search terms: at least one of the words ‘Head cooling’ ‘brain cooling’ anywhere in the article.

Date limit: 2006–11.

Subject areas: biology, life sciences, and environmental science; medicine, pharmacology and veterinary science.

The date limit was set to 2006 onwards because a previous Google Scholar search had been carried out in February 2006. The four papers found on this previous search were already in the search results database, as they had been identified by other searches for this review.

Reference lists

Reference lists of books on hypothermia and of reviews and relevant studies were searched.

Books searched

1.
Hayashi N, editor. Brain hypothermia: pathology, pharmacology and treatment of severe brain injury. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; 2000.
2.
Hayashi N, Bullock R, Dietrich DW, Maekawa T, Tamura A. Hypothermia for acute brain damage: pathomechanism and practical aspects, Conference proceedings of 1st International Brain Hypothermia Symposium; Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; 2004.
3.
Hayashi N, Dietrich DW, editors. Brain hypothermia treatment. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag; 2004.
4.
Maier CM, Steinberg GK, editors. Hypothermia and cerebral ischemia. New York, NY: Humana Press; 2004.
5.
Mayer SA, Sessler DI, editors. Therapeutic hypothermia. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2005.
6.
Tisherman SA, Stertz F, editors. Therapeutic hypothermia. New York, NY: Springer; 2005.

Conference proceedings

We searched the proceedings of all three International Hypothermia Symposia (Tokyo 2004, Miami 2007, Lund 2009) and of the Therapeutic Temperature Management Conference (Barcelona 2008).

Writing to investigators and device manufacturers

Investigators and manufacturers of head-cooling devices were written to with varying success. A read receipt was asked for on e-mails but, unfortunately, even when investigators indicated that they had read the e-mail a reply was not necessarily forthcoming. Manufacturers of devices are perhaps understandably reluctant to release details of ongoing human research, although there were notable exceptions, including Benechill, TraumaTec and Paxman.

The language barrier was a considerable problem in communicating with Chinese investigators, mostly rendering it impossible to make contact. Given the amount of research being undertaken in China and the ongoing work on quality improvement with regard to conduct and reporting, it would seem sensible to include someone who can read and write Chinese and understands the subject area as a member of the review team if at all possible. We have plans to do this for the next iteration of the review.

Patent search

A formal patent search was included in the search strategy in the protocol but was not undertaken owing to lack of time. Nevertheless, we had a number of patents on file as a result of ongoing alerts for head cooling information through Google, and this helped with identifying manufacturers of devices to contact.

© 2012, Crown Copyright.

Included under terms of UK Non-commercial Government License.

Bookshelf ID: NBK127509
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